what are the 5 model of ostepathic care?
- Big Bitches never really model
what is involved in the bio mechanical model ?
- changes in muscles, ct compliance, motion, and postural
what is the motor unit ?
motor neuron+ muscle fiber cells + metabolic energy require to function
what is involved in the respiratory/ circulatory model?
how are respiration and circulatory interrelated?
What affects one affects the other .
what is being observed in circulatory cellular respiration ?
- regulation of blood in regards to metaolic, paracine, and myogenic
- cardiovascular and circulatory components.
what is being observed in Lymphatics ?
- inflammatory mediators, immune cells, neuroimmune regulation
- lypmhangion, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph organs
what is being observed in pulmonary ?
- ventilation perfusion, pO2 pCo2, ph
- respiratory muscles and pulmonary circulation
how are the three motor unit models related in a patient with heart failure
- biomechanical: the diaphragm is impaired
- metabolic: mitochondrial capacity is altered in cardiac and skeletal muscles ; they are getting supplemental O2
what does the neurological model encompass?
- emotion concept of the pain ( Limbic system)
what does the behavior model encompass?
- The human Microbiome
- Nutritian and behavior
- the tyroid is also a huge component
what does the behavior model encompass?
what are the classification off OMM techniques?
- there are two
- direct and indirect?
What is direct OMT
- take tissues and joints are taken into the restriction of ROM
- tissues are taken into opposite of SD
What is indirect OMT
- take tissues and joints are taken away from the restriction of ROM
- tissues are taken into the same side of SD
what is an isokinetic muscle contraction?
same speed of contraction
what is an isolytic muscle contraction?
muscles are forced to lengthen during contraction
what are the physiological principles of OMT
- extensibility of CT
- muscle spindle reflex strecth reflex
- reciprocal inhibition
- golgi tendon
- cross extensor reflex
- Every girl must receive cock
what is extensibility of CT
- when Ct is placed under mild tension and start to display elongation
- this id due to ligamentous propioceptor and mechanoreceptors.
what is muscle spindle/ strecth reflex
if intrafusal fibers are strectched rapidly, they cause a reflex contraction by the extrafusal fibers.
what innervated the intrafusal fibers?
gamam motor neurons
what innervated the extrafusal fibers of the muscles?
alpha motor neurons
what is the Golgi tendon organ reflex?
- when tension on the muscle becomes extreme, the inhibitory effect of the golgi tendon organ can cause sudden relaxion of the entire muscles
- e.g. hand wrestling
- excitation of one cause reflex inhibition ( relaxation) of anothe muscle
- for example when you run the quads contract but the hamstring relax
cross extensor reflex
stretch reflex ecite muscle or muscles on on side and relaxes the muscle on the contralateral side
what are the contraindications for OMT
- decline of treatment
- physician maybe in harm from the patient
- patient condition or diagnosis may result in injury
what are some relative contraindications for OMT ?
- ex. doing the pedal pump on a patient with heart failure
- rib muscle energy with a patient who is hospitalized with shortness of breathe
- this or more variable and are dependent on if the patient can tolerate the technique, benefit from it, help with concerns of pt, help with physiological condition, and is generally appropriate.
soft tissue technique
- a direct, passive technique that is used to treat CT, vessels and muscles
- use paralle or perpendicular traction into the barrier
- creates direct inhibitory pressure
- passive technique that can be direct indirect or both used to treat muscle and the surrounding organ and CT of that muscle .
- patient's cooperation is utilized to enhance technique
muscle energy technique
- a direct, active technique
- patient require to move, resist, and contract muscles as well as passive release
- the main mechanisms used in this technique are cross extenson reflex, reciprocal inhibition, and golgi tendon organ reflex.
Jones counterstrain technique
- indirect passive technique
- mechanism is muscle spindle reflex
Facillitated positional release technique
- passive indirect technique
- mechanism : muscle spindle reflex
What happens during Balanced Ligamentous Tension / Ligamentous articular strain technique
- It is a passive indirect technique where the tissue is placed into a position of ease.
- The joint or tissue is then pushed together ( approximation)
- once the postion of ease is reached within all 3 ranges of motion (BLT), a balance point ( LAS) then the tissues is relaesed and reassessed.
- In the in direct technique:
- (focusing on one plane of motion at a time) move tissue into the barrier , a point of balanced is reached and the tissues is reassessed
High Velocity Low amplitude technique
a passive, direct technique
what happens during the muscle energy technique ?
- doc move muscles into all planes of restricted motion
- patient is asked to move problem area towards diagnosed relative freedoms of the joint while physican resist for 3-5 seconds. This is how you trigger a post-isometric relaxation
- after relaxation the joint is re-positioned into its new barriers
- this is repeated until physiological limits are restored.
what happens during the Jones counterstrain technique ?
- joint is placed in a postion that shortens the involve muscle and relieves pain for patient
- hold the passive position for 90 seconds and watch for changes in textures
- passively return joint to neutral meaning that there should be no help from the patient.
what happens during the facilitated positional technique ?
tissue is placed in a position of ease then active force and compression/os torsionis applied to hyper shorten tissue adn compress the joint. Then the patient is taken to the neutral position and reassessed .
what happens during the high velocity low amplitude( HVLA) technique ?
- Inccorparate fryettes 3rd principle
- area of dysfunction must first be treated with a soft tissue technique or a myofascial technique
- the dysfunction is placed into the restrictive barrier for all 3 planes of motion
- physician applies a small, quick force to joint in such a way to move it through the barrier
- a pop may sometimes be heard.
What is the mechanism for BLT/ LAS technique?
- propioceptors and mechanorecptors
- restore and balance ligamentous tension and articular strain
- LAS: disengage, exaggeration and balancing until a release is achieved.
What is the mechanism of HVLA?
- the initiating force by acceleration.
- a rapid increase in velocity in respect to time accelerating toward and then minimally through a barrier.
acting from various directions and orientation relative to object
acts to stretch out object
act parrallel to object surfaces
the opposit of compression