1. What started ww1
    The assassination of duke frank Ferdinand in 1914 by G. Princip— apart of the young Bosnian (terrorist society) and black hand (secret Serbian society)
  2. After franz Ferdinand...
    Since he was heir to Austrian throne, Austrians (now supported by Germany) declare war on Serbians (black hand was Serbian secret society). No international conference held to solve issue.
  3. Battle of the Marne (1914)
    Germany tried to invade France after Ferdinand assassination. Germans retreated. French and British invade Gallipoli after (1915). Trench warfare.
  4. Why did the US enter WW1
    German submarine sinks British Lusitania carrying American passengers. Congress voted to declare war
  5. What ideas and changes were brought by World War One
    Women’s suffrage, labor unions, Lenin and Wilson- self-determination.
  6. New tech and tactics in World War One
    Airplanes, tanks, gas, submarines, trench warfare
  7. Paris peace conference
    Held to ensure world war wouldn’t happen again. Representatives were Woodrow Wilson- US, Lloyd-George- Britain, Clemenceau- France.
  8. Effect of ww1 on Germany
    Germany defeated. At Versailles they agreed to a peace treaty— lost colonies and territory, disarmed, and had to pay reparations
  9. Caused of Russian revolution
    Military defeats, shitty economy and infrastructure, lack of bread (resulted in strikes and protests in St. Petersburg where officials would fire on crowds)
  10. What empires begun to collapse after World War One
    Turkey, Austria-Hungary, Russia
  11. Events in feb/March of Russian revolution
    • Tsar Nicholas brought down from power,
    • Soviet workers and solider deputies promise to defend people- grant civil liberties, promised constitution, and wanted to continue war,
    • Were led by socialists- favored land reform, Mensheviks (marxists) wanted democratic revolution, Bolshiveks (marxist-Leninists) wanted seizure of power
  12. Vladimir Lenin
    • Founded World communist movement (bolshiveks) in March revolutions,
    • Used unhappiness of citizens to seize power and bring socialism (tactical flexibility),
    • Wanted another revolution to end war, peasants to seize land, and solve food problem, all power to soviets and workers control
  13. Events in October/November of Russian revolution
    Provisional government was eliminated and bolsheviks (later renamed communists) dominated
  14. Brest-Litovsk peace treaty
    Between bolsheviks and Central powers, ended Russia’s participation in war, Russia has to give up a lot of land.
  15. Who were central powers
    Germany, Australia-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
  16. Russian civil war and aftermath
    • Red vs whites, red (communists won), gained former western Russian territories.
    • Russia renamed USSR (union of soviet socialist republic), administrative federalism, comprised of Russia Ukraine Uzbekistan and Georgia
  17. USSR
    • One party state (communists) - small percent of population,
    • led by central committee (Politburo),
    • Leaders of Politburo were Stalin 1928-53, Brezhnev, Gorbachev ‘85-‘91...
    • Secret police was Cheka (KGB),
    • Marx-Leninist ideology supported a true world command economy
  18. New economic policy (NEP)
    • five year state controlled senate economic plan under Stalin...
    • Rapid industrialization, collectivization of agriculture - peasants to give up land and join large farms (bc it was “more efficient”), kulaks (successful peasants) arrested —-
    • Led to huge famine (5 million deaths) and the great terror- 1 mil shot, several mil to gulags (labor camps)
  19. After the great terror, who lead major Russian positions
    Non Russians like poles and germans
  20. Fascism example
    Mussolini in Italy, extreme nationalism, anti democratic and anti communist, aggressive foreign policy, parliament was called black shirts
  21. Hitler
    Nazi party. Mein kampf- racial view of history, anti Jews, Slavic people inferior... took over as chancellor after Weimar republic and the Great Depression in 1933.
  22. Enabling act
    • Hitlers response to the Great Depression, allowed for total dictator-like control for next 4 years.
    • Other parties eliminated, anti Jewish measures, Rearmament (violated Versailles treaty) with state spending on military and a draft
  23. Axis powers that were annexed after hitler named chancellor
    Rome-Berlin axis, Japan, Austria, Czechoslovakia
  24. World war 2 events in 1939 (after annexing several new axis powers)
    Britain signs treaty, Molotov-Ribbentrop pact says Russia and Germany can’t attack each other, Germany attacks Poland (owned by Russia), Britain and France declare war.
  25. Battle of Britain
    Hitler tries to invade Britain with air campaign, britain successfully stops German, first major allied victory and crucial turning point in war.
  26. Operation Barbarossa
    One year after Battle of Britain, hitler tries to invade the USSR. Was good for allies because now Germany had to fight a two front war, unwinnable
  27. Why couldn’t Germany beat Russia during OB
    Spread themselves too thin and were unequipped to survive Russian winters, also went too far and ran out of fuel— weakened German morale
  28. Germany in North Africa
    Germans had North African territories and in operation torch led by Dwight d Eisenhower, US and Britain worked together to successfully invade.
  29. D day
    American tricked Germans into thinking attack was coming from Calais but instead it was an all out attack on hitlers nazi empire in Normandy, France. The turning point of the war.
  30. VE Day
    Victory in Europe day... Russians cross German border and meet US in Germany, army surrounds Berlin, hitler commits suicide. Germany surrenders
  31. Cold War
    Afraid of communist influence in America, America allows no communists in and aids countries fighting communism. Gorbachev loosens stance against America and they reach detente
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