Anthro. Test 1

  1. First contact is...
    Initial encounters between peoples of different societies.
  2. Two major goals of anthropology...
    To understand uniqueness and diversity of human behavior and societies, and to discover the fundamental similarities that connect humans throughout the world in past and present
  3. Anthropology studies humankind as a bridge between...
    Natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities
  4. Four sub fields of anthropology
    Biological anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and cultural anthropology
  5. What are the two major areas of research in biological anthropology?
    Human evolution and modern human variation.
  6. Where can evidence of human origins be found?
  7. What is paleontology?
    The study of human evolution through analysis of fossils
  8. How does biological anthropology study human evolution?
    Through paleontology and primatology
  9. What is primatology
    The study of primates
  10. How is variation studied in biological anthropology
    Human osteology- the study of human skeletal structure
  11. ______ is an increasingly important area of research in Bio. Anth. regarding WHY human populations vary.
  12. What is archaeology?
    The branch that examines material traces of past societies to inform us about their culture.
  13. What are artifacts to archaeologists and how are they obtained?
    Material products of former societies that provide clues to the past. Archaeologists often sort through ancient trash piles (MIDDENS)
  14. What are middens and how can they help archaeologists
    They are aincent trash piles that can discover how past societies are their meals, what tools they used, and what beliefs gave meaning to their lives.
  15. Prehistoric archaeologists...
    Investigate artifacts of past societies whose history is mostly told by archaeological record.
  16. Historical archaeologists...
    Work with historians on investigating the more recent past. (Slaves)
  17. Classical archaeologists...
    Study and conduct research on ancient civilizations like Egypt, Greece, and rome
  18. What is ethnoarchaeology?
    The study of artifacts and material record of modern people’s to understand the artifacts use and symbolic meaning. (Ex. Garbology)
  19. Linguistics is...
    The study of language that has a history of dovetailing with philosophy.
  20. What does linguistic anthropology focus on
    The relationship between language and culture, how language is used within society, and how the brain acquires and uses it.
  21. Two wide ranging areas of research in linguistic anthropology are
    Structural linguistics and historical linguistics
  22. Structural linguistics explores...
    How language works by comparing grammatical patterns or other linguistic elements to learn how languages mirror or differ from one another.
  23. Sociolinguistics is a speciality in which
    The connections between language and social behavior are examined in different cultures.
  24. A sociolinguistic would research...
    How language is used to define social groups and in how belonging to a particular group leads to specialized kinds of language use
  25. Historical linguistics concentrates on...
    The comparison and classification of different languages to discern historical links among them
  26. Cultural anthropology is..
    The sub field that examines contemporary societies and cultures throughout the world.
  27. What research strategy do cultural anthropologists like to use?
    Participant observation- learning the language and culture of a group being studied by participating in their daily activities
  28. The specific research goal of a cultural anthropologist is...
    To collect ethnographic data in a systematic manner
  29. Explain an ethnography.
    A description of society reporting environmental setting, economic patterns, social organization, political system, and religious rituals and beliefs based on ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA
  30. Ethnology refers to...
    Anthropologists who study cross culture aspects of various ethnographic studies
  31. Applied anthropology is..
    5th subfield. Use of anthropological data from other subfield to address modern issues.
  32. How is anthropology holistic?
    Many different variables are investigated, ranging from biological actors like genetics to material artifacts, language, and culture to provide a (whole)istic view of humankind
  33. How is anthropology interdisciplinary?
    Inherently, it connects with other fields of research like biology, psychology, economics, history, poly-sci, and sociology as well as art and humanities
  34. Enthohistory is..
    Subfield that overlaps with history, studying the history of particular ethnic groups.
  35. How does anthropology have a global perspective?
    Through its studies of humanity everywhere throughout the world, both past and present
  36. What is the major goal of anthropological research?
    To determine the similarity and differences of humans in the past and present
  37. What is ethnocentrism and how is it avoided?
    Judging another society by the values and standards of ones own. The scientific method
Card Set
Anthro. Test 1