Lecture #51

  1. what are the specific types of visceral PNS organs
    lungs heat, vasculature, arrector pili muscles, sweat and sebaceous glands
  2. what is the autonomic nervous system?
    the motor section of the Visceral division of the PNS
  3. where are the cell bodies of the motor somatic nerves?
    in the CNS
  4. How is the ANS dvidied ?
    Into sympathetic and  parasympethetic
  5. Visceral motor neurons
    • there are two neuron invlove: preganglionic( presynaptic) and post ganglionic ( post synapthic) 
    • for the pregangioling the cell bodies are inside the CNS
    • the preganglionig cell neurons synapes on post ganglionic neuron whose for the post ganglionic the cell bodies are outside the CNS ( these are also known as autonomic ganglia)
  6. Visceral Sensory Neurons
    They synapse on the CNS and have cell bodies outside CNS
  7. what is the other name for Sympathetics
    Thoraco lumbar portion
  8. what is the other name for parasympathetics
    cranio-sacral regions
  9. sympathetic
    • fight or flight 
    • energy expenditure
  10. where are preganglion cell bodies of the sympathetic body wall found?
    preganglionic cell bodes are in the lateral horn t1-L12 of the spinal cord
  11. where are postganglion cell bodies of the sympathetic body wall found?
    • paravertebral gangli and subdiaphragmatic ganglia
    • c1-co1 ( every VT level)
  12. what structures do sympathetic neurons innervate
    structure of the body wall and body cavity
  13. How to symapthetics to the body wall travel ?
    • start out with the cell body in the lateral horn ( ony region T1-L2)
    • then they go through the ventral root, spinal nerve, and ventral ramus, then through the white ramus communicans into the para vertebral ganglion where they synapse on the post ganglion cell bodies . which then travel through the postganglionic gray ramus communicans through the dorsal or ventral ramus where they synapse on the body wall
  14. how to sympathetic neuron reach structures outside T1-L2 spnal corad level
    through the sympathetic chain that goes through all the rest of levels of the spine
  15. how does the sympathethic chain/ trunk work
    preganglionis axons ascend or descend and synapse on the corresponding paravertebral ganglion and synaspe on a post ganglionic axon which then distributes the information to that level
  16. how do you get sympathetics to the thporacic organs?
    • start at the lateral horn, through the ventral root, spinal cord, and ventral ramus, into the white ramus communicans to the paravertrbral ganglion 
    • they synapse on nerves ( for examples sympathiethiccardiac nerves) that go straight to the thoracic organs such as the heart, lungs, etc.
  17. At what spinal level range is most of the thoracic organs located ?
  18. Where are preganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathethics foubd?
    the brainstem or S3-S4 region of the spinal cord ( sometimes S2 and S5)
  19. Where are postganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathethics found?
    • these are usually short 
    • they are found in four ganglia in the head or near/in target organ walls.
  20. with which nerve does the preganlionic axons of the parasympathetics travel with ?
    The vagus nerve( CN X)
  21. where doe parasympathethic synapse
    in the walls of the organs
  22. where are preganglionic cell bodies found?
    brain stem
  23. Parasympathethic postganglionis cell bodies
    arein the wall of the oragn and they have very short axons
  24. what is the structural difference between the preganglionic axons and the post ganglionic axon
    pre ganglionic axons are very long byut the post ganglionic axons are very short
  25. how are the different thoracic plexuses formed ?
    Preganaglionic parasympathethic axons from the vagus nerve join postganglionnic sympathethic axons to form the plexususes that supply each of the thoracic organs.
  26. Visceral sensory
    • does not always reach consciousness
    • you cannot really locate any specific point when there is an unbalance or pain
  27. what is visceral sensory stimulated bu?
    ischemia, distention, cramping, or inflamation
  28. how does visceral sensory information form the body wasll get to the brain/ CNS
    • they travel through the dorsal and ventral rami, go through the gray ramus commincans throught eh paravertebral ganglion ( without synapsing) through the white ramus communicans .
    • the hve their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion
    • the cntral body in the dorsal root send out a central process axon to synapse in the dorsal horn
  29. how does visceral sensory information form the thoracic organs get to the brain/ CNS
    • information from the organ travels with nerve tot he paravertebral ganaglia where it goes through the white ramus communicans, the ventral ramus, synapses, meets with cell bodies in the dorsal root gangilo then send out a central process to synapse in the dorsal horn of the CNS
    • happens between T1-T5
  30. how does information above or below T1-T5 get to send visceral information to the spine.
    • the information goes through the sympathetic chain  to go to the paravertebral ganglia of  T1-T5
    • travel with the thoracic cervical level sympathethic cardiac nerves back to paravertebral ganglia
  31. what spinal level does visceral sensory happen?
  32. reffered pain
    when the true visceral sensation of an organ is misinterpreted by the CNS as a somatic signal
  33. why does referred pain happen?
    • Because the visceral sensory axons synapse on the same cell bodies as somatic axon in the dorsal horn 
    • a great example is the appendix and heart attack
  34. what is important about gender and MI?
    men usually feel chest pains but women do not show squeezing chest pain or pain radiating down the arm
  35. what symptoms of an MI ddo women show?
    • they have pain the neck,jaw, upperback, chest, lower chest, and upper abdomen
    • this could also come iwth fainting, indigestion and extreme fatigur
  36. what are some examples of body cavity structures ?
    • myocardium 
    • internal organs
    • luungs
  37. what are some examples of body wall structures ?
    • vasculature
    • arrector illi muscles, sweat, and sebacous glands
  38. what is the path of sympathetic ganglion axon of  the sympathetic thoracic organs
    • Ventral root > spinal nerve > ventral
    • ramus > white ramus communicantes >
    • paravertebral ganglion > then either
    • 1. synapse at the level (T1-T5)
    • 2. Ascend and synapse at a higher
    • paravertebral ganglion (C1-C8)
  39. what is the vt level range for the greater splanchnic
  40. what is the vt level range for the lesser splanchnic
  41. what is the vt level range for the least splanchnic
  42. what is significant about sensation or pain felt below the pelvic pain line
    they follow parasympathtehis oc S3-S4 back to the spinal cord/CN
  43. explain parasympathetics for erection
    pelvic spalnchnevers<pelvic or prostatuic plexus>cavernous nerves
  44. describe sympathethics for ejaculation
    lumbar and sacral splanchnic> eplvix plexus>direct bracnehs
  45. describe ajaculation
    • contract internal urethatl spchinter 
    • contraction o vas deferns
    • contraction and secretion of seminal gladns and protate
    • bul;bospongiousus muscle contraction helps with emptying
Card Set
Lecture #51
Autonomics of the Thorax