Anatomical Terminology

  1. Supine
    • Laying on the back, face up or recumbent.
    • Think about saying "sup" your face is up
  2. Prone
    Face down, laying on the abdomen.
  3. Anatomical position
    • -Standing
    • -eye forward
    • -palms forward
    • -feet parallel
    • arms adjacent to side
  4. Median Plane
    • passes through he mid-line. Separating left and right.
    • It is also known as the midline
  5. Sagittal plane
    • parallel to the median plane
    • it also spit in left and right portions
  6. Frontal/Coronal Plane
    • Separates back and front; posterior from anterior
    • Passes at a right angle through the median plane
  7. Transverse Plane
    • separates superior from inferior 
    • commonly referred to as the axial plane
  8. Longitudinal section
    • cutting lengthwise from top to bottom
    • cut vertically
  9. Transverse section
    • cutting horizontally
    • cutting width wise
  10. Oblique section
    any cut that is not transverse or longitudinal
  11. Superior
    near the vertex; the top of the head
  12. Cranial
    referring to the skull or towards the top of the head
  13. Caudal
    towards the feet or coccyx region
  14. Posterior
    the back or near to the back
  15. Anterior
    • towards the front of the body.
    • this can also mean deep when you are dissecting/sectioning through the back.
  16. Rostral
    • this is used in replacement of anterior when speaking about he brain.
    • e.g. the frontal lobe is rostral to the sagittal lobe.
  17. Medial
    structures that are close to the medial plane
  18. Lateral
    • structures away from the medial plane.
    • the lateral border of the scapula versus the medial border of the scapula. 
    • also the elbow ( olecranon process)  is medial to the wrist.
  19. DorSum
    • the top part of something that sticks out
    • the superior aspect of any part of the body that protrudes anterior.
    • Things that protrude forward include:penis, tongue, nose or foot.
    • the back of the hand is dorsum and the palms re palmar
  20. Superfical, intermediate, and deep
    • this can refer to the position of a structure relative to the surface of the body or the position of a structure relative to another structure.
    • superficial toward the surface from your POV. for ex. when looking at the superficial back muscles the trapezius is superficial to the latissium dorsi, though the l.dorsi is close to the front of the body.
    • deep - farther from the surface
    • intermediate- in the middle
  21. External
    farther from the center or outside of specific viscera or cavity
  22. Internal
    • closer to the center of a viscera or cavity
    • inside a viscera or cavity 
    • This is independent of direction
  23. Proximal
    detailing a position closer to the attachment of a limb or central aspect of a linear structure
  24. distal
    detailing a position farther away from the attachment of a limb or central spect of a linear structure.
  25. Bilateral
    • paired structure existing on the right and left side of the body. 
    • e.g. kidney
  26. unilateral
    existing on one side only.e.g. spleen
  27. ipsilateral
    • existing on the same side.
    • something occuring on the same side of the body as another structure.
    • e.g. the stomach and the spleen are both viscera on the left side of the body.
  28. contralateral
    • existing on opposite sides( left vs. right) of the body. these are different viscersa
    •  the liver and the stomach or contralateral, one on the right and the other on the left, respectively. The right hand and the left are also contralateral
  29. Flexion and extension
    • happen in the transverse and sagittal plane
    • flexion is to decrease the angles between two parts or bones of the body
    • extension is to increase the angles between two parts or bones of the body .( usually going towards the posterior)
  30. Dorsiflexion
    decreasing the angle of the dorsum of the foot. lofting toes off the ground.
  31. plantarflexion
    • decreasing the angles of the plantar portion of the foot ; standing on your toes.
    • dosiflexion and plantarflexion are specific to the foot
  32. hyperextension
    extension beyond normal limit, usually results in injury.
  33. abduction
    moving away from the midline
  34. adduction
    moving closer to the medianplane
  35. Right and left lateral flexion
    • specific to the neck and trunk
    • bending the neck from side to side
  36. Circumduction
    • circular motion .
    • This can be done with the hip or shoulder. 
    • sequence of flexion abduction extension and adduction
  37. Rotation
    • turning or revolving a body part around its longitudinal axis
    • medial rotation turn or rotates the anterior surface of a limb toward the median plans
    • lateral rotation turns or rotates the anterior of a limb away from the median plane.
  38. Pronation
    Hand: rotates the radius, thumb side, toward the median plane.
  39. Pronation & Supination
    rotational movements
  40. Supination
    • anatomical postion of the arm
    • radius of forearm, thumb side is lateral
    • Palmar facing forward and the dorsum facing to dorsal/posterior.
  41. Eversion
    • Turning the sole of the feet laterally .
    • when the foot is everted it is also dorsiflexed.
  42. Inversion
    when the sole of the feet are closer to the median plane
  43. Elevation
    raise or move superiorly; e.g. shurgging
  44. Depression
    lowers or moves posteriorly.e.g. depressing shoulders
  45. Protrusion
    move forward or anteriorly
  46. Retrusion
    move backwards or posteriorly
  47. Protraction and retraction
    • moving the shoulder front and back.
    • as you move it forward it is anterolateral
    • and you move it back it is posteromedial because it is going loser to the median plance
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Anatomical Terminology
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