OMK key review points

  1. When was sulfonamide introduced?
  2. What was introduce in 1935 ?
    sulfanamide, it a antibacterial agent prontosil
  3. When was penecilin created ?
    1940's by Florey and Chain
  4. Who developed the cell theory of immunity
  5. what did Metchnikoff do ?
    created the cell theory of immunity
  6. Who developed the concept of the magic bullet ?
    Paul Ehrlich
  7. Who is Paul Ehrlich ?
    He created the magic bullet and He is the forerunern for antitoxins and compound 6060 which is used to treat syphilis
  8. If you do a OMM tenet to relieve a problem which tenet is it ?
    If right after performing the technique the patient feel better it is structure and function.
  9. Where are problem facets
    they are only in type II not in type one
  10. ERS
    • Extension dysfuction. E is equal and the problem facet is on the same side as the dysfunction.
    • the problem facet is on the right side
    • Ers means that ot wants to extends
    • STUCK closed
    • ERS right the right facet is stuck closed and does not want to open
  11. FRS right
    • means that the left facet is stuck open That will cause it rotate and side-bend to the right side 
  12. Type I dysfunction
    • it is a scoliosis 
    • like side bend to the rigth and rotated to the left 
    • you would feel ribs more posterior
  13. Type II dysfuction looks like
    Hard to see because it is such small sigments
  14. What is PFK-1
    • rate limiting step 
    • it is actvated with fructose 2,6-bisphosphate F@^BP
    • F2,6BP is a positive regulator
  15. Wha does Glucogan do ?
    • activates protein kinase-1 which is used to adds a phosphate group
    • Glucagin phosphorylates pyruvate kinase and thus inactivates it
  16. What is Epidemiology ?
    • What determines and distributes health disease in human
    • WHO what where when and why of any disease
  17. what is a tandem enzyme ?
    • Ask michelle or preet
    • Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
  18. Communicable diseases
    oraganism multiply on or in the body and make the body infection to others directly or indirectly after developing a living vector
  19. Examples of communicable diseases invclude
    • West Nile 
    • Malaria
  20. Endemic
    low and constant level of disease in a population
  21. Epidemic
    level of infection found above that which is usually found in the population
  22. Pandemic disease examples
    AIDS, cholera (1980's), ZIKA ( 2016 ) COVID
  23. reservoirs
    only mammilian carriers od the infectious agent
  24. virulence
    The # of fatalities over the total cases
  25. Incidence
    New cases/specific population over a specified time period
  26. Prevalence
    Total # of cases exiting in a given population
  27. Measles
    • human to human 
    • respiratory droplets 
    • The virus has ss RNA 
    • very communicable
    • MMR vaccination
  28. Black Plague
    • Pathogen Yersinia pestis 
    • gram neg 
    • from rats to fleas to humans 
    • epidemic of the 1th centrury in Europe
  29. Noscomial Epidemics
    Hospital acquired infections most commonly inolving opportunitistic organism
  30. What is the difference btw a nucleoside and a nucleotide
    • A base linked to a sugar 
    •  Side just got the SUGAR
  31. Heterochromatin
    • The heterosexual is always tight because they never express themselves
    • Densely packed chromatin that does not express usually
  32. Define the term gene and gene mutation
    DNA that has a start and a stop point that specifies a protein
  33. How do you do an AP Xray and why is it relevant?
    • It is the most accurate 
    • You have to put the back closest to the image detector.
    • That way the X-ray passes from Anterior to posteror hence AP
  34. Mutation in which gene lead to Marfan's Syndrome
    Fibrin-1 protein mutation would lead to this aliment
  35. What do statin drugs do ?
    The are competitive inhibitors that compete for thebinding of HMG CoA eductase
  36. ERS
    • When patient flexes the problem facet is stuck closed 
    • and the vertebra rotate to the SAME SIDE 
    • e.g. T4 ERS Right
    • this means that the right facet is  stuck closed
  37. Open ended question Skills
    Some Nuns Never really reach Sex

    • silence
    • Non verbal encouragment 
    • neutral utterance
    • Reflection
    • Request 
    • summarizing \
  38. On the Cage questionnaire
    • Cut down
    • Annoyed by people about you habit
    • Guilty about your drinking 
    • Eye-Opener- do you have a drink first thing in the morning
  39. Dna Pol III
    • found in prokaryotic cells
    • places the RNA primer so DNA can be synthesized from 5' to 3' on a ss dna template
  40. DNA Pol I
    • Found in Prokaryotic DNA
    • mainly to repair DNA.
    • it also replaces RNA primer on the lagging strand and replacing them with DNA
  41. How is prokaryotic replication different from Eurkayrotic replication ?
    • Prokaryotes need:
    • DNA gyrase
    • circular chromosome not sister chromatids 
    • it is fast 
    • large okazaki fragments 
    • needs DNA polymerase I and II 
    • single origin of replication 
    • Dna replicates in the cytoplasm 
    • circular and double stranded DNA
  42. Who is gregor mendel ?
    he used the pea plants to understand inheritance
  43. Avery MacLoed McCarty
    That DNA is what makes up genes
  44. Rosaline Franklin
    She discovered that DNA is a double stranded helix
  45. Collagen
    • Fibrous proteins 
    • linking of GXY which is usually 
    • Glycine, Proline, and Hydroxyproline or hydroxylysine
  46. In euraryotic cells
    • DNA alpha
    • DNA beta
    • and OMEGa
  47. Telomerase
    • When primer is removed from the end of our DNA there is a gap because we can only add bases in the 5' to 3' directiojn 
    • expressed in germ cell and  live forever because it prevents us from losing information at the end of our genes.
    • usually when we replicate information we lose information at the end
  48. How to do you make a Collagen fiber
    • Repeats of GXY that create a alpha chain
    • 3 alpha chains create collagen molecule
    • collagen moelcules come together to make collagen fibrils \collagen fibrils come together to make a collagen fiber
  49. How do you differentiate RNA and DNA
    • This is based on the sugar . 
    • If the 2' carbon the sugar has an oxygen then it is RNA
    • if not it is DNA because it does not have a Oxygen , hence deoxy.
  50. How do you correctly name nucleoside when they are attached to the different sugars?
    • adenosine
    • cytidine
    • uridine
    • guanosine
    • thymidine
  51. DNA helicase
    unwinds the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that exist between the nitrogenous bases of each DNA strand.
  52. DNa Primase
    dds a small primer to the existing DNA (since DNA polymerase is unable to start making DNA without a primer first).
  53. DNA ligase
    seals the gap by building a bond between the phosphate group and the sugar.
  54. DNA alpha
    • Makes initiator DNA attach to primer 
    • this cause lagging strand synthese
  55. DNA pol. delta
    Leading strand synthesis
  56. DNA pol. episolon
    Lagging strand repair
  57. How to detect MI from blood test
    • increase in Cardiac Troponin I and T . 
    • 2-4 hours to release and peaks after a day or two 
    • CK-MB ( slower indicator)
  58. what does Creatine Kinase/Creatine Phosphokinase 1 CK-BB indicate ?
    some damage to the brain seeing that it is mostly found in the brain
  59. CK2

    shows when cardiac muscle is damaged
  60. CK3
    shows when cardiac muscles and skeletal muscle is damaged.
  61. What enzyme is secreted by the level for blood coagulation
    • AAT 
    • alpha 1 antitrypsin
  62. ALT & AST
    • alanine aminotransferase and Aspartate aminotransferase 
    • elevation in blood could mean liver damage
  63. Alkaline Phosphatase
    • Could mean cholestatsus
    • elevation of this serum enzyme means that bile flow from the liver is blocked or slowed.

    Also bones tumor , in the case of Rickets
  64. What serum enzyme indicate muscle damage ?
    • AST ALT : just like with the liver 
    • creatine kinase 
    • Aldolase
  65. Pancreas serum enzyme
    Amylase in blood indicative of pancrease damage
  66. Lacatae dehydrogenase
    • made up of 4 subunits
    • isofroms separated using chromatography and electrophoresis
    • the subunit types are H (heart0 and m(muscle)
  67. LDH 2 & 3
    • Found in acute leukemia
    • H3M
    • H2M2
  68. LDH 1
    • The pure heart LDH 1 HHHH is in the myocardium
    • Fasting moving 
    • Heat Stable
  69. LDH 4
    HM3 HMMM is in the liver and muscle
  70. LDH 5
    • M4 MMMM Occur in muscle liver  
    • anaerobic tissue in liver disease
  71. Competitive inhibitor
    • Km :increases 
    • Vmax: stays the same
  72. Non-competitive Inhibition
    • Decrease in Apparent Vmax 
    • Does not affect Km
  73. First Order
  74. Zero Order
    [S] >>Km
  75. Dna polymerase III
    found only in prokaryotes and sythesizes both lagging and leading strand
  76. Phosphodiester bond
    link nucleotide together in the Dna back bone
  77. What are histones
    • in eurkaryotic cells.
    • proteins that Dna wraps themselves around to organize itself
  78. Nucleosome
    nucleosome - the unit of histones with  Dna wraps about it 2 times
  79. GATC
    This is the place where metyolation occurs in DNA
  80. CpG island
    places where there are repeated CG's
  81. what is different about the parent and new strand ?
    The parent strand is usually methaylated for a time period that the new strand is not
  82. Heimethylation
    • when the parent dna strand is methylated and the new strand is not
    • This is to help with mismatch proofreading
    • DAM methylase will know to repaire the new unmethylated strand then metylate at the A
  83. Chromatin Remodeling
    make sure that the chromatin is accessible for replication
  84. DNA gyrase
    • only found in Prokaryotes
    • quinones such as nalidixic acid and cirpoflocin inhibit DNA gyrase and will kill bacter gram -
  85. Osteogensis imperfecta
    • Glycine in the amino triple repeat in collagen G-X-Y has point mutation 
    • results in pooor collagen packing 
    • Fibril forming collagen type I
  86. Stickler Syndrome
    • mutation in collagen gene
    • Firbril forming and Type I
  87. Network forming collagen
    • Type II 
    • Under this is types 4,8,and 10
  88. Collagen type II
    • fibril associated 
    • interruption in triple helices 
    • types 9 and 12
  89. How is collagen made
    • formed in ER with N-glycosylated residue  and 3  alpha helicies twine to form pro collagen
    • after N-residue is cleaved procollagen is offical collagen and stacks with other collagen to make collagen fibrils
  90. What does lysyl oxidase do?
    form covalenbt cross links between collogen to make collagen fibrils
  91. why is glycosylation of the hydroxylysine or proline important in collagen
    • This is where the cleavage of proalpha chain collagen is made
    • if not down it result in faulty collagen or none
  92. what is the cofactor of hydroxylases
    Vitamin C, Fe2+ and O2
  93. EDS
    • Ehlers Danlos Syndrome 
    • defective collagen processing enxyme ( lysl oxidase)
    • mutation in fibril forming colloagen
    • type I II or V
  94. what hold the triple helix of pro alpgha chains together
    • cysteines
    • that form disulfide interchain
    • links h
  95. What changes the pyruvate made in glycolysis to acetyl coA?
    PDh pyruvate dehydrogenase
  96. PDH complex
    • an alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase
    • Makes a 2 carbon product from a 3 carbon substrate
    • There are 3 enzymes in PDH 
    • - pyruvate dehydrogenase, Dihydrolipoyl transacetykase and Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
  97. How is Pyruvate changed to Acetyl coA
    • Loses Co2
    • Oxidized by lipoic aicd 
    • Acetyl group is transferred to coA
  98. what are the coenzymes of PDH complex
    • 1. thamine Vitamin B1 pyrophosphate TPP : E1
    • 2. Lipoic Acid E2
    • 3. Coenzyme A E3
    • 4. FAD E3
    • NAD E3
  99. Elastin
    • nonpolar residues 
    • hyproxyproline
    • dense hydrophobiv globules 
    • rich in val pro gly
    • crossed linked ( desmosine cross-link)
    • lysly oxidase helps with cross linking
    • when it is relaxed it is compressed
  100. what do elastin fiber consists of
    Elastin consists of Elastin and Glycoprotein micrfibrils ( Fribin 1, fibrin 2 etc.
  101. Marfan syndrome
    • Mutationi n Fibrin-1 
    • elongated limbs and skeltal deformation 
    • hands and bodies are marfed
  102. Where is Elastin found
    • in the lungs
    • wall of arteries 
    • elastic ligaments
  103. How to remember the two disease spoke about in regards to Elastin
    • Elastin is all about me :
    • MARFAN and Emphysema
  104. Emphysema
    • Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a protease inhbitor 
    • preserve elastin 
    • stop elastase 
    • People with Emphysema are deficientin AAT or α1- antitrypsin   have their elastin in their lungs destroyed
  105. what is M358
    • helps protease bind to AAT so that the protease can be =in hibited
    • smoking oxidizes this enzyme
  106. What division of the PNS is the ANS
    The visceral motor divison
  107. Somatic sensory Neuron travel to the dorsal ganglia via ?
    the peripheal axon proesses
  108. How do the somatic sensory get to the spinal cord?
    via the central process of the sensory axon
  109. what are the names of the 5 plexuses in the body
    • cervial C1-C4
    • Brachial C5-T1
    • Intercostal n T1-T11
    • subcostal T12 
    • Lumbar L1 -L4
    • Sacral plexus L5-S3
  110. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficency E1
    • Since there is not PDH to crease Acetyl CoA pyruvate becomes lactate and results in lactic acidosis 
    • it is x-linked w. no treatment
  111. arsenic poisoining
    • arsenic inhibits enzymes that require lipoic acid suc as PDH, α-ketoblutarate dehydrogenase 
    • from complex with thio group on lipoic acid 
    • affect brain
  112. Part 1 of TCA
    • oxidative decarboxylation to for Co2 and 2 NADH
    • from Citrate to α-ketoglutarate
  113. PArt 2 of TCA
    • oxidative and recreated oxa,oacetate 
    • creates 1 NADH and 1 FADH2
  114. TCA products
    Can I Keep selling sec for money, officer?
  115. palpation
    adding pressure to the surface of the body to determine size, shape, health, consistency, and motility beneath
  116. TCA step 1
    • acetyl CoA + oxaloacetate =citrate 
    •  through the use of citrate synthase 
    • it is negative feedback 
    • succinyl coa 
    • NADH
  117. TCA Step 2
    • Aconitase 
    • what a con first you take out the water then you add it back 
    • Fe-S protein 
    • inhibited by fluoroacetate
  118. TCA step 3 
    • Isocitrate dehydrogenase 
    • oxidative decarboxylation 
    • first NADH 
    • release CO2
  119. what activate the step 3 rate limiting enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase ?
    • ADP and 
    • CA2+
  120. What inhibits isocitrate dehydrogenase?
    • ATP
    • NADH 
    • sufficent energyu signals
  121. Mnemonic to remeber enzymes of TCA
    • Cindy is kinky so she fuck more often 
    • Citrate 
    • Cindy And I Know Some Sexy Fucking Mothers! 
    • Citrate synthase, Aconitase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase , α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate thiokinase, Succinate dehydrogenase, Fumarase, and malate dehydrogenase
  122. TCA step 4
    • oxidative decarboxylation 
    • 2nd NADH 
    • 2nd Co2 
    • the productsuccinykt coA  contain a high energu bond
  123. what are the coenzymes of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
    thamine, lipoic acid, CoA, FAD, NAd
  124. what inhibits a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase ?
    ATP, GTP, NADH , and succinyl coA
  125. what activates a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase ?
    CA2+  from muscle contraction
  126. Step 5 TCA
    succinate thiokinase

    • produces one GTp --> ATP 
    • from the high ebergy bond of CoA 
    • substrate level phosphorylation
  127. TCa step 6
    • makes 1 FADh2 
    • part of the ETC
  128. TCA step 7
    • Fumarase 
    • adde H2o to the doubel bond of the fumarate 
    • reversible
  129. TCA Step 8
    • malate dehydrogenase 
    • produces 3rd and final NADH
  130. how many ATP are created from the TCA cycle
    • 10 
    • assuming 1NADH= 2.5 ATP
    • 1FADH2=1.5ATP
  131. TCa cycle created how many reducing equivalents?
    • 3 NADH 
    • 1FADH2
  132. After all of the metabolic process how many ATP are made>
    36 -38 from 1 molecule of glucose
  133. what are the most important enzymatic steps in TCA
    • Step 1 
    • step 3 
    • Step 4
  134. Layer of palpation
    • Skin connective tissue 
    • muscle and tendon 
    • Visceral organs 
    • BOne,ligament,and joints
  135. what is the palpate method?
    • p- postion of comfort
    • a- anatomy= study and visualize 
    • l- level of tissue
    • p- understanding the purpose behind feeling 
    • a-ascertain movement 
    • t- tweaking you feeling to see what feels better and what s better 
    • e-evaluate what has changed
  136. cartilage
    • 3 types 
    • Hyaline
    • Firbro cartilage
    • Elastic Cartilage
  137. what kind of cartilage lines synovial joints
    hyaline lines the articular surface
  138. what are the components a synovial joint ?
    • Firbous joint capsule 
    • synovial membrane 9 produces synovial fluid)
    • synovial fluid ( lubrication )
    • Hyaline cartilage ( absorbs shock)
  139. what are the types of synovial joints?
    • 7 types 
    • pivot 
    • hinge
    • ball and socket 
    • plane
    • Trochoginglymus 
    • saddle 
    • condyloid
  140. what are the action of the trochoginglymus?
    Flex, extend, and rotate the knee
  141. what type of synovial joint is in the phalanges ?
    • condyloid 
    • allows for flexion and extexion 
    • abduction and adduction 
    • circumduction
  142. what type of synovial joint is the caprometacarpal joint ?
    • saddle 
    • allow movement in two different planes
  143. pivot synovial joints
    Permit rotation like the atlas and the axis
  144. contraction
    activating muscle fibers that result in tension
  145. when muscle create movement it is referred to as ?
    isotonic -muscle length changes that create motion
  146. what are the types of istonic contractions?
    • two types :
    • Concentric and Eccentric
  147. concentric contraction
    • shortening of the muscles
    • like to concentrate is to make smaller
    • overpowering gravity
  148. eccentric
    • resisting gravity and controlling motion at a specific rate
    • gravity overpower muscle 
    • elongation of muscle s
  149. TCa intermediates are precursors to the biosynthesis pathways
    • amino acids 
    • fatty acids 
    • Prophyrins 
    • gluconeogenesis
    • bases for nucleotide synthesis
  150. anaplerotic reaction
    • Pyruvate carboxylase 
    • replensihes the intermediate of the TCA Cycle 
    • contain Acetyl coA
  151. Pyruvate carboxylase
    • other than serving as an anaplerotic 
    • it contain biotin and requires ATP and Mg2+
  152. What does Pyruvate carboxylase catayze ?
    the first step of glucneogensis
  153. what activates pyruvate carboxylase ?
    Acetyl coA
  154. anaplerotic reaction
    amino acid degradation can create fumarate, oxaloacetate , a-ketoglutarate
  155. Leigh syndromes
    • PDH deficiency
    • PC deficency
  156. BeriBeri disease & wernicke-Korsakoff
    vitamin B1 deficiency
  157. cofactor of PDH
    5 coenzymes 

    • Take Large cock and fuck Nathan
    • thamine ( vitamin B1)
    • Lipoic Acid 
    • Coenzyme A
    • FAD 
    • NAD
  158. prokaryotes vs Eurkaryotes
    • E:
    • one promoter
    • monocistronic mRNA 
    • Pro:
    • multiple genes controlled by the same promoter (e.g. lactose ; lac operon )
    • poly cistronic MRna
  159. mRna
    becomes the sequence to make proteins
  160. how are Rna and Dna related
    dna is transcripted to RNA
  161. regulatory rNA
    they turn rna on and off
  162. mature RNa
    eventually become the sequence to make proteins
  163. RNA
    they have secondary and primary structure
  164. Rna polymerase
    • copies Dna and turns it into RNA
    • it does not have any repairing function- this is the reason why they mutate so often
  165. RNA polymerase II
    most of the protein coding genes
  166. Rna Polymerase I
    ribosomal RNa
  167. RNa polymerase II
    transfer Rnas, snrna and small Rna
  168. α-amanitin
    • comes form the death cap mushroom 
    • this enzyme binds to RNA pol II 
    • can stop transcrition and replication in prokaryotes
  169. How does transciption start for eukaryotes?
    • at the promoter around -25bp
    • TATA box
  170. How does transciption start for prokaryotes?
    at the promter at -35 -10 bp region
  171. how Rna polymerase recognizes transcription start region on eurakaryotes ?
    • they have transcription factors 
    • Rna polymerase II ( Eukaryotes ) has 6 different transciption factors
    • they all bind with Rna polymerase II
  172. how Rna polymerase recognizes transcription start region on prokaryotes ?
    • Rna polymerase is made up of 4 different subunits ; the σ subunit recognizes the transcription start site
    • sigma falls off of the promoter and then Rna polymerase continues transcritption
  173. How is transcription terminationed>
    RHo dependent or rho independent
  174. Rho dependent
    a hair bin loop ( areas of base homo logy ) where rho comes and dissociates the complex
  175. Rho independent
    • more common
    • there is a  hair pin loop that is followed by a a series of u's are created and after that there are is AU and they form very weak hydrogen bonds that are not strong enough to hold
    • A and U interaction there are only two hydrogen bonds that are not strong enough to hold and destablizes the  DNA and teseult sin termination
  176. House keeping genes
    • are not regulated (e.g. RNa polymerase)
    • we need to have it on all the time because we are constantly translating  DNA
    • always turned on
  177. how are gene regulated ?
    BY activator and respressors
  178. The lac operon is a study of Gene replication how?
    • code for proteins that allow cellt o use lactose as energy 
    • LACZ
    • LacY
    • and LacA are
  179. how to repress lac operon ?
    Lac I sit on the promter so that the lactose utilizing enzymes cannot be made and when lactose is present it binds to lac I that removes it from the promoter region
  180. how do ecoli cells know to use glucose over other sugars like lactose
    • Camp can bind cap and they can bind to sugar operons on the Cap site 
    • It is necessary for Rna polymerase to bind to the promter 
    • they untangle the promoter so transcription can take place
  181. what does CAP mean
    Catabolite activator protein
  182. what controls the lac operon globally and locally
    Glucose and lactose, respectively.
  183. what happens if we mutate the promoter sequence of eukaryotes (TATA)?
    it can either weaken or strengthen it reaction with the mutation
  184. what are the Post transcritional modifications?
    • 5'capping
    • 3’-polyadenylation
    • Exonal splicing
    • Abs to snRNPs very specific to SLE
    • Abs to U1 RNP (MCTD)
  185. 5' capping
    a modified guanine residue is added and protect the rna from being degraded in the cell
  186. 3' polyadenylation
    a series of adenines that are added to the 3' end
  187. abs to snRNPs
  188. prugeria
    • a disease that result from the mutation of an exons .
    • there is a splice site made in an exon
    • results in the removal or distruption of the gene that is used to make a cyotskeltal protein
  189. what do spliceosome do?
    remove exons from introns an but them together
  190. what do antibodies to snRNps do?
    help treat mixed contention tissue disease and SLE diseases because it stop snrps
  191. sNrps
    rna molecules responsible for spliceosomes
  192. Translation
    • three main components:
    • rRNA
    • tRna
    • mRNA
  193. tRNA
    has three loops
  194. What are the ribsome protein for prokaryotes ?
    30s and 50s which make 70s
  195. when is glucagon high
    starving and fasting
  196. What are the ribsome protein for eukaryotes ?
    30s and 60s to make 80s
  197. For transcription how are Prokaryotes different?
    • holoenzyme ( 5 subunits)
    • no transcriptoon factors
    • polycitronis mrna
    • promter at -35bp t -10 bp 
    • no post transitional modification 
    • coupled transcription and translation
  198. how do mRNA's work
    • They need a start codon (AUG: methyanine) and a
    • stop codon
  199. how do we know which AUG is the start codon ?
    • before the start codon is the ribosomal binding site and they move and wait for the first aug they encounter and this is the start 
    • This rna binding site is also called the SHine-Dalgarno sequence
  200. ribosome composition
    rRNa and protein
  201. tRNA
    • has 3 loops and attached to it is the amino acid 
    • on one end there is a section called the anticodon 
    • on the other section is the amino acid
    • carries the anticodon that corresponds to the codon from the mRNA
  202. how many codon do we have and what is relevant about them?
    There are 64 and they are universal
  203. nonsense mutation
    creates a immature stop codon
  204. how many stop codons are there?
  205. E P A
    • in ribosome that they have 3 site
    • exits 
    • peptid
    • accept or site ) where a new TRNA is accepted
  206. Ribosomes
    • create peptide bond between amino acids 
    • it has the EPA sites 
    • move one codon at a time
    • there are initiation factors, elongation factor, and releae factors
  207. examples of prokaryote antibotics
    • targets protein synthesis in prokaryotic 
    • Aminoglycosides ( bind to 30 s leadin to misread mrna)
    • Tetracyclines ( bind 30s)
    • Macrolides: bind 50s 
    • chloramphenicol ( bind 50s)
  208. what is a missense mutation
    changing one condon to the other
  209. Image Upload 2

    What is shown in the bottom image ? what is special about it ?
    • pneumoccous 
    • lancet shapped diplococci
  210. what is shown in the image below : Image Upload 4
    gram negative Legionella or Klebsiella
  211. Image Upload 6
    what is in the image?
    ecoli or S. typhi
  212. what's in the image below:

    Image Upload 8
    • gonocossua 
    • gram neg. 
    • round shaped
  213. what's this: 

    Image Upload 10
    • spirochetal bacterium 
    • Treponema pallidium
  214. what is this:
    Image Upload 12
    chlamydophila  psittaci
  215. what is this: Image Upload 14
    cryptococcus neoformans
  216. what is this : 
    Image Upload 16
    histoplasma capsulatum in yeast
  217. what is this: 
    Image Upload 18
    Toxoplasma gondii
  218. Image Upload 20
  219. Image Upload 22
    • schitosomes
    • type of helminths
  220. Image Upload 24
  221. Image Upload 26
    • lyme ticks 
    • Lyme spirochetes (Borrelia )
  222. cheif complaint
    in the word of the patient and is short and sweet
  223. HPI
    more structure and detailed with demogrphics
  224. what are the OPQRST
    • Onset
    • palliation/provoking
    • Progression
    • quality
    • radiation 
    • Severity/Site
    • Timing
  225. Review of systems
    • GU urinary disturances 
    • GYn vaginal symptoms 
    • MSK joint and muscle issues
    • Neurologicl: dizziness, tremors, headaches, etc
    • endocrine 
    • Pscyh: Depressed/anxious concentration
  226. For family history
    obtain the age of the pesrons that have disease
  227. what are the 5 domains of PARS
    • establish rapport 
    • demonstrate empathy
    • instill confidence
    • use appropriate verbal communication
    • elicit clearly and effectively
  228. culture
    system of belief shared among memebers of a particular group p
  229. what does glucagon activate
    • activate PKA
    • protein kinase A
    • it adds a phosphate group on the target
    • the phosphate
  230. what is a cofactor
    • it is a necessary part of the catalysis of a reaction 
    • proteins cannot work without their cofactors
  231. how to develope consistent cultural humitilty
    • ASSES 
    • Ask Q's
    • Seek self awareness
    • Suspend judgement 
    • Express kindness and compassion
    • Support safe space
    • Start where the patient is
  232. uncouplers
    • the proton gradient is leaking out
    • meaning that you proton gradient gets disrupted 
    • proton gradient is used by complex 5. 
    • respiration increase because we are trying to restore our proton gradient
  233. malate aspartate shuttle
    • oxaloacetate is oxidized to malate via NADH when it get into the mitchodria the maladehydrogenase is reduces to oxaloacteate and the  NADH is remade 
    • in the cell asparate and a-ketoglutarate made from oxaloacetate to get out of the mitochondria 
    • no energy loss
  234. what happens when there is complex 3 inhibitor
    • Atp will decrease
    • proton gradient decreases
  235. if a co factor is an organic molecule?
    it can be called a coenzyme
  236. how do you remember the difference between transcription and translation ?
    • translation happen late in the cycle
    • DNa-> RNa->Rna
  237. Gene structure
    has promoters because they promote transcription
  238. Gene mutation
    any alteration of DNA (genetic material ); they will have little or no significant effect
  239. how are chromosomal mutations different from gene mutatiopns
    chromosomal mutations are much larger
  240. wild type  vs mutant
    wild type if the most common
  241. mutation in germ cell results in
    inherent disease
  242. mutation in somatic cell results in
    result in cancer
  243. What are the 2 types of mutations
    Induced and Spontaneous
  244. name some spontaneous mutations
    • erros in DNa polymerase
    • base tautomerization
    • Ap sites ( ROS)
    • deamination
  245. name some induced mutation
    • this is the most common:
    • chemical 
    • radiation 
    • heat 
    • - dimerization 9 two thymine residue bond)
  246. what is a Ap mutation
    • lost of a purine or pyridimine 
    • adenine or guanine  or C or t (u)
  247. Deamination
    • remove amino group like going from 
    • cytosine to a uracil
  248. Base tautomerization
    • different ensomers get switched 
    • instead of AT it would be AG  resulting in shift in
  249. what are some chemical that can cause induced mutations ?
    • alkylating agents 
    • bromouracil 
    • acridine orange 
    • cisplatin
  250. base substitution mutation
    • point  ( transitio/ transversion)
    • missense/nonsense
    • insertions/deletion, frameshift
    • inversion, translocation, and duplication
  251. what is a point mutation
    a base subsitutionm mutation 

    • two type 
    • transition ( the dna base is changed to the same base)
    • transversion ( the dna base is changed to a different one )
  252. Null/ knock out gene mutation
    • the gene no longer can make the protein 
    • the gene can no longer be transcribed
  253. Silent gene mutation
    mutation does not cause any change in the protein
  254. Pyrimidine dimers
    • pyridimine get bonded by a covalent bond
    • lethal because the polymerase can no longer copy the DNA
  255. Mismatch repair system
    • MutSHL system this sis what remove the mismatch 
    • recognizes himimethylated DNA 
    •  this is to fix and bases that were miss matched
    • it happens during G2 of the cell cycle
  256. what happen when the mutSHLy system is faulty
    this will lead to Lynch syndrome which is a type of colorectal cancer ( hereditary)
  257. Nucleotide excision repair
    • happens in G1 stage of cell cycle
    • has a more diverse range of 
    • it is resistant to UV radiation 
    • pyridimine dimer
  258. mutation in the mucleotide repair system will lead to whcih disease
    Xeroderma pigmentosum
  259. uvrABCD
    • the proteins that exist in nucletotide excision repair
    • they remove 10-12 bases total and dna polymerase fills the gap 
    • mutation result in Xeroderma pigmentosum ( high susceptible to sun )
  260. Base excision repair
    • happens throughout cell cycle 
    • repair damaged bases
    • ap sites and dss breaks
  261. homologous recombination
    • typically ds breaks 
    • seen in breast and ovarian tumars 
    • uses BRCA1/BRCA2 require for this repair.
    • use one chromosome to repair the other
  262. Non homologous end joining
    • there is a ds break and no sister chromosome to copy and help to fix the break 
    • error prone
  263. Translesional synthesis
    • during replication the DNA polymerase skips the error 
    • polymerase eta
  264. cell cycle
    • G- growth prepare for division
    • s dna synthesis 
    • G2 growth 
    • M- mitosis
  265. p53
    • tumor supressor gene
    • control G1 to S phase
  266. CDK
    check point in the cell cycle to make sure that errors are addressed and are not replicated
  267. when do oocytes get suspended and start again
    they stop mitoses at prophase I at birth  and Meiosis II does not happen until fertilization
  268. what important even happens in Prophase I
    • chiasmata formation and crossing over 
    • that way that genes can be recombinated and give rise to alot of diversity
  269. what is chromosomal non dis junction
    • when chromsomes do not split properly leading to mutation
    • in sex cells this can lead to downs syndrome
  270. cultural competemility
    cultural competency + cultural humility
  271. cultural awareness
    self examination and recognition of biases / paradoigm
  272. cultural competency
    impacts care though service delivery ; respectful and responsive to health belief practices and cultural needs
  273. cultures affect with health
    • health care seeking behavior 
    • perceived causes of illness 
    • understand of disease process 
    • treatment decisions
  274. [perceive benefits
    pt's opinion of desirable behavioral helath beliefs that need to be thought out
  275. what are the steps of the cultural proficiency continuum
    • cultural:
    • destructiveness
    • Incapability
    • Blindness
    • precompetnece
    • competence
    • proficiency
  276. philoshy
    inquiry into the nature of things
  277. precept
    general instruction for action
  278. corollary principles of OMM
    • disease= when self maintence is overcome
    • movement is fluids is essential 
    • nervous system is essential in controlling the body
    • somatic component are present and contribute to diseased state
Card Set
OMK key review points
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