what are the 4 tissue types
where does the epithelia come from in regard to embryology ?
ectoderm and endoderm
where does the Connective tissue come from in regard to embryology ?
where does the nerural tissue come from in regard to embryology ?
where does the muscle tissue come from in regard to embryology ?
what is the most abundant tissue in the body?
what does connective tissues contain
- ground substances
- protein fiber
Function of the CT
- bind and support
- production of RBD
what are the types of CT
connective tissue cells
Resident (do not move)
Transient ( move around body)
what are the type of resident CT cells
- adult stem
what are the type of transient CT cells
- Lympocytes(e.g. pasmam cells)
- PMN cells ( basophils..etc)
what is the principle Ct cell
function of fibroblasts?
synthesize collagen, all fibers, and ground substance
function of myofibroblast
- wound healing
- creates dense irregular scar tissue
Function if macrophages?
- There at 2 types: M1 & M2
- M1: chronic inflammation
- M2: resolution of inflammation and repair
Mast cells function
- serine protease
- leukotrien precursor
what is PMN
- fat calls
- store fats and hormones
- energy and cushion
adult stem cells
- differentiate into one type of cell
- for ex, bone marrow, basal cells, mesenchymal, wound healing cells, etc.
- composed of T-cells, B-cells, and NK (natural killer) cells
- express CD molecules
what is ECM composed of ?
fiber + ground substances
what is the function of ECM
- mechanical and structural support
- biochemical barrier
- anchor cells
- influence migration
- retain growth factors
- influence cell growth
what is ground substance composed of?
- viscous H2O
- muti-adhesive glycoproteins
what are the two types of CT proper?
dense and loose (areolar)
Properties of loose CT
- made of thin sparse fibers
- very permeable to gases and nutrients
- contains a lot of ground substance
- site of inflammation and immune reaction / swelling upon invasion by microbes
location of loose CT
- forms alot of the dermis
- btw muscle and nerve fibers
- underneath epithelial lining of many organs
properties of Dense Ct proper
- poor vasculature
- strong an resistant to tearing
- few fibroblast and ground substance
- alot of collagen fibers
what are the types of dense Ct proper?
- Regular because the collagen fiber are parrallel
- Irregular because the collagen fibers that make it up fo in different directions
where can you find dense irregular CT proper?
dermis and submucosao the instestine
where can you find dense regular CT proper?
tendons, ligament, and aponeurosis
what are the three main types of connective tissue (CT) fibers?
Properties of collagen
- extremely strong and resistant to tearing
- 28 different types
- most abundant fiber
- Type II collagen
- produces by recticular cells, fibroblast, and schwann ells
properties of elastin
- thinner than collagen
- very stretchy
- cannot stain very well
- can be damaged by sun and smoking
- produced by fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells
how could you differntiate elastin and collagen
where do femoral hernias present themselves?
- on the anterior surface of the thigh
- the femoral ring is inferior to the inguinal canal
direct hernia do not typically enter which ring?
The deep inguinal ring
what are the risk factors of an inguinal hernia
- being male because they have a larger diameter of their inguinak canal due to their spermatic cord
- people that are fat because they have more weight/pressure on their inguinal cannal
- patent tunica vaginalis because this indicated that the the ab cavity already extends to the deep inguinal ring.
where is loose ct found and what is its other name?
- beneatht he epithelial linging of many organs
where is dense irregular CT proper found?
submucosa of intestineand dermis
where is dense regular CT proper found?
- tendons, ligament ans aponeurosis
- things that join with the muscle and the bone