Lecture #44

  1. what are the 4 tissue types
    • muscular
    • epithelium
    • neural 
    • connective
  2. where does the epithelia come from in regard to embryology ?
    ectoderm and endoderm
  3. where does the Connective tissue come from in regard to embryology ?
  4. where does the nerural tissue come from in regard to embryology ?
  5. where does the muscle tissue come from in regard to embryology ?
  6. what is the most abundant tissue in the body?
    connective tissue
  7. what does connective tissues contain
    • ground substances
    • protein fiber
    • ECM
  8. Function of thre
  9. Function of the CT
    • bind and support
    • protect
    • transport
    • repair
    • production of RBD
    • insulation
  10. what are the  types of CT
    • Embryonic
    • Proper
    • specialized
  11. connective tissue cells
    Resident (do not move)

    Transient ( move around body)
  12. what are the type of resident CT cells
    • fibroblasts
    • Macrophages
    • adipocytes
    • mast 
    • adult stem
  13. what are the type of transient CT cells
    • Lympocytes(e.g. pasmam cells)
    • PMN cells ( basophils..etc)
    • monocytes
  14. what is the principle Ct cell
  15. function of fibroblasts?
    synthesize collagen, all fibers, and ground substance
  16. function of myofibroblast
    • contractile
    • wound healing
    • creates dense irregular scar tissue
  17. Function if macrophages?
    • There at 2 types: M1 & M2
    • M1: chronic inflammation
    • M2: resolution of inflammation and repair
  18. Mast cells function
    • create:
    • histamine
    • heparin
    • serine protease
    • cytokines 
    • leukotrien precursor
  19. what is PMN
    polymorphonuclear leukocytes
  20. Adipocytes
    • fat calls
    • store fats and hormones
    • energy and cushion
  21. adult stem cells
    • differentiate into one type of cell
    • for ex, bone marrow, basal cells, mesenchymal, wound healing cells, etc.
  22. Lympocytes
    • composed of T-cells, B-cells, and NK (natural killer) cells
    • express CD molecules
  23. what is ECM composed of ?
    fiber + ground substances
  24. what is the function of ECM
    • mechanical and structural support
    • biochemical barrier
    • anchor cells 
    • influence migration
    • retain growth factors
    • influence cell growth
  25. what is ground substance composed of?
    • viscous H2O
    • proteoglycans
    • muti-adhesive glycoproteins
    • glycoaminoglycans
  26. what are the two types of CT proper?
    dense and loose (areolar)
  27. Properties of loose CT
    • made of thin sparse fibers
    • very permeable to gases and nutrients
    • contains a lot of ground substance
    • site of inflammation and immune reaction / swelling upon invasion by microbes
  28. location of loose CT
    • forms alot of the dermis
    • btw muscle and nerve fibers
    • underneath epithelial lining of many organs
  29. properties of Dense Ct proper
    • poor vasculature
    • strong an resistant to tearing
    • few fibroblast and ground substance
    • alot of collagen fibers
  30. what are the types of dense Ct proper?
    • Regular because the collagen fiber are parrallel
    • Irregular because the collagen fibers that make it up fo in different directions
  31. where can you find dense irregular CT proper?
    dermis and submucosao the instestine
  32. where can you find dense regular CT proper?
    tendons, ligament, and aponeurosis
  33. what are the three main types of connective tissue (CT) fibers?
    • collagen 
    • elastin
    • recticular
  34. Properties of collagen
    • extremely strong and resistant to tearing
    • 28 different types
    • most abundant fiber
  35. Recticular fibers
    • Type II collagen 
    • produces by recticular cells, fibroblast, and schwann ells
  36. properties of elastin
    • thinner than collagen
    • very stretchy
    • cannot stain very well 
    • can be damaged by sun and smoking
    • produced by fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells
  37. how could you differntiate elastin and collagen
    rescorcin-fuchsin staining
  38. where do femoral hernias present themselves?
    • on the anterior surface of the thigh 
    • the femoral ring is inferior to the inguinal canal
  39. direct hernia do not typically enter which ring?
    The deep inguinal ring
  40. what are the risk factors of an inguinal hernia
    • being male because they have a larger diameter of their inguinak canal due to their spermatic cord 
    • people that are fat because they have more weight/pressure on their inguinal cannal 
    • patent tunica vaginalis because this indicated that the the ab cavity already extends to the deep inguinal ring.
  41. where is loose ct found and what is its other name?
    • areolar
    • beneatht he epithelial linging of many organs
  42. where is dense irregular CT proper found?
    submucosa of intestineand dermis
  43. where is dense regular CT proper found?
    • tendons, ligament ans aponeurosis
    • things that join with the muscle and the bone
Card Set
Lecture #44
Histology Part II