Lecture #71

  1. Epidemiology of the flu
    • 2 million get it
    • 40-70k die
    • 6th most leading cause of death
    • #1 lethal noscomial 
    • Covid- 19 exasterbated this
  2. which is within the bronchioles
    The aveoli that hold capilaries that allow for blood to pass though lungs and exchanges gases
  3. Pneumonia person to [person or autologous) most common types
    • Strept 
    • Mycoplasma
    • Hemophilus
    • Strep Pygones
    • Stap Aureus
    • KLebsiella Pn.
    • Ch;lamydophila pn.
  4. mneumonic for most common types of autologous pneumonia
    SMH Karen called Staff secuirty
  5. Pneumonia from animal/environmental exposure
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • Francisella tularensis
    • Yersinia pestis 
    • Chlamydophila psittaci
    • Coxiella Burnetii
  6. Nosocomial ( hospital) Pnaumonia
    • Enteric bacteria 
    • Pseudomonas
    • Acinetobacter
    • Staph. aureus
    • all negative except the last
  7. Natural defense mechanisms of lungs
    • natural antimicrobial : lysozyme, lactoferin, secretory igA & complement
    • pulmonary macropahages 
    • cilliated respiratory epithelium 
    • Epiglottal and cough reflexes 
    • Vibrissae filter out large partoicles 
    • Mucus broducing cell ling in the brinchi
  8. predisposing factor for pneumonia
    • previous viral respiratory diseas
    • alllergies
    • chrinic pulmonary disease like emphysema
    • alcholisn and cigarette smoking
    • diabetes, cancer and othe illnesses
    • immunosuppreeive disorders and therapy
    • age extremes
    • debility ( developmental and congentital disorder that have invasive surgerical procedures, etc.
  9. what are the natural microbial of the mouth and oropharyn x
    • Strep
    • pneumoniae
    • and pygonese
  10. in regards to the flora what is the lung
    sterile from microbes
  11. otitis media
    inflamed middle ear
  12. otitis externa
    inflammed outer ear
  13. what is pneumonia?
    • bronchioles and alveoli become filled with pus 
    • pus had dead microbes PMN inflammatory cells and some fluid exudate
  14. how is pneumonia diagnosed?
    chest X-ray that show a shadow or opaque over a portion of the lung
  15. what causes pneumonia
    mostly various bacteria
  16. what bacteria affect young adult in regards to pneumonia symptoms
  17. what bacteria affect adults in regards to pneumonia symptoms
  18. what bacteria affect older adult in regards to pneumonia symptoms
  19. what bacteria causes the "typical pneumonia"?
    • Strept. pneu
    • Haemophilus influ
  20. what is "atypical pneumonia'"?
    • Mycoplasma
    • chlamydophila pneu.
    • certain enteric
    • and some viruses
  21. epidemiology of pneumonia
    • 2 million cases
    • most common lethal hospital acquired 
    • 6th common disease causing death
    • 40-70k die yearly
  22. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • gram -
    • chain of cocci
    • lancet-shaped
    • catalase negative 
    • oval shaped<- this is how you distinguish them fron staph because staph is complete round.
    • it has a capsule
    • 84 serotypes
  23. what are the virulence factor of strep. p.
    it has Igprotease, capsule, and pneumolysin
  24. what does igA protease do
    break down the igA that the immune system of the host produces to get rid of the bacteria
  25. what are the two vaccines for pneumoniae
    • pneumovax 
    • prevnar
  26. what is alpha hemolysis
    • a break down of hemoglobin that is incomplete.
    • this causes a gradient on blood
  27. what is beta hemolysis
    complete hemoglobin breakdown
  28. what is gamma hemolysis
    no hemoglobin analysis
  29. what causes pneumococcal pneumonia? and who does it affect?
    • S.pneumo
    • young to middle age adults 
    • but can happen to the age extremes with lethal effects 
    • oncology and Etoh pt
  30. how to diagnosis pneumococcal pneumonia
    • gram stain & culture sputum
    • aga plat
    • optochin disk
    • urine antigen test
  31. why is the optochin disk effective on the agar plate?
    the strep. pneu. batera cannot grow around this disk
  32. what is the pathogenisis of pneumococoal pneumonaie ?
    • it is inhaled 
    • the bacteria colonize into the lungs
    • inflammatroy response begin and the aveolia fill with edma fluid
    • aveolar capillary congestion occurs
    • massive infiltration of PMN
    • aveolar hemorrage ( red hepatozation) 
    • macropahe and phagocytize the debris  9 grey hepatization 
    • bacteremia may follow
  33. Haeomophilus influenzae
    • H.flu
    • gram - coccobacilus ( short rod)
    • chocolate agar is used to culture
  34. chcoclate agar
    • is heated blood agar. that is why it is brown or choclate/
    • they heat the red blood cells, heating them up, and changes the hemoglobin to a more active component for the  H.flu
  35. what are the virulence factors of H.flu
    • IgA protease 
    • pluribitol phosphate 
    • outer capsule
  36. what are some of the infections cause by H.flu
    • meningitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Epiglotittis
    • Otitis media
    • Sinusitis
    • Bacteriemia
    • cellulitis and arthritis
  37. mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • also called walking pneumonia
    • ling incubation period
    • small, free lingin
    • difficult to grow in agar
    • cannot be gram stained
  38. what are some examples of mycoplasma injections
    • pneumoniae pharyngitis
    • tracheobronchitis
  39. cold hemaggultinin
    causes clumping of read blood cells
  40. Bordetella pertussis
    • gram - coccobacillus
    • whooping cough
  41. Special features of Pertussis Bortella
    • only stained on Bordet Gengou 
    • 3 stages 
    • catarrhal, paroxysmal and convalescent
  42. what are the 3 stages of pertussis
    • catarral
    • paroxysmal
    • convalescent
  43. Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • non motile
    • enteric bacteris
    • lactose fermenter 
    • gram -
  44. virulence factor of klebsiells pneu.
    • endotoxin
    • capsule
  45. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • gram-
    • lactose negative
    • oxidase +
    • grows rapidly on agar and produces a bluegreen pigment pyocyanin
  46. which pt. suffer the most with pseudomonas areginosa?
    cystic fibrosis pts.
  47. what makes the capsule virulent?
  48. what makes the Iga virulent?
  49. pneumoccocal pneumonia producing what kind of sputum?
  50. when you mix coagulase with staph what happens?
    there will be clumping of the blood
Card Set
Lecture #71
Microbiology Bacteria III: Respiratory pathogens