A. Feedback (giving feedback)
1. Giving and receiving information about expectations; includes info on how to meet expectations
2. Give early and often; can be formal or informal
3. Reduces misunderstandings and provides clarity
B. Assistance (offering assistance)
1. Making sure workers have what they need to work to their fullest potential; helping workers better manage their lives outside of work so they can be mentally and physically present on the job
2. It requires managers to reach out to workers in a proactive way and find what assistance they need to do their jobs.
3. Managers can encourage workers to assist one another
C. Inclusion (assuring inclusions)
1. Making sure everyone has the opportunity to fully participate in the workplace
2. Responding to the needs of all workers so they feel valued and part of the team
3. Make sure work activities do not exclude or disadvantage anyone
D. Respect (giving respect)
1. Recognizing each person’s unique value, contributions, and potential to the organization
2. Develop and show general respect by establishing work environments that are free of offensive practices and conditions.
AF Core Missions- Air and Space Superiority
Freedom from attack and the freedom to attack
AF Core Mission- ISR
Eyes and ears on adversaries
AF Core Mission - Rapid Global Mobility
Delivery on demand
AF Core Mission- Global Strike
Any target, Any time
AF Core Mission- Command and Control
FOCUS - Communication Concept (AFH 33-337)
1. Focused- address the issue, the whole issue and nothing but the issue
a) Failure to focus
(1) Answering the wrong question
(2) Answering only part of the question
(3) Adding irrelevant information
2. Organized- systematically present your information and ideas
a) Material is present in a logical, systematic way
3. Clear- communicate with clarity and make each word count
a) People are quick to judge your credibility through your mastery of language to convey ideas
4. Understanding- understand your audience and its expectations
a) Understand the audience- their current knowledge, views, and level of interest in the topic
5. Supported- use logic and support to make your point
a) Use support and logic to enhance your effectiveness
b) Support and logic build credibility and trust with our audience.
Barriers and Defense Mechanisms
b) Other people
2. Internal (Real or perceived)
3. Response to barriers
a) Changing goals or behaviors
b) Try the same behavior with more effort
c) Use Coping behaviors
4. Coping Methods
a) Become obsessed with need and ignore everything else
b) Adjustment/ defense mechanism- usually not aware you are using them
(3) Repression- unconciously push ideas out of awareness
(4) Suppression- conciously push ideas out of awareness
c) If they become too severe they can interfere with your ability to deal with reality
a) Connection between behavior and consequences
b) Reward- give a reward or remove a punishment
c) Discipline- take away a good thing or give a punishment
a) Imitate what you see others do
b) Common in children
Type of Motivation- Expectancy
1. Action will lead to a certain outcome
a) Offering a reward after a goal is completed
b) Expectancy- activity will have given outcome
c) Instrumentality- outcome will yield other outcomes
d) Valence- those outcomes are valued
Type of Motivation- Equity
Your reward is comparable to your effort
a) You put more effort into a project than someone else, so you expect to get a better grade.
b) Motivation will decrease if a person believes they worked harder but got the same reward as someone not working hard.
Hindrances to Critical Thinking- Basic Human Limits
A. Basic Human Limits
1. FB social experiment: set up cameras at the Phone store, workers and cops were actors except for customers, the goal is to replace memories; there is a staged robbery, the actors say false facts to the police to attempt to make the real person change their memory.
2. Our understanding of facts, perceptions, memories, built-in biases, etc., preclude us from ever seeing or understanding the world with total objectivity and clarity
Hindrances to Critical Thinking- Use of Language
B. Use of Language
1. Common sense isn’t common; can cause people who don’t understand to shut down if they think “oh, it’s common sense, I’ll understand it later”
2. Choice of words can conceal the truth, mislead, confuse, or deceive us; recognize when words are not intended to communicate ideas or feelings, but instead to control thought and behavior.
Hindrances to Critical Thinking- Faulty Logic/ Perception
C. Faulty Logic/ Perception
1. Numbers can be misleading, and perceptions can be misinterpreted due to psychological and sociological influences
2. Barnham effect
Hindrances to Critical Thinking- Psychological/ Sociological Pitfalls
D. Psychological/ Sociological Pitfalls
1. Reasoning can be twisted to gain influence and power.
Characteristics of critical thinking
1. Willing to investigate viewpoints different from your own
2. Taking in other’s new ideas.
B. Healthy skepticism
1. Recognize when to doubt claims that do not merit such investigation
C. Intellectual humility
1. Adhering tentatively to recently acquired opinions; be prepared to examine new evidence and arguments even if such examination leads one to discover flaws in one’s own cherished beliefs.
2. Sometimes “I don’t know” can be the wisest position to take on an issue; admit when you don’t know the answer.
3. Socrates: “Arrogance does not befit the critical thinker”
D. Free thinking
1. Restrain one’s desire to believe because of social pressures to conform
2. Be willing to ask if conformity is motivating one’s belief or opinion, and if so have the strength and courage to at least temporarily abandon your position until he or she can complete a more objective and thorough evaluation.
3. Making your own new opinions
E. High motivation
1. Have the natural curiosity to further one’s understanding; put in necessary work sufficient to evaluate the multiple sides of issues.
2. A critical thinker can’t be lazy.
1. Characteristics relevant to who we are and cannot be voluntarily altered (think of it as things you, as a supervisor, can’t change about someone)
d) Sexual affiliation/Orientation
e) Mental and physical abilities/Qualities
1. Characteristics that can be changed
a) Work ethic
c) Marital status
e) Religious and philosophical beliefs
g) Educational background
h) Language abilities
Ability to recognize and respond to the needs of various groups within an organization to improve working relationships, productivity, customer satisfaction, and unit and mission effectiveness.
Be supportive of diversity; genuinely internalize the essence of diversity and seek ways to incorporate diversity in our behaviors, daily routines, and operations.
An organization that embraces all aspects of diversity have 5 characteristics:
1. Act proactively- know the value of diversity and the importance of tapping into it; integrate diversity into everyday thinking and action
a) Reactive organizations only deal with diversity when they have to for temporary results.
2. Leadership driven- top-down management endorses and actively champions the organization’s diversity initiatives.
a) In bottom-up organizations, isolated individuals and groups see the need for diversity initiatives but struggle for solid support form the top
3. Encourage ownership of initiatives: everyone is committed to carrying out their role in valuing diversity.
a) People in passive complacent organizations do only what they must to stay out of trouble.
4. Think inclusively- everyone is considered a valuable member of the organization; all have a responsibility to give to and receive from the effects and benefits of diversity; must recognize the neglected interests and needs of all groups that exist within our organizations; make everyone’ needs and concerns part of mainstream diversity effort.
a) Competition tends to pit one socially different group against another with the intentions of only satisfying one group’s personal interests.
5. Mainstream diversity- make diversity part of every effort, process, and procedure.
a) In fragmented organizations, diversity may be embraced in one department but neglected in others
Socio Behavioral Tendencies (SBTs)
Thought processes we employ to help us make sense of the world we live in; influenced by our beliefs and values; define who we are, how we act, respond to situations, and treat others; can negatively affect diversity.
Assumptions- when you take the liberty of declaring something about a situation, item, or someone else that is not supported by fact.
Stereotypes- fixed or distorted generalization about ALL members
Social Biases- one unfairly favors or prefers one person, culture, group, or race to another; usually the effects of our upbringing, values, pre-existing beliefs, and interests; makes it impossible for us to be impartial.
○Adversely affect organizational processes (i.e. hiring, decision-making, and basic social interactions)
Perceptions- what we observe and the experience becomes our reality until we are convinced or proven otherwise
○Assumptions, prejudices, social biases contribute to perceptions
○To change your perception you need a different viewpoint or perspective; usually results in discrimination.
Perspectives- view on things based on our position on particular subjects, issues, and matters that relate or are important to us; how we view a situation or the world around us from a particular angle.
○Also known as opinions or personal views.
Collusion- when people cooperate with others, knowingly or unknowingly, to reinforce the behaviors that prevent others from fully entering into the workplace culture
○Silence- neither supporting or defending the right to inclusion of a certain person or group
○Denial- ignoring the existence of problems
○Active participation- assisting others to reinforce exclusion
Prejudices- “the creation of an adverse or unreasonable opinion about a person or group without gathering all the facts and is usually based on deeply held beliefs.”
○Most develop early in life; influenced by acquaintances or attachments to specific groups such as family
○Prejudice vs. stereotypes
■Stereotypes can be positive or negative and may include only a general opinion about all members of the group- ignores individual differences.
Discrimination- visible act or consideration to act in favor of or against a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs to rather than on individual merit or value.
○When prejudice is acted on it usually results in discrimination.
Core Values- Service Before Self
Professional duties take precedence over personal desires
Duty- obligation to perform what is required for the mission; sometimes have to make sacrifices no other profession has to or will.
Loyalty- internal commitment to the success and preservation of something bigger than ourselves, ordered as country, Air Force, and unit
Respect- requires us to treat each other with dignity and value them as individuals; all Airmen possess fundamental worth as human beings.
Core Values- Excellence in All We do
Directs us to develop a sustained passion for the continuous improvement and innovation that propels the Air Force and ourselves beyond the capabilities of our adversaries.
Mission- operations, product, and resource excellence; must accomplish duties correctly while practicing fiscal responsibility.
Discipline- individual commitment to upholding the highest standards of personal and professional conduct; demonstrate with attitude, work ethic, and continuous improvement.
Teamwork- required at every level to complete the mission; must recognize the interdependency of each Airmen’s contribution toward the mission and strive for organizational excellence.
Core Values- Integrity First
Character trait and the willingness to do what is right even when no one is looking; moral compass and the inner voice of self-control.
Courage- doing the right thing despite fear and empowers us to make ourselves better
Honesty- Our words must be unquestionable so we preserve the trust that unites us through common goal and purpose
Accountability- instills our responsibility while maintaining transparency and ownership for our actions
Personal Values- Ethics
The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation
1. It can refer broadly to moral principles; often seen applied concerned to a specific action.
2. The class had a debate over the ethics of testing.
3. Ethical goal guides in decision making (AFH-1, 225)
Of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior.
1. Morals concern values of what is right and wrong
2. Go against morals to cheat on test
Reasons for ethical dilemma
Competing Values- personal values conflict with those of our institution, subordinates, peer or supervisors (AFH-1, 225)
a)Maintain high professional standards despite conflicting values (AFH-1, 226)
Uncertainty- the result of not having all the facts pertaining to the situation, having no experience dealing with the situation, or not having a clearly established policy, procedure, or rule for deciding how to choose. (AFH-1, 225)
Potential Harm- intentional and unintentional consequences caused by your actions (AFH-1, 226)
○Think through second and third-order consequences of your actions. (AFH-1, 226)
Verbal Communication techniques
1. Speak Effectively
a) Quality- overall impression a voice makes on others
b) Intelligibility- understandability
(3) Vocalized pause
(4) Overuse of stock expressions
(5) Substandard grammar
c) Variety- the spice of speaking; vary delivery style (avoid monotony)
(1) Speaking rate (100-180/ minute)
Non-Verbal Quirks (from AFH 33-337)
1. Life raft- grab the podium
2. Awkward hands
3. Hand washer- wringing hands
4. Caged tiger- pacing without stopping
5. Rocker- standing still but rocking either side to side or back and forth
6. Pocket maniac
7. Pen clickers
8. Gadgeteers- play with something in their hands
9. Too Cool- overcompensate for fear of speaking by looking tough
Hearing vs Listening
A. Hearing- ears pick up sound waves transmitted by a speaker or other source; it requires a source of a sound and an ear capable of perceiving it; it doesn’t require conscious decoding of information.
B. Listening- involves making sense out of what is transmitted; involves attending to and considering what is heard
Types of Listening
1. Informative Listening- listen to collect information from others
2. Critical listening- listen to judge/ evaluate a situation and make decisions
a) Investigating a mishap
b) Nominations for an award
c) Deciding on disciplinary actions
3. Empathic listening- listen to understand and help others in situations where emotions are involved, and the speaker is important
a) Worried about a deployment
b) Advice on whether to reenlist
c) A teenager doesn’t want to move after high school
HEAR- for empathic listening
(1) Heart- commit, avoid manipulation
(2) Emotions- focus on the speaker’s emotions
(3) Avoid – no advice or autobiographies, don’t interrupt
(4) Reflect- meaning and feeling; paraphrase
a) Physical barrier- bad connection, too far away
b) Personal barrier- fatigue, illness, discomfort
c) Semantic barriers- misunderstand intention
Types of speeches
Persuade- used when you are trying to sell your audience a new idea; most persuasive requires convincing evidence
Inspire- use of profound insight to inspire
Direct- used to pass information describing actions you expect to be carried out by your audience
Inform- pass information to the audience
Elements of Thought
1. Purpose- doing things with a specific goal in mind
2. Point of View- how we see things, look at ideas, each other, and the world
3. Question at issues- a specific question so you know where you’re going; simple to understand, but can be complicated to answer
4. Information- hard facts that give us clues to what’s happening
5. Interpretations and inferences- inference from a specific point of view/ conclusion we come to by analyzing information (inductive reasoning), data-based assumption
6. Concepts- abstract ideas that help us organize the world
7. Assumptions- what we accept without proof, but believe to be true; shape Point of View
8. Implications and consequences- what we think of next because of the interpretations and inferences we have come to/ what happens when we act on interpretations or inferences.
How we assess the quality of our thinking
1. Clarity- how easy thinking is to follow; force the thinking to be explained well so it is easy to understand
2. Accuracy- make sure information is correct and free form error; thinking is reliable
3. Precision- demand that words and data used are exact; no more detail should be able to be added.
4. Relevance- everything included is important; each part makes a difference; focus on what needs to be said
5. Depth- make the argument thorough; argument should include all the nuances necessary to make the point
6. Breadth- take additional viewpoints into account. Consider all perspectives; discuss all sides of an argument
7. Logical- argument is reasonable, thinking is consistent and conclusions follow from evidence; makes sense step by step
8. Significance- include the most important ideas; don’t leave out crucial facts that help make the point; everything essential is included
1. Intellectual Humility- consciousness of the limits of one’s knowledge; acknowledge biases and limits of knowledge
a) Dunning-Kruger effect
2. Intellectual Courage- face and fairly address ideas, beliefs, or viewpoints toward which we have strong negative emotions and to which we have not given a serious hearing
3. Intellectual Empathy- willingness to consider other’s perspectives to accurately reconstruct their viewpoint.
4. Intellectual Autonomy- willingness to have independent thoughts; independently think through questions and problems.
5. Intellectual Integrity- hold self to the same rigorous standards of evidence and proof that you hold your antagonists too.
6. Intellectual Perseverance- continue to struggle with uncertainty and confusion to reach new insight.
7. Faith in Reason- rely on critical thinking and trust it’s results; confidence in the process
8. Fairmindedness- treating all viewpoints fairly.
Airmanship- Warrior Ethos
A. Warrior Ethos
1. Courage- get started
a) Physical- going into a burning building
b) Mental- doing what’s right when its not popular
2. Hardiness- push through
3. Resiliency- bounce back
Airmanship- Profession of Arms
1. Family- support each other
2. Tough Decisions
3. Promote from within
Airmanship- Oath of Enlistment
Dedication to Oath of Enlistment
Progressive Professionalism (Psquared)
A. Scale from left to right (less effective to more effective)
B. Strive to get people more to the right
C. Getting people to be motivated about their job in the military
Leadership vs Management
Leadership vs Management
A. Leadership is like art
B. Management is a process
A. Develop your followers because they are the leaders of tomorrow
Personal and Professional Development
A. “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” – Nelson Mandela
B. Types of Development
1. Personal Development
a) Helps with work motivation
2. Professional Development
A. Counseling vs. Feedback
1. Counseling is a one way street
B. NCOs can’t punish, we can only discipline (punitive action only)
C. AF Form 174- Record of Individual Counseling
1.Can record Commentee’s reaction/ attitude and actions during counseling
D. LOC format- Tongue and Quill
E. ASOM- Achievable, Specific, Observable, Measurable
1. The first word begins with “ed” or “ly” followed by “ed”
G. AF 1206- award paperwork
Progressive Discipline process
National Defense Strategy
A. Know Defense Objectives
B. Building a more lethal force with less people
Group vs. Team
1. Group- an assemblage of persons or objects located or gathered together.
a) All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams
2. Teams- collective effort toward a shared goal
3. How to change a group to a team
a) No perfect way
b) Time outside of work
c) Team building exercises
A person who manages the team; supervisor or manager in the project area; practice active listening and participate in discussions; learn to control the urge to over-direct the team
1. Calling and facilitating meetings, assigning administrative details, and organizing all team activity
2. Learn to let go; don’t micromanage
- Be open to new ideas and feedback; have 3 responsibilities
- Communication skills- communicate accurate information to other members and leader
2. Human relation skills- ability to relate to and get along with other members
3. Participation skills- input sought by the group dictates much of a team member’s participation; leader needs participation from all members to operate at full capacity; synergy creates increased problem solving capability
An ongoing process involving the interaction of individuals within a team to achieve the desired objectives
1. Ongoing process- visualize never-ending, dynamic
2. Interaction of individuals- interpersonal relationships
3. Achievement of the desired objective- a collective effort to reach the desired objective; the real reason for the team’s existence.
Stages of Team development
1. Forming- members cautiously explore boundaries of acceptable group behavior; stage of transition from individual to member status; testing the leader’s guidance both formally and informally.
a) Everyone is on best behavior
b) Conflict is usually absent
2. Storming- team members want to know the goals and objectives; realize the task is different or more difficult than they imagined; productivity towards the argument and not towards the mission
a) The most difficult stage for a team
3. Norming- members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities; attitude change; accept the team, ground rules, and their roles in the team
a) Emotional conflict is reduced
b) Productivity is high
4. Performing- the team has settled its individual relationships and expectations; a sense of high morale, team loyalty, and trust.
a) Members begin to diagnose and solve problems, brainstorming, and choosing and implementing changes; creativity is high
5. Adjourning/ Transforming
a) With short term teams- adjourning, usually planned
b) Transforming- the team continues to exist, moving from one objective to the next
Preferred Team Member Roles (Z-Process)
Types of communication- pros and cons of each
6. FB messenger
Types of Leadership
a) 4 I’s
Right to Lead
1. Title 10 of Constitution- right to apprehend
2. Obligations and requirements- service commitments, oath of enlistment, code of conduct, good of the AF
3. Competence- what you are capable of doing
4. Character- need to be someone worth following
5. Personality- personable, approachable
a) Environmental- build bridges, represent organization
b) People- making a positive difference in lives of followers
7. Trust- respect, confidence, and commitment
3 C’s of Trust
a) Mentally, physically, and emotionally able to perform tasks required
a) Self, others, and organization
b) Need bond among employees
c) Care about the organization’s mission
a) Motivate and demonstrate caring
b) Using training for competency
1. Long term goal; a driving force that drives someone; strong desire to be someone
2. Help your airman achieve their aspirations; use it for motivation
3. Pay attention to individual aspirations
1. Behavioral tendencies, thoughts, and emotions
2. Different personalities
a) Introvert vs extrovert
b) Type A vs Type B
c) Happy vs anxious
1. What you think you would do or what about yourself
2. Social self-concept- what you think others say about you
3. Self Ideal- how you would like people to see you
Self-Efficacy vs Locus of Control
1. Self-efficacy- confidence in completing a task
2. Locus of control- relates to whether people feel the outcome of a behavior is because of their actions or out of their control; a person’s perception of their fate
a) External and internal
WSA- heavily secured areas, inside the perimeter of a base, commonly referred to as igloos.
Deterrence Theory- state of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968- Multi-national treaty with objectives that focus on non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Nuclear Weapons State- Has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive devices prior to 1 January 1967.
Non-proliferation- Material, personnel, and procedures that contribute to the safety, security, reliability, and control of nuclear weapons. Preventing the further spread and/or transfer of nuclear weapons and weapon technologies.
Inter-related factors of deterrence- Consists of the people, organizations, processes, procedures, infrastructure, and systems that are used to conduct, execute and support Nuclear Deterrence Operations.
Personnel reliability program- Ensures only those persons whose behavior demonstrates integrity, reliability, trustworthiness, allegiance, and loyalty to the US shall be allowed to perform duties associated with nuclear weapons.
ISR- An activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation, and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations. This is an integrated intelligence and operations function.
AF Nuclear Enterprise- Capability x Credibility x Communication
Two Person Theory- The presence at all times of at least two persons, each certified under PRP, a knowledgeable task performed, familiar with safety and security requirements, capable of detecting an incorrect act or improper procedure.
Prime Nuclear Airlift Force- Peacetime support of logistical airlift; specially trained C-130 and C17 aircrews and support personnel.
Nuclear Command, Control, and Communication- Is the exercise of authority and direction by the President, as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Armed Forces, through established command lines, over nuclear weapon operations by military forces; as Chief Executive overall government activities that support those operations; and as Head of State over required multinational actions that support those operations.
Missile Silo- Underground, vertical cylindrical container; physically hardened and protected by a large “blast door” on top.
Launch Control Center- Deep underground structure of reinforced concrete and steel in a blast and pressure-protected hardened capsule.
3 Cs of Deterrence (for nuclear enterprise)
Capability- the ability to influence behavior
Credibility- maintaining the level of believability that proposed actions will be employed
Communication- transmitting the intended message to the desired audience.
Surety (from Nuclear Enterprise)
Safety- proper storage and usage
Security- shoot first ask questions later
Reliability- works when you hit the button
Accountability (for nuclear enterprise)
The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or instruction on an officer or other person for keeping an accurate, reliable, and audible record of property, documents, or funds.”
Attitudes vs Values
Can change attitude about other people
Can’t change another person’s or your own values
Three A’s- related to building trust