made by bacillius and clostridia
they are alive but metobalically dormant
it is dry
highly resistant to chemicals and radiation
has the ability to germinate
structure of endospore
they have multiple layers around the DNA
what are the proesses tha form spores
sporulation ( during lack of nutrients)and germination
what gives endospores resistance ?
spore wall( stop chemical from getting into the inside of cells)
SASPs ( small acid soluable protein
Ca++/ Dipicolinic acids (DPA)
the two above bind to DNa and change it from B DNa to A (dry form)
this creates damage repair enzyme and the type of damage that is acculmuated
what is bacillus ?
gram positive bacteria
what is Clostridia ?
Treatment: fecal transplant ( get feces from others to restore your normal flora)
How to bacteria divide
Binary fission and vertical gene transfer
Horizontal Gene transfer
this is how bacteria have diversity in their genes and evolve
there are three main mechanism
when bacteria exchange plasmids though a conjugation pilus (sex pilus)
allow bacteria to pick up naked dna that is outside of the cell
bacteria pick up gene from viruses
use aerobic respiration
they make catylase and superoxydismutase to deal with oxygen free radicals
strict anaerobic resipiration
use anaerobic respiration
can doboth aerobic and anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
they make superoxide dismutase and catalase
prefer to be aerobic
also called fermenters
what kind of PH do bacteria/microbes like?
slightly basic 7.4
there are varying microbes that like different ph for example acidophile and alkalophiles.
which temperature prefering microbes attack humans?
grow from around 12 degrees celcius to about 45 degrees celcius
Microbiology Bacteria II