The Skin and Superficial Fascia of the Back + Superficial muscles of the back

  1. Trapezius
    • innervated by the spinal accessory nerve C11
    • the most superficial of the back muscles
    • movement : elevates, depresses and retracts the shoulder  

     occiptal, dorsal scapular, and transverse cervical arteries

    Image Upload 1
  2. Transversospinalis
    • made up of the multifidus and the semispinalis
    • innervated by the posterior rami of the spinal nerves
    • artery :vertebral artery
    • movement:laterally flexes and extends the vertebral column
  3. Deep muscles of the back
    • splenius: cervicis and capitis
    • erector spinae: longissium, iliocostal and spinalis
    • transversespinalis: multifidus and semispinalis
  4. superfocial muscles of the back
    • trapezius
    • rhomboid minor and major
    • latissium dorsi
    • levator scapulae
  5. Image Upload 2 Rhomboid major
    • innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve
    • located at the medial border of the scapula above the spine.
    • movement: rotates and retracts medially
  6. Levator scapulaeImage Upload 3
    • Origin: Transverse process of C1-C2 and posterior tubercle of transervse processes of C3-C4
    • Insertion: Superior angle of the scapula, medial border of the scapula to the spine of the scapla
    • innervation:anterior rami of c3 and c4 and dorsal scapular nerve c5
    • artery: occiptal artery., deep cervical artery and vertebral artery
    • movement: elevates and rotates the scapula
  7. Deltoid m.
    • Image Upload 4
    • originates on the scromion, spine of scapula, and lateral 1/3 of clavicle, the acromion, and the spine of the scapula.
    • Insert: deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
    • movement: abduct, flexes and extends arm
    • innveration:Axillary nerve C5-C6
    • Arterial Supply:Acromial and Deltoid branches of the thoracoacromial artery, anterior and posterior circumflex of the humerus arteries, subscapular arteries, and deltoid branch oft he deep brachial arteries 
    • has three parts: clavical,acromial, and scapular
  8. Erector Spinae
    • aka sacrospinalis
    • innervated: later branches of the posterior rami of the thoraic and lumbar nerves
    • Image Upload 5 Found in the intermediate layer of the back muscles 
    • moves head,neck, and trunk
    • Group of three vertically oriented muscles (medial to lateral:
    • -spinalis
    • -longissium
    • -ilicostalis
    •  The strenghten the vertebral column
  9. Infraspinatus
    • Origin: infraspinous fossa of the scapula
    • insert: Greater tubercle of the humerus 
    • innervation: suprascapular nerve C5-C6
    • arter supply:circumflex scapular artery, and suprscapular artery
    • movement: rotates laterally the arm ( humerus)
  10. What are the four rotator cuffs
    • S.I.T.S
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
    • subscapularis
  11. Image Upload 6 rhomboid major
    • origin : spinous processes of T2-T5
    • innervation:dorsal scapular nerve
    • movement:retracts and rotates the scapula
    • artery: dorsal scapular artery
  12. Image Upload 7 Latissium Dorsi
    • origins:
    • spinous process of T7&-T12
    • spinous process of L1-L5 
    • thoracocolumbar fascia
    • illiac crest
    • ribs 9-12
    • Insertion: floor of intertubular sulcus of the humerus
    • innervation:thoracodorsal nerve(c6-c8)
    • arterial supply: thoracodorsal artery,dorsal branches of 9th and 11th posterior intercostal, subcostal, and 1st to 3rd lumbar arteries
    • movement:extends, adducts, and medically rotates arm
  13. Triceps brachii
    • located posterior of the arm; posterior surface of the humerus. It  has 3 head: medial long and lateral.
    • origin: posterior surface of the humerus, infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula.
    • inserts" olecranon process of ulnaand adjacen antibrachial fascia.
    • innervation: radial nerve C6-C8
    • Arterial supply: Deep brachial artery, superior ulna collateral artery, and posterior circumflex artery
    • movement: adducts and extends the armImage Upload 8
  14. denticulate ligament
    • 21 pairs of ligaments located on the lateral aspect of the spinal cord. They run from the foramen magnum to T12.
    • they have fibrous triangular extensions that strechesfrom the pia mater to the arachnoid ma and dura mater between the spinal nerve roots.
    • Help suspend the spine in the center of the subarachnoid space.
  15. Dural Sac
    • formed by the spinal dura mater 
    • It runs from the foramen magnum rostrally to the S2 vertebras caudally.
    • The dural mater adheres to the surrounding bone rostrally at c1-c2 . past c2 it no longer adheres to the bone
    • after s2 it collapses and with the filum terminale runs down the posterior coccyx as the cocygeal ligament.
  16. cauda equina
    The collection of nerves at the end of the spinal cord. It resembles a horses tail hence equina. start at L2 because this is where the spinal cord ends.
  17. conus meduallaris
    the tapering end of the spinal cord as it terminates into the cauda equina. occurs before L1 and L2
  18. Filum terminale internum
    • a modification of the pia mater. it extends downward from the conus medullaris and has two part internal and external. It give longtitudinal support of the spinal cord
    • posses a bluish-whitish color.
  19. Filum terminale externum
    ending/posterior of the filum that fuses with the dura mater to connest to the doral coccyx
  20. Lumbar enlargement
    • a widened area of the spinal cord that gives attachments to the nerves that supply the lower limbs.
    • Usually happens btwn T11 & L2
  21. cervical enlargement
    • widened are of the spinal cord in the cervical area that gives attachment to the nerves that supply the upper limb
    • usually occurs around C5 -T1
  22. How many vertebrae does the vertebral column have?
    • 33
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 4 coccygeal
  23. What innervates the skin of the back, the subcutaneous, and the deep muscles of the back?
    dorsal akak posterior primary ramii.
  24. What are the names for the dorsal posterior rami
    The refer to the corresponding vertebrae except C1 and C2 the suboccipital and occiptial nerve and the cluneal nerve of the gluteal region.
  25. WHat is special about C7
    • It is the last vertebra in the cervical region 
    • it is the most prominent in the cervical region 
    • typically not bifid
  26. Acromion process
    the most lateral superior portion of the scapula
  27. thoracic vertebrae and its unique features
    • Body
    • Spinous process ( point inferiorly)
    • ransverse costal facet, superior costal facet, and inferior costal facet
    • Transverse process
    • Superior and inferior articular facets(vertical) 
    • Lamina
    • Intervertebral foramen
    • Vertebral foramen.
    • Distinguishing features

    Distinguishing features of the thoracic vertebrae include the presence of facets on the sides of the bodies for articulation with the heads of the ribs, and facets on the transverse processes of all, except the 11th and 12th vertebrae, for articulation with the tubercles of the ribs.

    In addition, the spinous processes are relatively more pointed than other vertebrae, and angle sharply downward.

    The body of a thoracic vertebra is somewhat “heart-shaped,” and is larger than the cervical but smaller than the lumbar vertebrae in size.

    The body also has small, smooth, and somewhat concave costal facets for the attachment of the ribs. Ribs are generally inserted between two vertebrae, such that each vertebra contributes to articulating with half of the articular surface.

    Each vertebra therefore has a pair of superior articular facets that face posteriorly and a pair of inferior articulating facets that face anteriorly (except for T12). This means that the rib will articulate with the inferior costal facet of the upper vertebrae and the superior costal facet of the lower vertebrae. 

    Transverse processes arise from the arch found behind he superior articular processes and pedicles, and are thick and strong with a clubbed end and a small concave surface for the articulation with the tubercle of a rib. These processes are directed obliquely backward towards the spinous process and lateralward.
  28. Pedicle
    short bony process that arches posteriorly from the vertebral body bilaterally.
  29. Intervertebral foramen
    formed by the IV disc, the superior and inferior vertebral notch.
  30. Transverse process
    • has the transverse costal facet
    • it is sticking out to the left anf right side of the vertebrae.
  31. cervical vertebrae
    • 7 of them with the last being the most prominent
    • they have smaller spinous processed 
    • smaller verbebral body
    • larger vertebral foramen
    • transverse foramen is only found here . hole in the transverse process
    • superior and inferior articulate process is oriented more horizontally( alowing ofr flexion and extension as well as rotation.
  32. lumbar vertebrae
    • large body
    • broad spinous processes that project posteriorly 
    • no transverse costal facet for rib attachment
    • superior and inferior articulate process are oriented more sagitally
  33. Sacrum
    • fusion of 5 vertebrae
    • does not have transverse processes
    • has sacral median crest on the posterior side, which is its form of spinous process.
    • has anterior and superior sacral foramina
  34. anterior and posterior sacral formina
    allows for the passage of the anterior and posterior rami of sacral spinal nerves to exit the vertebral canal since the sacrum articulates with the later surface of the lilia and hip bone
  35. what is the other name for C7 at the base of the neck?
    the vertebra prominens
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The Skin and Superficial Fascia of the Back + Superficial muscles of the back
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