-log of hydrogen ion concentration
when it come to h20 for physiology assessment of aci and Base
ignore h20 for simplicity
pk is the ph when 50% dissociation of HA
strong acid def.
100% dissociation in soln
if you have low pk the acid is
stronger, more acidic
a weak acid in sln that resists changes in ph upon addition of H+ or base to system
when o buffers work best?
near the pk
how do you determine how many pka's an acid has?
based on the forumula, how many hydrogens they have
why is it important for the bodies pH to be held constant?
15000-20,000 mMoles of volatile acid and 100-300 mM of non volitile acid
what is a nonvolatile acid?
- HCL, h2SO4 and H3PO4
- they dissociate to produce free H+ions
- produced by cellular metabolism of amino acid, nucleic acid, etc,
what is a volitaile acid?
- does not have hydrogen but in soln this can make carbonic acid which can then dissociate into H+
- Co2 is a gas in that it can be exchanged with air and breathed off
how does the body regulate CO2 Ha concentration
by regulating the breathing
how does the body regulate HCO3 (bicarbonate) Ha concentration?
- through the kidney
- the kidney is the only organ that can eliminate H+ from the body
What are the Acid-Base Balance Disorder
- Respiratory : change in the Pco2 in the plasma
- Metabolic: change in HCO3 in the plasma
what pco2 concentrations would be acidosis?
greater than 40 mm Hg
what pco2 concentrations would be alkalosis?
less than 40 mm Hg
what hco3 concentrations would be alkalosis?
greater than 24mM
what hco3 concentrations would be acidosis?
less than 24 mM
- energy dependent
- vesicle>250 nm diameter
- very big molceules
- The size of the whole cell
- cell eating.
what are some types of phagocyotic cells?
clinical relevance of phagocytotis
- give defense against bacteria
- bacteria develops mchanisms to escaped degradation of lysosomes
Caveolin-coated vescile mediated edocytosis
- Caveola-hav clustered signalling proteins
- Dyamin 2-dependent pinching off
where is caveolin 3 located
skeletal muscles, smooth muscle, glial cells, erly post natal, peripheral nerves,
LDL receptor recycling and disease - Brown and Goldstein Finding
allows for binding and internalization of LDL
what happen if your cells do not have LDl receptos
there is very high cholesteralimia and cholesteral will build up so much it shows as bubbles on the skin
- need a pari of SNARES to work
- combination of endocytic and exocytic process
- both fluid and solutes
which cell sused transcytosis
- endothelia, capillaries
- intestinal epithelia
- blod brain barrier