Nutrition Ch 1

  1. acute disease
    a disease that develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course.
  2. Adequate Intake (AI)
    the average amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion.
  3. Anthropometric
    relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight.
  4. Atom
    the smallest component of an element that has all of the properties of the element.
  5. blind experiment
    an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental or the control group.
  6. Calorie
    a unit by which energy is measured. Food energy is measured in kilocalories (1000 calories equal 1 kilocalorie), abbreviated kcalories or kcal. One kcalorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1° C.
  7. chronic diseases
    degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs; diseases of long duration that progress slowly; also called noncommunicable diseases (NCD).
  8. Compound
    a substance composed of two or more different atoms—for example, H20.
  9. control group
    a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the group being experimented on except for the experimental treatment.
  10. Correlation
    the simultaneous increase, decrease, or change of two variables.
  11. Covert
    hidden, as if under covers.
  12. Deficient
    the amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected, over time, to experience deficiency symptoms.
  13. Diet
    the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks.
  14. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
    a set of values for the dietary nutrient intakes of healthy people in the United States and Canada; these include: Estimated Average Requirements, Recommended Dietary Allowances, Adequate Intakes, and Tolerable Upper Limits.
  15. double-blind experiment
    an experiment in which neither the subjects nor those conducting the experiment know which subjects are members of the experimental group and which are serving as control subjects, until after the experiment is over.
  16. Element
    a substance composed of atoms that are alike—for example, iron (Fe).
  17. Energy
    the capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy. The body can convert this chemical energy to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy.
  18. energy-yielding nutrients
    the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use: carbohydrate, fat, protein.
  19. essential nutrients
    nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs; also called indispensable nutrients.
  20. Estimated Average Requirement
    the amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the people of a given age and sex group.
  21. experimental group
    a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the control group except for the treatment.
  22. FAO
    the Food and Agriculture Organization (of the United Nations).
  23. food consumption survey
    a survey that measures the amounts and kinds of foods people consume (using diet histories), estimates the nutrient intakes, and compares them with a standard such as the RDA.
  24. Foods
    products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues.
  25. functional foods
    foods or food ingredients that have been modified to provide a health benefit beyond their nutrient contribution.
  26. Healthy People
    a national public health initiative that identifies the most significant threats to health and focuses on efforts toward eliminating them.
  27. Inorganic
    not containing carbon or pertaining to living things.
  28. Malnutrition
    any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
  29. Minerals
    inorganic elements; some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts.
  30. Molecule
    two or more atoms of the same or different elements joined by chemical bonds.
  31. Nonnutrients
    compounds in foods with no known nutritional value.
  32. Nutrients
    substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy and structural materials and to regulate growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues; nutrients may also reduce the risks of some chronic diseases.
  33. nutrition assessment
    a comprehensive approach, completed by a registered dietitian, to defining nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical examinations; and laboratory tests.
  34. nutrition status survey
    a survey that evaluates people's nutrition status using diet histories, anthropometric measures, physical examinations, and laboratory tests.
  35. Organic
    a substance or a molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
  36. Overnutrition
    excess energy or nutrients.
  37. Overt
    out in the open and easy to observe.
  38. peer review
    a process in which a panel of scientists rigorously evaluates a research study to assure that the scientific model was followed.
  39. Phytochemicals
    nonnutritive compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body.
  40. Placebo
    an inert, harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope
  41. placebo effect
    the healing effect that faith in medicine, even inert medicine, often has.
  42. primary deficiency
    a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient.
  43. Randomization
    a process of choosing the members of the experimental and control groups without bias.
  44. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
  45. registered dietitian
    a college-educated food and nutrition specialist who is qualified to evaluate people's nutritional health and needs.
  46. Replication
    repeating an experiment and getting the same results.
  47. Requirement
    the amount of a nutrient that will maintain normal biochemical and physiological functions and prevent the development of specific deficiency signs.
  48. risk factors
    factors associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proven to be causal.
  49. science of nutrition
    the study of the nutrients in foods and of the body's handling of them.
  50. secondary deficiency
    a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than diet, such as a disease condition that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient.
  51. subclinical deficiency
    a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared.
  52. Subjects
    people or animals participating in a research project.
  53. Tolerable Upper Intake Level
    the maximum amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.
  54. Undernutrition
    deficiency of energy or nutrients.
  55. upper safe
    the amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is concern that some people will experience toxicity symptoms.
  56. Validity
    having the quality of being founded on fact or evidence.
  57. Variable
    a factor that changes.
  58. Vitamins
    organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.
  59. WHO
    the World Health Organization.
Card Set
Nutrition Ch 1
These are glossary terms from chapter 1 of Nutrition class