Lecture #46

  1. endospore
    • made by bacillius and clostridia
    • they are alive but metobalically dormant
    • it is dry 
    • highly resistant to chemicals and radiation 
    • has the ability to germinate
  2. structure of endospore
    • they have multiple layers around the DNA
    • core
    • cortex
    • core wall
    • exosporium
    • spore coat
  3. what are the proesses tha form spores
    sporulation ( during lack of nutrients)and germination
  4. what gives endospores resistance ?
    • spore wall( stop chemical from getting into the inside of cells)
    • SASPs ( small acid soluable protein 
    • Ca++/ Dipicolinic acids (DPA)
    • the two above bind to DNa and change it from B DNa to A (dry form)
    • this creates damage repair enzyme and the type of damage that is acculmuated
  5. Bacillus types
    • anthracis
    • cereus
  6. what is bacillus ?
    • gram positive bacteria
    • aerobic
  7. Clostridia types
    • Botulinum 
    • tetani
    • perfringens
    • difficile
  8. what is Clostridia ?
    • anaerobic
    • gram positive
  9. C.difficile
    Treatment: fecal transplant  ( get feces from others to restore your normal flora)
  10. How to bacteria divide
    Binary fission and vertical gene transfer
  11. Horizontal Gene transfer
    • this is how bacteria have diversity in their genes and evolve
    • there are three main mechanism
    • conjugation 
    • transformation 
    • general transduction
  12. conjugation
    when bacteria exchange plasmids though a conjugation pilus  (sex pilus)
  13. transformation
    allow bacteria to pick up naked dna that is outside of the cell
  14. trasnduction
    bacteria pick up gene from viruses
  15. strict aerobes
    • use aerobic respiration
    • they make catylase and superoxydismutase to deal with oxygen free radicals
  16. strict anaerobic resipiration
    • use anaerobic respiration
    • 24ATP/1 molecule
  17. facultative anerobes
    • can doboth aerobic and anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
    • they make superoxide dismutase and catalase
    • prefer to be aerobic
  18. aerotolerant anerobes
    also called fermenters
  19. what kind of PH do bacteria/microbes like?
    • slightly basic 7.4
    • there are varying microbes that like different ph for example acidophile and alkalophiles.
  20. which temperature prefering microbes attack humans?
    • mesophiles
    • grow from around 12 degrees celcius to about 45 degrees celcius
Card Set
Lecture #46
Microbiology Bacteria II