Lecture #59

  1. all the structure of the urinary tract are oriented....
  2. structure that are retroperitoneum
    • supra renal glands
    • aorta and Inferior Vena Cava
    • Duodenum2nd-4th part
    • Pancreas except tail
    • Urethers
    • Colon ( descedning anf ascending)
    • Kidneys
    • Esophagus( thoracic portion)
    • Rectume( partially)
  3. secondary retroperitoneal structures mnemonic
    • duodenum
    • pancreas
    • colon 
    • esophagus
    • rectum
  4. locationof retroperitoneum
    • anterior to the muscles of the ab wall 
    • posterior to the parietal peritenum
  5. function of kidney
    filer waste products and water as urine from blood then send to urether
  6. arteries suprarenal glands
    • phrenic arteries 
    • aortic branches
    • renal arteries
  7. asymetries of kidney
    • right kidney is 5cm lower than left 
    • left renal vein is longer
    • left gonadal vein drain into renal vein first
  8. blood travel kidney
    • renal artery through hilum
    • cortex for filtration
    • renal vein branches
    • renal vein exit hilum
  9. where is urine concentrated and flow to make pee
    • in the medular pyramids
    • minor calyces
    • major calyces
    • renal pelvic
    • urether
  10. what is the superior border of the abdominal cavity?
  11. what is the inferior border of the abdominal cavity?
    posterior ab wal
  12. what attached diaphram to vertebral bodies
    crua and cus tendonous structures
  13. when diaphram contract what happens to it
    flatten and more inferior
  14. what are the openings of the diaphragm
    • caval 
    • esophageal hiatus 
    • aortic hiatus
  15. what are the VT levels for the openings of the diaphragm
    • I ate 10 eggs  at 12 
    • IVC T7
    • Esopogas T10
    • Aortic T12
  16. why can neck injuries affect the diaphragm ?
    because the phrenic nerve stems from the neck region ( cervical spinal nerves) and innervated the diaphram
  17. what passes through mediate arcuate ligament?
    ligament under the diaphragm that connects the right anf left crura .
  18. what passes through mediate arcuate ligament?
    psoas major muscles
  19. what passes through lateral arcuate ligament?
    transevres by the subcostal nerve artery and vein.
  20. what is the lateral arcuate ligament?
    ligament that arches across the top of the quadradus lumbarum muscles
  21. 3 muscles of the post. ab wall
    • illiacus
    • psoas major
    • lumbar quadradus
  22. What are systemic veins? those that drain directly into IVC or SVC
    Lumbar veins.Right gonadal vein.Renal veins.Right suprarenal vein.Inferior phrenic veins.Hepatic veins.Common iliac veins.
  23. innervation of post ab. wall muscles
    ventral ramii
  24. quadradus lumbarum innervtion
    anterior rami spinal nerves
  25. iliacus innervation
    femoral nerve  ( branch of lumbar plexus)
  26. psoas major innervation
    branches of lumbar plexus
  27. motion of quadradu lumbarum
    extend and laterally flex VT
  28. motion of illiopsoas mm.
    flex the thigh
  29. motion of superior psoas mm
    lat. flex VT
  30. branches of the lumbar plexus
    • illioinguinal 
    • illiohypogastric
  31. what does the femoral nerve innervarte?
    motor innervation to anterior compartment of thigh
  32. what does the L1 lumbar plexus nereves innervarte?
    • ab wall muscles
    • skin in inguinal and pubic regions
  33. what does the lat. cut. of thigh nerve innervarte?
    cutaneous sensation to the thigh
  34. what does the genitofemoral nerve innervarte?
    supplies external genitalia and the skin on the thigh that is adjecent to them
  35. what does the  obturator nerve innervate?
    motor innervation to the medial compartment of the thigh
  36. what does the lumbosacral trunk join with?
    sacral plexus
  37. hepatic portal system
    system of veins that transmits nutrient rich blood from abd. viscera to brought to the liver where it is processed
  38. what veins combine to create the heoptatic portal vein
    • superior and inferior mes. vein
    • with splenic vein.
  39. what drains the liver?
    hepatic veins which empty to IVC
  40. where are the anastimoses of the system venous system and the portal venous system
    • esopagus
    • rectum
    • umbilicus
    • colon
  41. why are the anastomoses of the portal and systemic vein imp?
    make collateral circulation
  42. portal hypertension
    high PB in portal veins that can be causes by issues/disease with liver e.g. cirosis of the liver or fibrosis
  43. what are some clinical sign of portal hyper tension in esopahgus umbiliucus and rectume
    • esophaeal varices
    • caput medusae
    • Anorectal varices ( hemroids)
  44. Nephrolithiasis
    kidney stones (calculi)
  45. appendicities
    umflammation of appendix
  46. constriction points of urether
    • urteropelvic junction
    • pelvic inlet
    • ureteral vessicle
  47. how to confirm kidney pathology?
    percussing region of kidney,
  48. symptoms of nephrolithiasis
    • blood in urine
    • chloeci, intermittent pain that radiates to the groin
    • unilateral flank tenderness
    • urinary frequency + urgency 
    • see if kidney region precussion causes pain
  49. what are the vt level of kidneys
    between T12 and L3
  50. symptoms of appendicitis
    • pain that is diffuse and around umbilicus region then moves to Mc.Bernies point
    • nausea 
    • vomiting 
    • fever
  51. how to diagnos appendicitis
    psoas sign:ask pt to flex right thigh against resistance and see if this elicits pain
  52. how can appendicitis be life threatening?
    could rupture and cause peritonitisis inflamation of the peritoneum ( everywhere in the ab cavity)
  53. suffic thiasis means
  54. sign of cholelithiasis
    dull RUQ pain
  55. cholelithiasis
    • gallstones
    • stones that are lodged anywhere in the billiary tree
  56. what is colic
    intermittent pain
  57. when can gall stone be problematic ?
    when stone is logdes in dital common bile duct causes colic are dull pain int ruQ
  58. what do surgeon have to know when doing a choleectomy?
    • galbladder removal
    • clamp of cyctic artery 
    • and the various locations that the cyctic artery can stem from( left hepatic , Gastroduoduenal, hepatic artery proper, proximal right hepatic)
  59. what forms the roof of the inguinal canal?
    The internal oblique muscle
  60. what forms the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?
    the tranversalis fascia and the conjoint tendon contributes
  61. what formed the floor of the inguinal canal?
    the inguinal ligament
  62. where does the spermatocard project from the deep/internal ring of the inguinal canal?
    from the transversalis fascia
  63. what forms the anterior wall of the inguinal canal?
    EO aponeurosis
Card Set
Lecture #59
Anatomy: Abdominal Viscera and Peritoneal Cavity II;