ESO

  1. Traits of an Operator
    • Self motivated
    • Organization
    • Assertiveness
  2. SSO Areas
    • Area 1 : Metro
    • Area 2 : South L.A.
    • Area 3 : West L.A.
    • Area 4 : East Valley
    • Area 5 : West Valley
  3. Number or Operators and Stations
    Currently 100 operators 

    Currently 150 Stations
  4. One of the Responsibilities of the OTC
    Train Personnel to become Operators
  5. Break in
    The process by which you will become thoroughly familiar with every station in your assigned area.
  6. These areas of performance are scored subjectively
    • Safety
    • Skills
    • Knowledge
    • Communication
    • Abilities and Traits
  7. Operators are responsible for creating and maintaining
    a safe working environment for personnel working on circuits and equipment in Electric stations.
  8. Best conductors
    • Silver
    • Copper
    • Gold 
    • Aluminium
  9. Insulators
    • Porcelain
    • Glass
    • rubber
    • mica
  10. Unit of Electrical potential and its Symbol
    the Volt:  E
  11. Device for measuring Difference in potential
    Volt meter
  12. Direction of Electron flow
    From Negative toward Positive

    This is called Current
  13. Metric prefixes: Kilo
    • Abbreviation : K
    • ie: 1kv = 1000 volts
  14. Metric prefixes: Milli
    • Abbreviation: M
    • ie: 1mv = .001 volts
  15. Metric prefixes: Mega
    • Abbreviation: M
    • ie: 1MV = 1,000,000 volts
  16. Ohms Law
    • E= I x R                  E
    •                             ____
    •                              I \ R
  17. Calculate Watts
    • P=IE                 ___P____     
    •                            I  \ E
  18. Symbol for Watts
    P
  19. Symbol for Amps / Current
    I
  20. Symbol for Resistance or ohms
    R or Ω
  21. Solve for Resistance in a Series Ciruit
    Rt= R1 + R2+R3+R4.......
  22. Solve for Resistance across a Parallel circuit
    • RT= 1  + 1 + 1
    •       __   __   __
    •       R1   R2   R3
  23. Combo Circuit calculation order
    Always solve for Parallel first
  24. Req
    Req is the resistance equivalent of like resistors 

    • Ie: 2  10Ω resistors in parallel  where number of like resistors is represented by n  Req =R/n  or
    •   Req = 10Ω / 2
  25. The 6 transmission Voltages DWP uses
    • 115kv
    • 138kv
    • 230Kv
    • 287Kv
    • 345kv 
    • 500kv
  26. Generation Tie Lines
    Connect Generating Stations to Receiving or Switching Stations
  27. Belt Lines
    • Form an irregular ring to transmission lines around the city connecting Receiving and Switching stations together. 
    • The belt provides redundancy and greater system reliability by connecting stations to more than one source
  28. Radial Feedds
    Trasmission lines connecting a Switching or Receiving station to only once Receiving station directly.  Theses types of Receiving stations are said to be Radially supplied.
  29. Inter-Utillity Tie lines
    • Tie to other Utilities 
    • These include:
    • Burbank Water and Power
    • Gelndale Water and Power
    • So cal Ed
    • Arizona Public Service and the Bonneville Power Admin
  30. Switching stations
    • Abbreviated: SS
    • allow multiple Transmission lines to connect together
    • may also serve as inter-Utility tie
  31. Receiving Stations
    • Abbreviated: RS
    • Connected Via Belt or Radial lines
    • Tansmission Voltage buses (operating at only 138kv or 230 kv)  
    • connect Transmission lines and also have Transformers (Power Banks) that connect transmission system to the Sub-transmission system
  32. Distribution station
    • Abbreviated: DS
    • Serve as connection between the Sub-transmission system and the Distribution System.
    • Contain Power Banks that step down voltage to 4.8kv and contain voltage regulators
  33. Principal advantages and disadvantage of hydro electric plant.
    - Was relatively inexpensive to build, but not anymore 

    -Site location may require producing electricity some distance from where it is consumed.
  34. The Owens River Gorge
    • Three facilities (control, Middle, and upper Gorge)
    • along the Owens River with acombined capacity of over 100MW located 260 miles N of L.A. near Bishop
  35. The Owens Valley
    Five Facilities at Pleasant Valley, Big Pine, Division Creek, Cottonwood, and Haiwee with a combined generating capacity of over 7.5 MW
  36. Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • Six Facilities with a combined generation capacity of 75MW
    • PP 1 , and PP 2 located in Sanfrancisquito canyon
    • were the first 2 PP built specifically to power L.A.
  37. Castaic PP
    • Features Pump storage tech.
    • Capacity 1200MW
  38. Hover dam
    Department does not own but receives 15% of the power it generates
  39. Thermal Generating Plants
    • -Harbor Generating Station in Wilmington
    • -Valley Generating Station in Sun Valley
    • -Scattergood Generating station in Playa Del Ray
    • -Haynes  in Long Beach
    • -Apex in LAs Vegas
    • - Palo Verde a nuke plant in Arizona
    • -intermountain in Utah a coal plant
  40. Circuit Nomenclature 

    Line VS Cable
    A Line is circuit that has at least some portion ABOVE ground. Solid line

    A cable is 100% underground. Broken line.
  41. Circuit Nomenclature 

    Peddler
    A circuit that leaves a station to supply only 34.5kv Customers directly they dont connect stations.
  42. how many Phases in our system
    • 3 phase 120° apart
    • 360° total
  43. Hertz
    • 60 Hertz in one second
    • 2 alterations per cycle
  44. When both Voltage and current start and stop at the same time they are....
    In Phase
  45. When the current wave starts before or after the Voltage wave they are ...
    Out of phase
  46. Term Lead vs. Lag
    • Used to describe the phase relationship
    • Lead : the current wave is leading, or ahead of the voltage wave.
    • Lag: the Current wave is behind the Voltage wave.
  47. Impedance
    AC circuits are affected by non pure resistance sources the total opposition to AC current flow is called impedance.
  48. Impedance causes
    Voltage and current to be out of phase.
  49. 1v DC = ? AC
    1v DC = 1v AC x 1.414

    • I x 1.414
    • Effective
  50. 1v AC = ? DC
    1v AC = 1v DC x .707

    • I x .707
    • peak
  51. ELI  ICE
    ELI = Inductance- Voltage leads Current 

    ICE = Capacitance - Current leads Voltage
  52. AC 1.4 times current to
    Produce Same DC power
  53. 3 Phase generation Advantages
    • More effective operation
    • Need 25% less conductor material
    • Superior cost and operating characteristics
  54. Transmission operates above
    69kv
  55. Cost of underground vs overhead
    • 9 x more expensive than overhead at 115kv
    • 16 x more expensive than overhead at 34.5kv
  56. most expensive part about overhead
    conductor ...wire
  57. Most expensive part of underground
    Insulation
  58. Generation symbol and intials
    Δ GS
  59. Power plant Symbol and abbreviation
    square    PP
  60. Sub Transmission
    34.5kv connects RS to DS and DS to DS

    Supplies large customers Directly at 34.5kv IS
  61. Load Center
    Point at which Feeders splits into multiple branches called primaries.
  62. Sub Transmission
    Below 69kv above 4.8 Kv usually 34.5kv
  63. Station Equipment names
    • Transformers aka Powerbanks
    • Circuit Breakers  : CB
    • Disconnects  :        DC
    • Buses
    • Insulators and Bushings
  64. Diff between Insulators and bushings
    Bushings are hollow and allow a conductor to pass thru them 

    Insulators are solid and insult a connection point
  65. Circuit Breakers are designed to perform what functions?
    • -Open / close electrical circuits
    • -Energize circuits
    • -De-energize circuits
    • -interrupt normal and abnormal values of current flow in electrical circuits
  66. This type of switching, performed by the operation of relays, normally creates intentional power outages.
    Automatic Switching
  67. Performed by Operators. This type of switching is usually in response to power outages and abnormal conditions such as overloads.
    Emergency Switching
  68. What is Routine or Planned switching
    In this case the current that normally flows in this equipment is routed, by switching to an "alternate source" before the equipment needing repairs is de-energized.
  69. Electrical Function of switches
    - The manipulation of relatively high values of current and voltage under load or possibly loaded conditions, and

    - The switching of circuits top provide a visual confirmation of de-energized and/or for circuit selection under unloaded conditions.
  70. Purpose of Disconnects
    -To provide a method of visually confirming that a circuit has been Disconnected 

    - To energized or de-energize short sections of conductor
  71. Dielectric Medium
    • -Insulating oils
    • -Pressurized inert gasses,such as air, but not oxygen
    • -Sulfur Hexaflouride gas SF6
    • -Vacuum Chambers
  72. 2 Elements that can destroy the interrupting capabilities of dielectic medium
    Dirt and moisture
  73. Pressurized hydraulic, pneumatic and compressd spring systems are examples of
    Operating Mechanisms and Operating Forces
  74. The Operating time, from fully open to fully closed, in many large CB's is often less than.
    0.2 seconds
  75. Auxiliary devices that direct the operation of the CB
    Control Circuits
  76. The current that continues to flow across the opening of contacts of a circuit
    Arc
  77. When air becomes Ionized it
    no longer functions as an insulator but becomes a conductor.
  78. Disconnects must never
    be used to interrupt load current.
  79. What is a CS
    Customer station at 4.8kv
  80. IS
    34.5kv customer station
  81. What are Buses
    Buses are conductors that serve as a common meeting point for two or more circuits in a station.
  82. When current flow in a coil causes an emf to be induced in itself it is know as .....
    Self-inducton
  83. The characteristic property of a circuit that accounts for the production of an induced voltage or counter emf is called.....
    Inductance
  84. Well designed transformers are what % efficient
    98%
  85. The measure of the relative ability of a substance to conduct magnetic lines of force
    Permeability
  86. The losses due to the resistance of the windings are called
    copper losses or I² R losses
  87. Small and medium sized transformers are
    self-cooled
  88. Transformer oil in good condition must be able to withstand
    30kv applied across two flat electrodes submerged in a sample without arching.

    Electrodes used are 1 inch diameter and spaced .10 inch apart
  89. The ratio for the primary to the secondary voltage equals....
    the ratio of the number of turns in the two windings.

    • Ep = Np
    • ___ ___
    • Es    Ns
  90. Winding Formula
    • Ep = Np
    • ___ ___
    • Es    Ns
  91. Solve for current or voltage
    • Ep = Is
    • ___ ___
    • Es     Ip
  92. The entire formula for ratio , current , voltage is
    • EP =  Is  =  Np
    • ___   __     ___
    • ES     Ip      Ns
  93. _______ are used to step voltage down to a safe value usually 120v  and provide a source of voltage for metering, lights, and protective relays.
    Potential transformers
  94. ________  are use to step down current to a safe value, a max of 5 amps they provide a secondary current for ammeters and for circuit protection.
    Current transformers
  95. The basic principle of good nomenclature is
    a complete name  must include the minimum information needed to clearly differentiate the circuit or equipment from all others.
  96. how many switching stations in the city
    • 4 and all names derived from the street name nearest the control room.
    •  
    • Gramercy
    • Olive River
    • and Sylmar
  97. Station names are included when...
    a circuit or piece of equip belongs to more than one facility.
  98. All equipment is designed to operate at or near an optimum electric potential. This is called....
    Nominal Voltage
  99. The Proper name of a CB
    includes the name of the circuit and the piece of equipment that it connects together.
  100. The normal source name comes________ the normal load name on a circuit.
    Before

    • Haynes Velasco line 1
    • Velasco-factory Cable A
  101. Equipment names can refer to.
    The name of the Bank that supplies it.
  102. When naming a circuit or piece of equipment the circuit name (or Bank name) comes_____ with respect to the Bus.
    First

    Bank 1, 4.8kv Front bus, CB

    Feeder 5-5, 4.8kv Transfer Bus, Disconnects.
  103. The operating time, from fully open to closed in many large CBs is often less than__________
    0.2 seconds
  104. CBs are usually operated by the use of stored mechanical energy that acts to move the contacts these forces may include.
    • Pressurized Hydraulic systems
    • Pressurized Pneumatic Systems
    • Compressed springs
  105. Mechanical indicator for a CB is called
    Semaphore and is located at the CB
  106. 5. Steps taken to ensure that current flow has been interrupted in a circuit before opening a disconnect. are
    1 Open or check open the CB

    • 2. Check ammeters
    • 3. Check CB indicating lights should be green 
    • 4. Check Semaphore
    • 5. Crack open the Disconnect.
  107. a disconnect is an electrical device with
    normally visible contacts
  108. Formual symbols
     I
    E
    N
    R
    • I  = current
    • E =  Voltage
    • N = Turns
    • R = resistance
  109. A Red Flag and a Green light mean.
    Disagreement
  110. A Green flag and a Red light means
    Not in agreement
  111. In Agreement means...
    Flag and light are same color
  112. When on local control ________ must be on closed bank CBs
    Caps
  113. If a second coil is placed in the field of the first coil that is connected to an AC source, the rising and collapsing magnetic field of the first coil will cut across the second coil and will induce an AC voltage in the second coil as well. This is know as
    Mutual Induction
  114. The Basic principle of correct nomenclature is:
    A complete name must include the minimum information seeded to clearly differentiate the circuit or equipment.
  115. DS-48 Tujunga is an ____________
    Outdoor, department style station with a double bus-single breaker high side.
  116. DS-97
    Indoor, underground style station with a double bus-single breaker high side and an older style sectionalized main bus with rack out breakers on the low side.
  117. What is a source
    A circuit that is a "normal" supplier of energy-the circuit from which current flows.
  118. What is a Load
    Load is generally considered the circuit that is connected to a source - the circuit to which current flows.
  119. For operating purposes, the terms "connected" and "disconnected" refer to....
    the use of disconnects and CB'c only.
  120. Connecting two circuits together so that current can simultaneously flow through both of them is known as.....
    Paralleling
  121. The act of un-paralleling circuits is known as.....
    Breaking parallel or separating
  122. Providing an alternate source means....
    Paralleling a second bank with the one that is being taken off.
  123. Dry Run and Power Flow Check are...
    Required elements of bank switching procedures
  124. Switching plans are required and must include....
    the name of the circuit being operated and the major steps required to perform the switching.
  125. What is a disadvantage of a steam plant.
    High operating cost
  126. what does nominal
    In name
  127. What degrees is peak amplitude in a sine wave
    90  and 270
  128. what is a high voltage electrical device that limits the flow of current.
    Reactor
  129. A line, which if its CBs are closed parallels two Receiving stations is known as a
    System tie
  130. A step up transformer is usually found at
    Generating station.
  131. stationary part of a disconnect is called the
    Clip
  132. Relays do not interrupt________ they _______ the CB
    • Current 
    • Open
  133. Advantages of relays
    • Adjustable 
    • reusable
    • Selectivity
  134. Relays operate under
    DC current
  135. Circuits are protected from faults by
    Fuses and Relays
  136. Parallel Circuit formula with only 2 or more resistors of un-equal value.
    • ______1_____
    •        Rt=    __1___1____1__
    •                     R¹   R²      R³       

    Use common denominator and reciprocal
  137. test
Author
Hazard
ID
353187
Card Set
ESO
Description
Electric Station Operator
Updated