Anatomy Final

  1. From smallest to largest, the levels of organization of the body are
    chemical, organelle, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism.
  2. The plane that divides the body into upper and lower parts is the _____ plane
  3. The mediastinum contains all of the following except the:
    right lung.
  4. Which of the following does not describe anatomical position
    Arms extended from the shoulders, palms up
  5. A frontal section divides the body into _____ portions.
    front and back
  6. What is the anatomical direction term that means nearer the surface?
  7. A plane through the body that divides the body into right and left sides is called:
  8. Molecules are
    atoms combined to form larger chemical aggregates
  9. Two major cavities of the human body are:
  10. The number of abdominal regions is
  11. An example of a catabolic process is
  12. Approximately what percentage of the body weight of an adult female is water
  13. The octet rule refers to the
    stability of the atom when there are eight electrons in the outermost energy level
  14. The most abundant and important compound(s) in the body is(are)
  15. The approximate pH of gastric fluid is
  16. An ionic bond is formed by
    a positive and a negative ion attracting each other.
  17. Which of the following represents a trace element in the body
  18. A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus is a(n)
  19. The study of metabolism includes examination of
    • catabolism.
    •  anabolism. 
    • ATP requirements.
  20. The kind of element is determined by the number of
  21. The nucleolus is composed chiefly of
  22. A list of the cell fibers from largest to smallest would read
    microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments.
  23. ATP production occurs within which organelle
  24. Which are the organelles that allow for the recycling of amino acids in the cell?
  25. The largest human cell, measuring about 150 μm, is a:
    female sex cell or ovum.
  26. The enzyme catalase is an important chemical in the functioning of the
  27. The cell extension that contains microfilaments is called
  28. In the cell membrane, the hydrophilic part of the phospholipid molecule
    • faces the exterior of the cell
    • faces the interior of the cell.
  29. The presence of which substance in the cell membrane keeps it from breaking too easily?
  30. The strongest and most durable type of cartilage is
  31. Besides water, extracellular matrix contains
    proteins and proteoglycans.
  32. The tip of the nose and the external ear are composed of
    elastic cartilage
  33. Which of the following is not a principal type of tissue
  34. Examples of principal types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • nervous
    • connective
    • muscle
  35. Each hair follicle has a small bundle of involuntary muscles attached to it called the
    arrector pili muscle.
  36. The union of basal and fibroreticular laminae forms the
    basement membrane.
  37. Around the sixth month of pregnancy, the developing fetus is almost entirely covered by a fine soft hair coat called the
  38. The two main layers that compose the skin are the dermis and
  39. The structure that lies deep to the dermis and forms a connection between the skin and the underlying structures of the body is the
  40. Stratified squamous (keratinized) epithelial cells are found in the
  41. If you are working on an archeological dig and find the remains of a human pelvis with a subpubic angle of 110 degrees, you can assume that this pelvis belongs to a
  42. The dense, white fibrous membrane that covers bone except at joint surfaces is the
  43. Anatomically speaking, which bones compose the wrist?
  44. Anteriorly, each rib of the first seven pairs attaches to the
  45. The extracellular components of bone matrix are
    hard and calcified.
  46. Which of the following is not a bone in the skull
  47. The bone that articulates with the temporal bone in the only movable joint of the skull is the
  48. Which bone is the longest and heaviest bone in the body?
  49. Why are the last two pairs of false ribs designated as floating ribs?
    Floating ribs do not attach even indirectly to the sternum.
  50. The bone that claims the distinction of being the only bone in the body that articulates with no other bones is the
  51. Image Upload 1
  52. Which of the following is not a muscle that moves the foot?
  53. Muscles that move the foot
    • peroneus longus
    • tibialis anterior
    • soleus
  54. Another name for a skeletal muscle cell is a(n):
    muscle fiber.
  55. There are more than 600 muscles in the body
  56. Another name for a sphincter muscle is a _____ muscle
  57. The covering of individual muscle fibers is the
  58. The origin of a muscle is on the femur, and the insertion is on the tibia. When it contracts, it bends the knee. Its fibers run parallel to the body. Which of the following terms might be part of its name?
    • Rectus
    • Femoris
  59. Muscles located on the lower leg move the
  60. The latissimus dorsi muscle is an example of a _____ muscle
  61. The origin of a muscle is on the femur, and the insertion is on the tibia. When it contracts, it bends the knee. Its fibers run parallel to the body. Which of the following terms might be part of its name?
  62. Which of the following is not a muscle that moves the thigh?
  63. Nerves that contain mostly afferent fibers are called _____ nerves.
  64. functions of the central nervous system (CNS)
    • Integrating sensory information
    •  Evaluating the information
    •  Initiating an outgoing response
  65. The nervous system can be divided
    • according to its structure
    •  according to direction of information flow.
    •  by control of effectors.
  66. Neurons in the CNS have less chance of regenerating because
    • there is no neurolemma in cells of the CNS.
    • astrocytes fill in the path of regrowth.
  67. The efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system consist of the ________ nervous systems
    sympathetic and parasympathetic
  68. Which is true of a reflex arc?
    It always consists of an afferent neuron and an efferent neuron.
  69. In the human nervous system:
    there are almost equal numbers of glia cells and neurons
  70. Dendrites conduct impulses _____ cell bodies.
  71. Regeneration of nerve fibers will take place only if the cell body is intact and the fibers have
    a neurilemma.
  72. The white matter of the nervous system is made up of:
    myelinated fibers.
  73. The pyramids are formed in the:
  74. The spinal nerves are connected to the spinal cord and consist of _____ pairs.
  75. Sensory neurons can operate in autonomic reflex arcs
  76. The main divisions of the central nervous system are the:
    brain and spinal cord.
  77. Which part of the vertebral column has one more pair of nerves coming from it than it has vertebrae?
  78. The brainstem does not include the:
  79. Impulses from which system play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum?
    Reticular activating system
  80. If you were to damage some of the preganglionic fibers that enter the celiac ganglion, what effect would this have on sympathetic stimulation?
    Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla may not reach the various sympathetic effectors, thus delaying the effects of sympathetic stimulation.
  81. characteristics of sympathetic preganglionic neurons
    • they secrete acetylcholine
    • dendrites and cell bodies are found in the lateral gray columns of thoracic and the first four lumbar segments of the spinal cord
  82. The layer of the meninges that serves as the inner periosteum of the cranial bone is the
    dura mater.
  83. Image Upload 2
    The yellow area of the tongue presented above are the taste buds for
  84. Image Upload 3
    Identify the letter that indicates the transparent portion of the fibrous layer
  85. Transparent mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelid
  86. Hormone that inhibits osteoclast activity in children
  87. Gustatory cells are located
    • on the posterior wall of the pharynx. 
    • on the inner surface of the cheeks
    • on the fungiform papillae of the anterior tongue.
  88. Transparent structure of the eye containing regularly aligned collagen fibers
  89. Fluid filling the posterior segment of the eye
    vitreous humor
  90. The basilar membrane supports the
    spiral organ.
  91. Bony labyrinth structure containing the utricle and saccule
  92. describe the spiral organ of Corti
    • The "hairs" of the receptor cells are embedded in the tectorial membrane.
    • High-frequency sounds stimulate hair cells at the basal end of the basilar membrane
    • The spiral organ is part of the cochlear duct, which equals the scala media
  93. Class of hormones secreted during chronic stress that depress immune function.
  94. Endocrine gland of the thorax that is also important in immune function.
    thymus gland
  95. Image Upload 4
    Identify the letter that indicates the common carotid arteries.
  96. Starling’s law of the heart states that, within limits, the longer, or more stretched, the heart fibers are at the beginning of the contraction, the
    stronger the contraction.
  97. A decrease in the amount of white blood cells is called
  98. All of the following are granulocytes
    • neutrophils.
    •  eosinophils
    •  basophils.
  99. lymphocytes are granulocytes
  100. After blood leaves the lungs and returns to the heart, it enters the
    left atrium.
  101. Which types of arteries are also called conducting arteries and include the aorta
    elastic arteries
  102. Blood from the brachiocephalic vein drains into the
    head, neck, and upper extremity.
  103. Which sphincters function as regulatory valves that reduce the flow of blood through a network of capillaries when they contract and constrict the arterioles
    precapillary sphincters
  104. The heart valves that are located where the trunk of the pulmonary artery joins the right ventricle and where the aorta joins the left ventricle are called
    semilunar valves.
  105. Mechanical devices that permit the flow of blood in one direction only are called
  106. In _____, blood moves from veins to other veins or arteries to other arteries without passing through an intervening capillary network.
    vascular anastomoses
  107. Renal veins drain blood from the
  108. Image Upload 5
    Identify the letter that indicates inguinal lymph nodes that filter lymph from the lower limbs.
  109. Image Upload 6
    Identify the letter that indicates where lymph collected from the right arm enters the bloodstream.
  110. The movement of phagocytes from blood vessels to an inflammation site is called
  111. Which organ has several functions, including defense, hematopoiesis, red blood cell and platelet destruction, and blood reservoir?
  112. _____ refers to a phenomenon in which the genetic characteristics common to a particular kind of organism provide defense against certain pathogens.
    Species resistance
  113. The internal environment of the human body is protected by the _____, which is(are) referred to as the first line of defense.
  114. The presentation of an antigen by an antigen-presenting cell activates the T cell. The cell then divides repeatedly to form a clone of identical sensitized T cells that form
    effector T cells and memory cells.
  115. Lymphocytes that kill many types of tumor cells and cells infected by different kinds of viruses are known as
    natural killer cells.
  116. Which antibody is synthesized by immature B cells and then inserted into their plasma membranes
    immunoglobulin M
  117. The lymphatic system serves various functions in the body. The two most important functions of this system are
    fluid balance and immunity.
  118. A tumor of the lymphoid tissue is called
  119. Which of the following is a powerful poison that acts directly on any cell and quickly kills it?
  120. The largest of the paranasal sinuses is the:
  121. Which of the following is true of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx
    They serve in voice production.
  122. The more common name for the pharynx is the
  123. Which of the following is true of the cribriform plate
    It separates the nasal and cranial cavities.
  124. Which of the following is not lined with a ciliated mucous membrane?
  125. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of air as it passes through the nose into the pharynx?
    Anterior nares vestibule inferior, middle, and superior meatus posterior nares
  126. The external openings to the nasal cavities can be referred to as:
    • nostrils
    • anterior nares
    • external nares
  127. The anatomical division of the pharynx that is located behind the mouth from the soft palate above to the level of the hyoid bone below is called the:
  128. Paranasal sinuses are normally filled with:
  129. The approximate length of the trachea, or windpipe, is _____ cm
  130. Which of the following is not an anatomical part of the small intestine
  131. anatomical parts of the small intestine
    • Duodenum
    • Ileum
    • Jejunum
  132. Phagocytic cells lining liver sinusoids are called _____ cells.
  133. Which of the following organs has a mucosal layer that is composed of columnar epithelium with a brush border of microvilli to enhance absorption?
    Small intestine
  134. Approximately how much saliva do the three pairs of compound tubuloalveolar glands (parotids, submandibulars, and sublinguals) secrete each day?
    1 liter
  135. lobes of the liver
    • Right lobe
    • Left lobe
    • Caudate lobe
    • Quadrate lobe
  136. The type of tissue designed for absorption and secretion found throughout much of the GI tract is _____ epithelium.
    simple columnar
  137. The fan-shaped projection of peritoneum that connects the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the
  138. Which of the following salivary glands produces only a mucus type of saliva?
  139. Which of the following structures is anatomically the longest?
  140. Bile is secreted by
    hepatic cells.
  141. In the kidney, blood flows from the interlobular artery into the:
    afferent arteriole.
  142. Reabsorption, as performed in the kidney, may be defined as the
    movement of molecules out of the tubule and into the peritubular blood.
  143. Of all the blood pumped per minute by the heart, approximately ____ goes through the kidneys.
  144. The portion of the nephron that empties into a calyx is the:
    collecting tubule.
  145. Which hormone tends to decrease the amount of urine produced
    • ADH
    • Aldosterone
  146. Which of the following is not a part of the glomerular-capsular membrane
    Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule
  147. A drop in systemic blood pressure would cause the filtration rate to
  148. Urine is conducted from the kidney to the urinary bladder through a tube called the
  149. Which of the following is the approximate threshold level for the reabsorption of glucose
    300 mg/100 ml
  150. One difference between the male urethra and the female urethra is the male urethra is
    part of two different body systems.
  151. In the male reproductive system, the essential organs of reproduction are called
  152. Image Upload 7
    Identify the letter that indicates the ejaculatory duct.
  153. The final stage in the process of ovarian follicle development is the
    corpus albicans.
  154. The dense, white, fibrous capsule that encases each testis is called the:
    tunica albuginea.
  155. The tube connecting the ovaries to the uterus is called the
    • uterine tubes.
    • oviducts.   
    • fallopian tubes.
  156. Mechanical support and protection for developing germ cells in the testis are provided by:
    Sertoli cells.
  157. The uterus is suspended between two folds of parietal peritoneum that form a partition across the pelvic cavity. These ligaments are _____ ligaments.
  158. The efferent ductules
    drain the rete testis.
  159. The region between the vaginal orifice and the anus is called the
  160. The layer that is incomplete because it covers none of the cervix and only part of the body is called the
    parietal peritoneum.
  161. Image Upload 8
    Which letter indicates the umbilical region?
  162. Image Upload 9
    Which letter indicates the popliteal region?
  163. Image Upload 10
    Which letter indicates the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
  164. Image Upload 11
    Which letter indicates the plasma membrane?
  165. Image Upload 12
    Which letter indicates microvilli?
  166. Image Upload 13
    Which letter indicates projections from the dermis that reduce blister formation?
  167. Image Upload 14
    Which letter indicates a cellular junction that prevents molecules from passing between epithelial cells?
  168. Image Upload 15

    Which letter indicates cells that produce melanin in the hair root?
  169. Image Upload 16
    Identify the letter that indicates the Linea alba.
  170. Image Upload 17
    Identify the letter that indicates the Masseter.
  171. Image Upload 18
    Identify the letter that indicates the Orbicularis oris.
  172. Image Upload 19
    Identify the letter that indicates the Deltoid.
  173. Image Upload 20
    Identify the letter that indicates the region of a neuron with a name that means "little hill."
  174. Image Upload 21
    Identify the letter that indicates a Schwann cell.
  175. Image Upload 22
    Identify which diagram represents a cell that produces a myelin sheath in the central nervous system.
  176. Image Upload 23
    Which letter indicates the primary visual cortex, which receives information from neurons in the retina of the eye?
  177. Image Upload 24
    Which letter indicates a tactile corpuscle (Meissner's corpuscle) that is responsive to light pressure?
  178. Image Upload 25
    Which letter indicates the celiac ganglion and plexus?
  179. Image Upload 26
    Identify the letter that indicates the structure that is important in equalizing air pressure on both sides of the eardrum.
  180. Image Upload 27
    Identify the letter that indicates a gland that secretes a hormone controlling basal metabolic rate
  181. Image Upload 28
    Identify the letter that indicates a gland that secretes corticosteroids.
  182. Image Upload 29
    Identify the letter that indicates an organ that secretes hormones controlling blood sugar levels.
  183. Image Upload 30
    Identify the letter that indicates the hypophysis.
  184. Image Upload 31
    Identify the letter that indicates the formed element of the blood that is packed with molecules of hemoglobin.
  185. Image Upload 32
    Identify the letter that indicates the left common carotid artery.
  186. Image Upload 33
    Identify the letter that indicates the layer common to all blood vessels regardless of their size.
  187. Image Upload 34
    Identify the letter that indicates the fraction of leukocytes that represents lymphocytes.
  188. Image Upload 35
    Identify the letter that indicates anchor points for chordae tendineae, composed of cells from the myocardium.
  189. Image Upload 36
    Identify the letter that indicates collagen fibers that anchor lymphatic capillaries to surrounding connective tissue.
  190. Image Upload 37
    Identify the letter that indicates lymph nodes that direct lymph fluid to the jugular trunks.
  191. Image Upload 38
    Identify the letter that indicates structures that assist in filtering, heating, and humidifying inspired air.
  192. Image Upload 39
    Identify the letter that indicates Ciliated cells in this layer transport mucus laden with dust, bacteria, pollen, and viruses towards the pharynx.
  193. Image Upload 40
    Identify the letter that indicates the cartilage that has a laryngeal prominence that is also known as the "Adam's apple."
  194. Image Upload 41
    Identify the letter that indicates the cardia of the stomach.
  195. Image Upload 42
    Identify the letter that indicates the cystic duct.
  196. Image Upload 43
    Identify the letter that indicates the root canal.
  197. Image Upload 44
    Identify the letter that indicates the major calyx.
  198. Image Upload 45
    Identify the letter that indicates the vasa recta.
  199. Image Upload 46
    Identify the letter that indicates the region of the nephron with receptors sensitive to antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  200. Image Upload 47
    Identify the letter that indicates the efferent arteriole.
  201. Image Upload 48
    Identify the letter that indicates the site of sperm maturation and storage.
  202. Image Upload 49
    Identify the letter that indicates the cervix.
  203. Image Upload 50
    Identify the letter that indicates the gland that secretes lubricating mucus into the vaginal orifice.
  204. Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum are examples o
  205. The abdominal quadrants are located with what structure as their midpoint
  206. Popliteal refers to the
    area behind the knee.
  207. The lungs are located in the
    thoracic cavity.
  208. Molecules are:
    atoms combined to form larger chemical aggregates.
  209. The smallest living units of structure and function in the body are
  210. describe anatomical position
    • Head pointing forward   
    • Body standing erect
  211. Several kinds of tissues working together are termed a(n)
  212. The reproductive system includes
    • testes.   
    • ovaries.     
    • penis
  213. The abdominopelvic cavity contains
    • stomach.   
    • pancreas.   
    • reproductive organs.
  214. The formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called
    dehydration synthesis.
  215. The process of the digestion of food is an example of which type of reaction?
  216. major elements present in the human body
    • Oxygen   
    • Carbon   
    • Potassium
  217. Atomic mass is determined by the number of
    protons and neutrons.
  218. When atoms combine, they may gain, lose, or share
  219. properties of water?
    • High specific heat   
    • High heat of vaporization   
    • Strong polarity
  220. AB + CD → AD + CB is an example of a(n) _____ reaction.
  221. Which organelles consist of vesicles that have pinched off from the Golgi apparatus?
  222. The membranous structure containing substances that protect the cell from harm are
    • lysosomes.   
    • peroxisomes.
  223. Damage to the centrosome and centrioles in a cell would have the greatest impact on which cell function?
    Cell division
  224. Which organelle processes and packages material to be secreted?
    Golgi apparatus
  225. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • It is made of broad, flattened sacs.   
    • It has many ribosomes attached to it.
  226. The fluid environment that fills the spaces between the cells of the body is called
    extracellular matrix.
  227. Cells in a tissue are surrounded by or embedded in a complex extracellular material called a
  228. A lubricating substance produced by goblet cells is called
  229. The conducting unit of the nerve tissue is the
  230. The two major categories of body membranes are
    epithelial and connective.
  231. Which of the following contains intercalated disks
    cardiac muscle
  232. The skin glands include three kinds of microscopic glands. They are the __________ glands.
    sweat, sebaceous, and ceruminous
  233. primary germ layer
    • endoderm   
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
  234. example of a serous membrane
    • pleura   
    • peritoneum   
    • pericardium
  235. Which two bones join to form the posterior part of the hard palate
  236. Which of the following is a bone in the axial skeleton
  237. types of bone
    • flat   
    • irregular   
    • short   
    • long
  238. Compact bone contains many cylinder-shaped structural units called
  239. The joint between the pubic portions of each coxal bone is the
    pubic symphysis.
  240. the appendicular skeleton includes
    • tarsals 
    • femur   
    • clavicle
  241. Image Upload 51
    Which letter indicates the supraorbital foramen?
  242. muscles that move the upper arm
    • Pectoralis major   
    • Latissimus dorsi   
    • Deltoid
  243. the trapezius moves the upper arm
  244. Muscles that move the upper arm originate on the
    clavicle and scapula.
  245. Which of the following muscles has fibers on a transverse plane
    Transverse abdominis
  246. group of pennate muscles
    • bipennate
    • multipennate
  247. Skeletal muscles constitute approximately ____ of our body weight
  248. Which of the following body systems assists the muscles in maintaining posture?
    • Digestive 
    • Endocrine   
    • Excretory
  249. The soleus muscle is an example of a _____ muscle
  250. Which of the following is the deepest connective tissue layer of a nerve?
  251. Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord consists primarily of:
    cell bodies.
  252. Nerves that contain mostly afferent fibers are called _____ nerves
  253. Regeneration of nerve fibers will take place only if the cell body is intact and the fibers have
    a neurilemma.
  254. The nervous system is organized to do which of the following?
    • Detect changes in the external environment.   
    • Detect changes in the internal environment.   
    • Evaluate changes in the environment.
  255. Which of the following compounds cannot cross the blood-brain barrier
  256. The autonomic nervous system does not stimulate
    skeletal muscles.
  257. A neuron that transmits a nerve impulse toward the central nervous system is called a(n):
    sensory neuron.
  258. The areas specializing in language functions are found in the left cerebral hemisphere in
    about 90% of the population.
  259. Beta receptors
    bind norepinephrine.
  260. The part(s) of the cerebrum associated with anger, fear, and sorrow is (are) the:
    limbic system.
  261. The cranial nerve that arises from the spinal cord is the:
  262. The nerve commonly called the vagus nerve is the _____ cranial
  263. Effectors that have single innervation by the autonomic nervous system are innervated only by the parasympathetic division.
  264. Nerve fibers of the spinothalamic tract are
  265. The lumbar plexus gives rise to the _____ nerve
  266. All of the following cranial nerves have a functional classification of motor except
  267. Which of the following cranial nerves is responsible for movements of the tongue?
  268. Image Upload 52
    Identify the letter that indicates the middle ear ossicle that is known as the stirrup
  269. Endolymph-filled structure containing receptors for hearing
    cochlear duct
  270. Transparent structure of the eye containing regularly aligned collagen fibers
  271. Receptors for hearing are located in the
    cochlear duct.
  272. Endolymph is made
    in the stria vascularis.
  273. Gel-like structure embedded with the tips of cochlear hair cells.
    tectorial membrane
  274. The hypophyseal portal veins are primarily located in the
  275. Image Upload 53
    Identify the letter that indicates the location of the bundle branches.
  276. Image Upload 54
    Identify the letter that indicates the vessel that arises from the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins
  277. The free edges of the atrioventricular valves are anchored to the
    papillary muscles.
  278. Which division of the autonomic nervous system sends fibers to the heart?
    • sympathetic   
    • parasympathetic
  279. The heart has its own special covering, a loose-fitting inextensible sac called the
  280. Which layer of the larger blood vessels is made up of endothelium?
    tunica intima
  281. During fetal circulation, what opening in the septum, between the right and left atria, directs most of the blood so that it bypasses the fetal lungs?
    foramen ovale
  282. The normal cardiac impulse that initiates mechanical contraction of the heart arises in the
    SA node.
  283. The normal ECG is composed of
    • P wave. 
    • QRS complex.   
    • T wave.
  284. Image Upload 55
    Identify the letter that indicates where most nutrient and waste exchange occurs between the tissue and bloo
  285. Molecules formed by the reactions of the complement cascade assemble themselves on the enemy cell’s surface, which results in
  286. The functions of the lymph nodes are
    defense and hematopoiesis
  287. Bean-shaped structures located at certain intervals along the lymphatic system are
    lymph nodes.
  288. Activities that result in central movement or flow of lymph are called
    lymphokinetic activities.
  289. Which protein interferes with the ability of viruses to cause disease?
  290. Because T cells attack pathogens more directly, T-cell immune mechanisms are classified as _____ immunity.
  291. The _____ postulates that when an antigen enters the body, it selects the clone whose cells are committed to synthesizing its specific antibody and stimulates these cells to proliferate and to thereby produce more antibodies.
    clonal selection theory
  292. The body’s defense mechanisms can be organized into one of two major categories of immune mechanisms; these are
    innate and adaptive immunity.
  293. In the right lung, the superior and middle lobes are separated by the:
    horizontal fissure.
  294. Which of the following is not lined with a ciliated mucous membrane?
  295. lined with a ciliated mucous membrane
    • Posterior nares 
    • Trachea   
    • Primary bronchi
  296. The small, leaf-shaped cartilage behind the tongue and hyoid bone is the
  297. Gas exchange, the lungs’ main and vital function, takes place in the:
  298. Which of the following is not a function of the pharynx?
    Determines the quality of the voice
  299. function of the pharynx
    • Aids in forming vowel sounds  
    • Provides pathway for food  
    • Provides pathway for air
  300. The small openings in the cribriform plate function to
    allow branches of the olfactory nerve to enter the cranial cavity and reach the brain.
  301. The function of the vibrissae in the vestibule is to
    provide an initial “filter” to screen particulate matter from air that is entering the system.
  302. The function of surfactant is to:
    prevent each alveolus from collapsing as air moves in and out during respiration.
  303. Raising the ribs decreases the depth and width of the thorax.
  304. The proper anatomical order for the divisions of the colon is
    ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid.
  305. accessory organs of the digestive system
    • tongue.    
    • liver.   
    • pancreas.
  306. The right angle between the transverse colon and the ascending colon is the:
    hepatic flexure.
  307. Which of the following organs has a mucosa layer composed of stratified squamous epithelium that resists abrasion?
  308. The numerous small elevations on the surface of the tongue that support taste buds are called:
  309. The substance that forms the outer covering of the neck and root of a tooth is:
  310. An incision into the wall of the GI tract would cut, in order, from superficial to deep
    serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa.
  311. The substance most often measured to determine normal kidney function is:
  312. Approximately how much blood flows through the kidneys per minute?
    1200 ml
  313. ADH has the greatest effect on the reabsorption of water in the:
    distal tubule.
  314. part of the glomerular-capsular membrane
    • Visceral layer of the glomerular capsule   
    • Glomerular endothelium  
    • Basement membrane
  315. The normal osmotic pressure of the capsular filtrate is _____ mm Hg.
  316. There are how many openings in the urinary bladder?
  317. The shape of the kidney could best be described as _____-shaped.
  318. Which of the following is not true concerning the uterus?
    It produces estrogen.
  319. Image Upload 56
    Identify the letter that indicates the region of the uterus known as the fundus.
  320. Image Upload 57

    Identify the letter that indicates the female erectile tissue that is homologous to the penis.
  321. supporting structures of the male reproductive system
    • Penis   
    • Scrotum Correct Answer    
    • Pair of spermatic cords
  322. Which of the following is not a supporting structure of the male reproductive system?
  323. The fundus of the uterus is the:
    area above where the tubes enter
  324. effects of testosterone
    • Promotes excretion of potassium by kidneys   
    • Promotes anabolism of proteins
    • Promotes growth of skeletal muscles
  325. Which of the following is not an effect of testosterone?
    Promotes lengthening of long bones
  326. A surgeon removing a gallbladder should know to find it in the _____ region.
    right hypochondriac
  327. An organization of many similar cells that are specialized to perform a certain function is called a(n):
  328. characteristics of life
    • Conductivity   
    • Circulation   
    • Reproduction 
    • Digestion
  329. Balance is a characteristic of life. T/F?
  330. An organ is one organizational level higher than a(n)
  331. The reproductive system includes the ureter. T/F?
  332. The mediastinum contains
    • esophagus. 
    • trachea.   
    • venae cavae.
  333. Zinc is one of the major elements present in the human body. T/F?
  334. Which of the following bonds are the weakest
  335. The atomic number of carbon is 6. How many unpaired electrons are in its outer shell
  336. Characteristics of ribosomes
    • Contain protein   
    • Composed of a large unit and a small unit  
    • No outer membrane structure   
    • Contain RNA
  337. The identification function of the cell membrane is carried out by the
    glycoprotein molecules.
  338. Skin cells (epithelial) are held tightly together by
  339. Which of the following organelles is considered a nonmembranous organelle?
  340. Which cell extension lacks a central pair of microtubules, is not found in blood cells, and functions in the kidney to monitor urine flow
    Primary cilium
  341. Which of the following contains osteocytes?
  342. Which type of tissue has cube-shaped cells and can be found lining the kidney tubules?
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  343. Which principal type of tissue covers and protects body surfaces and lines body cavities?
  344. The dermis is composed of two layers, a thin papillary layer and a thick _____ layer
  345. Which of the following tissues lacks a direct blood supply and consequently heals very slowly?
  346. All glands in the body can be classified as either
    exocrine or endocrine.
  347. Which structures are unique to the fetal skull and provide additional space for molding the head shape as the baby passes through the birth canal?
  348. Of the five metacarpal bones that form the framework of the hand, the _____ metacarpal forms the most freely movable joint with the carpal bones.
  349. The medial part of the anterior chest wall is supported by a dagger-shaped bone called the
  350. Which of these pelvic bones is the most anteriorly placed?
  351. _____ fibers are present in all three types of cartilage, but they are most numerous in fibrocartilage.
  352. The main shaft-like portion of a long bone is the
  353. Image Upload 58
    Which letter indicates a pad of a fibrocartilage known as the pubic symphysis?
  354. A muscle is attached to the femur and tibia. Its function or action is to bend the knee. When it contracts, it is acting as the
    prime mover.
  355. The covering of individual muscle fibers is the:
  356. The teres major and teres minor muscles move the:
  357. about insertion and origin
    • The origin of the muscle is attached to the bone that does not move.   
    • The insertion of the muscle is attached to the bone that moves.   
    • When the muscle contracts, the insertion moves toward the origin.
  358. Parts of the rotator cuff muscles
    • infraspinatus.   
    • supraspinatus.  
    • teres minor.
  359. The origin of a muscle is on the femur, and the insertion is on the tibia. When it contracts, it bends the knee. Which of the following is true
    The knee is acting as a fulcrum.
  360. Biceps femoris is a muscle of the quadriceps femoris group. T/F?
  361. Fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called the
  362. Neurons in the CNS have less chance of regenerating because microglia lay down scar tissue. T/F?
  363. Along a neuron, the correct pathway for impulse conduction is:
    dendrite, cell body, and axon.
  364. The afferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system:
    carry feedback information to integrating centers in the brain.
  365. A neuron that transmits a nerve impulse toward the central nervous system is called a(n):
    sensory neuron
  366. Some parasympathetic postganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in nuclei in the brainstem.
  367. Some parasympathetic postganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in nuclei in the brainstem.T/F
  368. Thoracic is a plexus of the spinal nerves.T/F
  369. Which part of the brain releases the hormone melatonin?
    Pineal gland
  370. The autonomic nervous system includes only efferent neurons. T/F
  371. There are _____ ventricles in the brain
  372. All cell bodies of the autonomic nervous system are located within the CNS. T/F
  373. Which plexus contains nerves that innervate the lower part of the shoulder and the entire arm
  374. Pyramid-shaped gland consisting of neural crest-derived cells and endocrine secretory cells
    adrenal gland
  375. Pancreatic cell type that produces insulin.
    beta cells
  376. Largest purely endocrine gland in the body
    thyroid gland
  377. Which of the following endocrine glands develops primarily from the endoderm of the pharynx?
    thyroid and parathyroids
  378. Image Upload 59
    Identify the letter that indicates the blood vessel layer that is comprised of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle.
  379. Which two factors promote the return of venous blood to the heart?
    blood-pumping action of respirations and skeletal muscle contractions
  380. A glycoprotein hormone that is secreted to increase oxygen concentration in the tissues is
  381. Erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in red bone marrow from nucleated cells known as:
    hematopoietic stem cells.
  382. During pregnancy, what happens to the oxygenated blood returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein
    It flows into the inferior vena cava.
  383. A plane through the body that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is
  384. An x-ray technician has been asked to make x-ray films of the liver. Which of the abdominopelvic regions must be included?
    Right hypochondriac, epigastric, and left hypochondriac
  385. Image Upload 60
    regions and quadrants
  386. The type of reaction in which substances are combined to form more complex substances is called a(n) _____ reaction
  387. Functions of the integral membrane proteins
    • Acting as receptors 
    • Signal transduction   
    • Identification of “self”
  388. The ____ is often called the microtubule organizing center
  389. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids and carbohydrates. T/F?
  390. Projections from the cell that move materials and mucus are called
  391. Tiny indentations of the plasma membrane that resemble caves are called
  392. Describe structure or function of the proteasome
    • Breaking down abnormal and misfolded proteins released from the ER   
    • Looks like a hollow cylindrical drum made of protein subunits   
    • Requires the small protein called ubiquitin to pull proteins in
  393. A specialized cell structure that propels the sperm is the
  394. The structure in cells that is associated with the enzymatic breakdown (digestion) of foreign material is the
  395. Granules or threads within the nucleus are called:
  396. Which of the following recognize and destroy nonself cells?
    Immune cells
  397. Which cell fiber serves as part of our “cellular muscles?”
  398. Rafts are stiff groupings of membrane molecules. What is their function?
    • Help organize the various components of the plasma membrane   
    • Play an important role in the pinching of a parent cell into two daughter cells   
    • Sometimes allow the cell to form depressions that form a means of carrying substances into the cell
  399. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum provides a site for ribosome attachment.T/F
  400. The mixed secretions of sebaceous and ceruminous glands form a brown waxy substance called the
  401. Which of the following is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?
    stratum corneum
  402. The epidermis is composed of several types of epithelial cells. One type, called keratinocytes, become filled with a tough, fibrous protein called
  403. Epiderm is a primary germ layer. T/F?
  404. The connective tissue membranes that line the spaces between bones and joints are called _____ membranes.
  405. Adipose tissue is
    a storage tissue.
  406. Of the many different kinds of protein compounds in the body, which is the most abundant?
  407. Types of connective tissue
    • blood   
    • adipose   
    • cartilage
  408. Which bone serves as the keystone in the architecture of the cranium?
  409. The vertebral bones that support the small (lower section) of the back are the
    lumbar vertebrae.
  410. The largest sesamoid bone in the body is the
  411. Bone marrow is a specialized type of soft, diffuse connective tissue called
    myeloid tissue
  412. Which lower leg bone is smaller and is located laterally
  413. appendicular skeleton
    Image Upload 61
  414. axial skeleton
    Image Upload 62
  415. The muscle(s) assisting in rotating the arm outward is (are) the
    teres minor.
  416. Pectoralis minor is a posterior muscle that acts on the shoulder girdle. T/F?
  417. When the diaphragm contracts, it decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity and expels air from the lungs. T/F?
  418. Muscles that contract at the same time as the prime mover are called
    • synergists.   
    • fixators.
  419. Groups of skeletal muscle fibers are bound together by a connective tissue envelope called the
  420. The flexor muscles that move the fingers are mostly located on the
    anterior medial surface of the forearm.
  421. Moving from superficial to deep, the connective tissue components would be
    epimysium, perimysium, endomysium.
  422. The most common type of lever in the body is a _____-class lever
  423. The muscle that flexes the semipronated or semisupinated forearm is the
  424. The posterior arm muscle that extends the forearm is the
    triceps brachii.
  425. In pushing (pressing) a weight from shoulder height to above the head, which of the following muscles is least utilized?
    Biceps brachii
Card Set
Anatomy Final
Final Practice