all the structure of the urinary tract are oriented....
structure that are retroperitoneum
supra renal glands
aorta and Inferior Vena Cava
Pancreas except tail
Colon ( descedning anf ascending)
Esophagus( thoracic portion)
secondary retroperitoneal structures mnemonic
anterior to the muscles of the ab wall
posterior to the parietal peritenum
function of kidney
filer waste products and water as urine from blood then send to urether
arteries suprarenal glands
asymetries of kidney
right kidney is 5cm lower than left
left renal vein is longer
left gonadal vein drain into renal vein first
blood travel kidney
renal artery through hilum
cortex for filtration
renal vein branches
renal vein exit hilum
where is urine concentrated and flow to make pee
in the medular pyramids
what is the superior border of the abdominal cavity?
what is the inferior border of the abdominal cavity?
posterior ab wal
what attached diaphram to vertebral bodies
crua and cus tendonous structures
when diaphram contract what happens to it
flatten and more inferior
what are the openings of the diaphragm
what are the VT levels for the openings of the diaphragm
I ate 10 eggs at 12
why can neck injuries affect the diaphragm ?
because the phrenic nerve stems from the neck region ( cervical spinal nerves) and innervated the diaphram
what passes through mediate arcuate ligament?
ligament under the diaphragm that connects the right anf left crura .
what passes through mediate arcuate ligament?
psoas major muscles
what passes through lateral arcuate ligament?
transevres by the subcostal nerve artery and vein.
what is the lateral arcuate ligament?
ligament that arches across the top of the quadradus lumbarum muscles
3 muscles of the post. ab wall
What are systemic veins? those that drain directly into IVC or SVC
Lumbar veins.Right gonadal vein.Renal veins.Right suprarenal vein.Inferior phrenic veins.Hepatic veins.Common iliac veins.
innervation of post ab. wall muscles
quadradus lumbarum innervtion
anterior rami spinal nerves
femoral nerve ( branch of lumbar plexus)
psoas major innervation
branches of lumbar plexus
motion of quadradu lumbarum
extend and laterally flex VT
motion of illiopsoas mm.
flex the thigh
motion of superior psoas mm
lat. flex VT
branches of the lumbar plexus
what does the femoral nerve innervarte?
motor innervation to anterior compartment of thigh
what does the L1 lumbar plexus nereves innervarte?
ab wall muscles
skin in inguinal and pubic regions
what does the lat. cut. of thigh nerve innervarte?
cutaneous sensation to the thigh
what does the genitofemoral nerve innervarte?
supplies external genitalia and the skin on the thigh that is adjecent to them
what does the obturator nerve innervate?
motor innervation to the medial compartment of the thigh
what does the lumbosacral trunk join with?
hepatic portal system
system of veins that transmits nutrient rich blood from abd. viscera to brought to the liver where it is processed
what veins combine to create the heoptatic portal vein
superior and inferior mes. vein
with splenic vein.
what drains the liver?
hepatic veins which empty to IVC
where are the anastimoses of the system venous system and the portal venous system
why are the anastomoses of the portal and systemic vein imp?
make collateral circulation
high PB in portal veins that can be causes by issues/disease with liver e.g. cirosis of the liver or fibrosis
what are some clinical sign of portal hyper tension in esopahgus umbiliucus and rectume
Anorectal varices ( hemroids)
kidney stones (calculi)
umflammation of appendix
constriction points of urether
how to confirm kidney pathology?
percussing region of kidney,
symptoms of nephrolithiasis
blood in urine
chloeci, intermittent pain that radiates to the groin
unilateral flank tenderness
urinary frequency + urgency
see if kidney region precussion causes pain
what are the vt level of kidneys
between T12 and L3
symptoms of appendicitis
pain that is diffuse and around umbilicus region then moves to Mc.Bernies point
how to diagnos appendicitis
psoas sign:ask pt to flex right thigh against resistance and see if this elicits pain
how can appendicitis be life threatening?
could rupture and cause peritonitisis inflamation of the peritoneum ( everywhere in the ab cavity)
suffic thiasis means
sign of cholelithiasis
dull RUQ pain
stones that are lodged anywhere in the billiary tree
what is colic
when can gall stone be problematic ?
when stone is logdes in dital common bile duct causes colic are dull pain int ruQ
what do surgeon have to know when doing a choleectomy?
clamp of cyctic artery
and the various locations that the cyctic artery can stem from( left hepatic , Gastroduoduenal, hepatic artery proper, proximal right hepatic)
what forms the roof of the inguinal canal?
The internal oblique muscle
what forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?
the tranversalis fascia and the conjoint tendon contributes
what formed the floor of the inguinal canal?
the inguinal ligament
where does the spermatocard project from the deep/internal ring of the inguinal canal?
from the transversalis fascia
what forms the anterior wall of the inguinal canal?
Anatomy: Abdominal Viscera and Peritoneal Cavity II;