Innervation of the diaphragm is by the ________ and _________ nerves.
The external intercostal muscles are engaged during _________.
The internal intercostal muscles are engaged during _________.
When a patient has "stiff lungs" with limited expansion, the patient has ________ lung compliance.
Normal PO2 levels for 1room air, 2alveoli, 3arteries, 4venous blood.
- room air 159.0
- alveoli 100.0
- arteries 95.0
- venous blood 40.0
Normal PCO2 levels for 1room air, 2alveoli, 3arteries, 4venous blood.
- room air 0.2
- alveoli 40.0
- arteries 40.0
- venous blood 46.0
List conditions that interfere with diffusion of gases.
emphysema, pulmonary edema, interstitial edema, alveolar fibrosis, atelectasis, pneumonia
Things to know about surfactant...
- reduces surface tension
- improves lung compliance
- decreases energy used to keep lungs inflated
- keeps lungs from collapsing
Normal adult PaO2 ________
Mild Hypoxia _______
Moderate hypoxia ____
Severe Hypoxia ____
Normal range for adult arterial pH
7.35 - 7.45
The primary stimulus for breathing is _________.
Which of the following adrenergic receptors is responsible for dilating the airways?
Beta 2 receptors
Normal V/Q (ventilation to perfusion) ratio is ________.