Epidemiology of the flu
- 2 million get it
- 40-70k die
- 6th most leading cause of death
- #1 lethal noscomial
- Covid- 19 exasterbated this
which is within the bronchioles
The aveoli that hold capilaries that allow for blood to pass though lungs and exchanges gases
Pneumonia person to [person or autologous) most common types
- Strep Pygones
- Stap Aureus
- KLebsiella Pn.
- Ch;lamydophila pn.
mneumonic for most common types of autologous pneumonia
SMH Karen called Staff secuirty
Pneumonia from animal/environmental exposure
- Legionella pneumophila
- Francisella tularensis
- Yersinia pestis
- Chlamydophila psittaci
- Coxiella Burnetii
Nosocomial ( hospital) Pnaumonia
- Enteric bacteria
- Staph. aureus
- all negative except the last
Natural defense mechanisms of lungs
- natural antimicrobial : lysozyme, lactoferin, secretory igA & complement
- pulmonary macropahages
- cilliated respiratory epithelium
- Epiglottal and cough reflexes
- Vibrissae filter out large partoicles
- Mucus broducing cell ling in the brinchi
predisposing factor for pneumonia
- previous viral respiratory diseas
- chrinic pulmonary disease like emphysema
- alcholisn and cigarette smoking
- diabetes, cancer and othe illnesses
- immunosuppreeive disorders and therapy
- age extremes
- debility ( developmental and congentital disorder that have invasive surgerical procedures, etc.
what are the natural microbial of the mouth and oropharyn x
- and pygonese
in regards to the flora what is the lung
sterile from microbes
inflamed middle ear
inflammed outer ear
what is pneumonia?
- bronchioles and alveoli become filled with pus
- pus had dead microbes PMN inflammatory cells and some fluid exudate
how is pneumonia diagnosed?
chest X-ray that show a shadow or opaque over a portion of the lung
what causes pneumonia
mostly various bacteria
what bacteria affect young adult in regards to pneumonia symptoms
what bacteria affect adults in regards to pneumonia symptoms
what bacteria affect older adult in regards to pneumonia symptoms
what bacteria causes the "typical pneumonia"?
- Strept. pneu
- Haemophilus influ
what is "atypical pneumonia'"?
- chlamydophila pneu.
- certain enteric
- and some viruses
epidemiology of pneumonia
- 2 million cases
- most common lethal hospital acquired
- 6th common disease causing death
- 40-70k die yearly
- gram -
- chain of cocci
- catalase negative
- oval shaped<- this is how you distinguish them fron staph because staph is complete round.
- it has a capsule
- 84 serotypes
what are the virulence factor of strep. p.
it has Igprotease, capsule, and pneumolysin
what does igA protease do
break down the igA that the immune system of the host produces to get rid of the bacteria
what are the two vaccines for pneumoniae
what is alpha hemolysis
- a break down of hemoglobin that is incomplete.
- this causes a gradient on blood
what is beta hemolysis
complete hemoglobin breakdown
what is gamma hemolysis
no hemoglobin analysis
what causes pneumococcal pneumonia? and who does it affect?
- young to middle age adults
- but can happen to the age extremes with lethal effects
- oncology and Etoh pt
how to diagnosis pneumococcal pneumonia
- gram stain & culture sputum
- aga plat
- optochin disk
- urine antigen test
why is the optochin disk effective on the agar plate?
the strep. pneu. batera cannot grow around this disk
what is the pathogenisis of pneumococoal pneumonaie ?
- it is inhaled
- the bacteria colonize into the lungs
- inflammatroy response begin and the aveolia fill with edma fluid
- aveolar capillary congestion occurs
- massive infiltration of PMN
- aveolar hemorrage ( red hepatozation)
- macropahe and phagocytize the debris 9 grey hepatization
- bacteremia may follow
- gram - coccobacilus ( short rod)
- chocolate agar is used to culture
- is heated blood agar. that is why it is brown or choclate/
- they heat the red blood cells, heating them up, and changes the hemoglobin to a more active component for the H.flu
what are the virulence factors of H.flu
- IgA protease
- pluribitol phosphate
- outer capsule
what are some of the infections cause by H.flu
- Otitis media
- cellulitis and arthritis
- also called walking pneumonia
- ling incubation period
- small, free lingin
- difficult to grow in agar
- cannot be gram stained
what are some examples of mycoplasma injections
- pneumoniae pharyngitis
causes clumping of read blood cells
- gram - coccobacillus
- whooping cough
Special features of Pertussis Bortella
- only stained on Bordet Gengou
- 3 stages
- catarrhal, paroxysmal and convalescent
what are the 3 stages of pertussis
- non motile
- enteric bacteris
- lactose fermenter
- gram -
virulence factor of klebsiells pneu.
- lactose negative
- oxidase +
- grows rapidly on agar and produces a bluegreen pigment pyocyanin
which pt. suffer the most with pseudomonas areginosa?
cystic fibrosis pts.
what makes the capsule virulent?
what makes the Iga virulent?
pneumoccocal pneumonia producing what kind of sputum?
when you mix coagulase with staph what happens?
there will be clumping of the blood