moles of solute/kg
moles of solute/liter
moles of dissociable solut particle/liter
amount of particles
moles of dis solut paricle/kg fluid
what is the osmolarity of 0.15M caCl2
- 0.45 Osm
- because there are 3 particles that dissociate
what is significant about sugar?
it does not dissociate
what is the osmolairty of 142 mM NaCl + 5 mM KCl + 1 mM CaCl2 + 1 mM MgCl2
what is the osmolairty of
what is the osmolairty of 142 mM CaCl2 + 5 mM MgCl2 + 1 mM NaCl + 1 mM KCl?
What is the osmolarity of a solution containing:
– 50 mM NaCl + 5 mM KCl + 100 mM D-glucose?
what are the body fluid compartments?
- 3 of them
- intracellular ( cytoplasm)
- extracellular vascular ( plasma; fluid in vasculature)
- extracellular extravascular ( fluid outside of vasculature but notinside cells)
- 60% of body weight is
- body water
what seperate the plasma from the interstital fluid?
- too much fluid in the body
- intersitial extravascular fluid compartment
- usually on lower extremeties
dehydration pinch test
- pinch back of hand it does not bound back quickly mean pt is dehydrated
- not enough fluid in interstitial
what causes pitting edema
- increased vascular pressure forces fluid out into the the extravascular space
- extra-vascular fluid pool in lower extremities
what is one cause of hypertention in regard to kidney
decrease kidney function thus kidney cannot filter those blood pressure increases
how does water move in regard to concentration
water moves into the direction of the higher solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane
how does water move in regards to water chemical energy
- water moves to eliminate water chemical energy gradient
- from higher water chemical gradient to lower
formula for osmotic pressure
normal concentation of NA+ and K+ in extracellular and intracellular space
- 140mM Na, 5nM K
- 20mM Na, 120mM K
total osmolarity formula equals
Which way will water move?
– Intracellular osmolarity = 290 mOsm
– Extracellular osmolarity = 590 mOsm
Which way will water move?
– Intracellular solution – 120 mM KCl, 20 NaCl, 20 mM Na2HPO4
– Extracellular solution – 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 10 mM
how does osmosis contribute to normal function of small intstine
allows reabsoprtion of water
relative abiliity of solute to cross the cell membrane
what does a reflection coefficent of 0 mean
- the solute is freely permeable
- cannot drive net water movement
- no osmotic pressure
what does a reflection coefficent of 1 mean
- will drive water movement
- osmotic pressure
what is reflection coefficent dependent one
- the type of semipermeable membrane
- the membrane can be permeable to just water, nacl , both, or there solutes.
solutes move to to equalize concentration
osmotic pressure prduces by large marcomolecules , mainly proteins
A patient receives an intravenous infusion of 2 L of solution A (200 mM
NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 5 mM D-glucose). The blood concentrations are: 150
mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 5 mM D-glucose. Which of the following will occur?
- choose one:
- Water will move from the interstitial fluid compartment into the vascular fluid
- – Water will move from the vascular fluid compartment into the interstitial fluid
- – NaCl will move from the interstitial fluid compartment into the vascular fluid
- – NaCl will move from the vascular fluid compartment into the interstitial fluid
all volume changes begin with..
changes in the extracellulaer fluid compartment
what happens if a pysican adds 1l of hypertonic salin solution to the body
enter the extracellular fluid and triggers osmolarity to increase and volumes to increase then to level out osmolarity the water from the interstitial fluid will move across the cell membrane to the extra cellular fluid
what happens if a physician adds 1l of hypotonic salin solution to the body
enters extracellular fluid compartment where it increase the volume but decrease the osmolarity. water will move to the intracellular fluid comp to even out osmolarity resulting in the interstetial fluid having even more volune
what happens if a physician adds 1l of isotonic salin solution to the body
extra cellular volume increase molarity stays the same and there is not net driving force through the cell membrane
what is the osmolarity of isotonic saline?
what is the normal cell osmolarity of NaCl?
example of a serous merocrine gland ? What does it do?
- pancreas and partoid
- secrete mostly water
example of a mucous merocrine gland ? What does it do?
- sublingual and goblet cells
- glycoslytaed proteins
example of a mixed (seromucos) merocrine gland ? What does it do?
what percent of extracellular fluid is plasma?
what percent of extracellular fluid is intersitial fluid?
What does hypertonic volume contration mean?
to lose hypotonic fluid
what is a medical example of hypertonic volume contraction?
- diabetes melittius
- both ECF and ICF contract
what clinically is an ex. of hypotonic volume contraction?
addisions diseas lack of aldosterone
what is hypotonic volume contraction
- ECF contracts
- ICF expands
- you lose hypertonic fluid
isotonic volume contraction medical example
- losing blood
- ECf contract ICf does not change
- to lose isotonic volume
Isotonic volume expansion is the medical world is
- isotonic saline IV
- ECF changes ICF stays the same
Hypertonic volume expansion
- Hpertonic Saline IV
- ECFexpands( inregard to volume and final movement of water ) , ICF contracts
Hypotonic volume expansion
ECF contract , ICF expands
medical example of Hypotonic Vouem expansion
Psycogenic polydipsia, SIADH