In conflict theory the _____ describes the initial environment. The status quo.
The ____ is the push-back/reaction to those who disagree with status quo.
ex) Blacks have no rights in 60s would be ___ and what MLK did gathering people to fight back and march is the ____.
_____ believed language structure and traits are universal across all human language. Genetics.
____ relies on background knowledge and expectations to influence what is perceived. Prior knowledge, starts in your brain. ex- If its a pen, you seen many, look if twist off, clickable, etc. Theory/ knowledge/ context driven.
____ See something for the first time, new artifact, nothing to compare, observe it, gather data to look at color, shape, inscription on sides, material its made from. No pre-existing mental representation and use the artifact itself to guide perception. Data driven. Starts with hands.
____ the tendency to give non-human objects, human characteristics. This occurs during preoperational (age 2-7) piaget stage.
_____ hypothesis is that language determines thought.
During ovulation the ____ release estrogen which causes the ____ to release ____ causing ____ to release ____
Ovaries release estrogen which causes the hypothalamus to release GnRh which causes the a. pituitary to release LH.
The ventromedial hypothalamus maintains homeostasis daily by monitoring satiety by the presence of _______
Insulin- which is released at satiety bcuz there will be high amounts of sugar in the blood needed to be brought down.
Leptin is more about long-term satiety and doesn't play a huge role in hunger/satiety on daily basis whereas Insulin is responsible for satiety felt after eating a meal.
short term / working memory
long term memory
short term / working memory- prefrontal lobe
long term memory- hippocampus
_____ study design expose participants to all experimental conditions
_____ study design expose participants each to only one experimental condition.
within group- each person subject to all conditions
between group- each participant subject to ONLY one condition of experiment
light from the left visual field hits the ____ side of the left eye then ____ side of the right eye to be interpreted by the right hemisphere
light from the left visual field hits the NASAL side of the left eye then temporal side of the right eye to be interpreted by the right hemisphere
The parvo pathway is important for spatial resolution and the magno pathway important for temporal resolution
The parvo pathway is responsible for encoding ____ and ____
magno pathway encodes _____
parvo - color / form (fine details)
magno - motion (rapidly changing components of object)
The ___ is part of the visual system in the brain and plays a role in high level visual processing and recognition so damage to this could effect ability to recognize a familiar face based off facial recognition alone (prosagnosia).
____ helps delineate social relationships and interactions. Helps identify community ties and key members or "key nodes" (individuals who exert stronger influence) and "nodes" (individuals within the group).
Crucial to understanding attitudes and behavior
Social network analysis
Which theory explains deviance in this manner?
societies socialize members into desiring shared cultural goals but many are unable to achieve this in a socially acceptable way and deviants give up on the goals and use disapproved means to attain.
societal functions include affirming norms, promoting social change, and social unity.
65+ erikson- integrity vs despair
If one isn't successful in this stage they will have regret, bitterness, and anger and won't feel fulfilled. What virtue will one have if they're successful?
match the virtue associated with each erikson stage
trust vs mistrust - 0-1
autonomy vs shame and doubt- 1-3
initiative vs guilt- 3-5
industry vs inferiority- 6-12
ego identity vs role confusion- 12-18
intimacy vs isolation- 18-40
generativity vs stagnation- 40-65
ego integrity vs despair - 65+
- trust vs mistrust - 0-1 - hope
- autonomy vs shame and doubt- 1-3- will
- initiative vs guilt- 3-5- purpose
- industry vs inferiority- 6-12- competence
- ego identity vs role confusion- 12-18- fidelity
- intimacy vs isolation- 18-40- love
- generativity vs stagnation- 40-65- care
- ego integrity vs despair - 65+- wisdom
_____ are long stereocilia
stereocilia are connected together by _____
kinocilium - long sterocilia
stereocilia connected by tip link
Cochlear implants external parts ____ and ____
internal parts ____ _____ and _____
speech processor (contains microphone) and transmitting coil
receiving coil, stimulator, and electrode array
Hair cell conduction:
Mechanical stimulation of stereocilia open ____ channels so ___ can rush (endolymph rich in them) in and cause depolarization and then voltage gated ___ channels allow ___ to come in and synaptic vesicles secrete ___ to bind to auditory nerve.
high internal or external control would help increase self esteem, self efficacy and decrease depression and pessimism?
High internal locus of control
break down maslows needs into psychological, self fulfillment, and basic needs
one of the needs has two terms, whats the two terms?
basic: physiological (food , water, sex, warmth, rest) and safety (secure from war/disease, etc)
- love/belonging (family, affection, relationships),
- esteem (respect and confidence, accomplishments)
self fulfillment: self actualization (achieving full potential)
love/ belonging- family, affection, relationships
______ schizophrenia: lack of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or disorganized or catatonic behaviors. However they are experiencing at least two of those symptoms to a lesser extent but definitely have negative symptoms
______ schizophrenia: dramatic withdrawal from the world and muteness, can be rigid, maintain unusual posture or extreme movements and echolalia (mimic words) or echopraxia (mimic movement)
_____ schizophrenia: delusions of persecution and grandiosity hallucinations and mostly positive symptoms but without or very little of disorganized speech, flat affect, catatonic, disorganized behavior.
____ schizophrenia: is characterized by predominantly disorganized symptoms. All of the following must be present to fit the criteria for this subtype:
Disorganized speech (e.g., word salad, incoherence, perseverance)
Disorganized behavior (e.g., difficulty starting or finishing a task, difficulty acting appropriately in social situations)
Flat or inappropriate affect (e.g., poor eye contact, lack of facial expressions)
what technique/device used for schizophrenia:
decreased prefrontal brain function:
increase d2 dopamine receptors:
decreased temporal lobe gray matter:
decreased prefrontal brain function: fMRI / PET Scan
increase d2 dopamine receptors: PET Scan
decreased temporal lobe gray matter: MRI
____ method: statistically or mathematically based.
____ method: those based on narrative or words.
which theory is based on modeling?
social learning/ observational/ social cognitive theory
systematic desensitization - associative learning goes with which theory?
behaviorist (classical conditioning)
_____ which stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.
thorndikes law of effect
agents of socialization become part of the _____ the social self but must be approved by the ____, the spontaneous, creative, independent self
_____ is a systematic attempt at problem solving in which every single possible combo is attempted in order to come to a solution. Guarantee you'll come to solution.
core nations lead the global market through export of ______
periphery nations are taken advantage of and rely on exportation of ____ to core nations
resources (oil, coffee, labor)
short term memory: ____ seconds and 7 +/- 2 items
long-term memory: explicit/ implicit
Is the fear response and startle reflex of a conditioned stimulus like a shock implicit or explicit memory?
______ memory of experience or event
short term- 20 seconds
implicit- emotion (fear) and reflex, which are both of which are not consciously recalled, just like skills and tasks done many times.
explicit / episodic memory
Based off _______ social institutions have manifest and latent (unintended) functions like how industrialization caused increase in "masculine" and "feminine" socially labeled jobs and shifts in gender expectations.
_____ theory is that population grows exponentially but resources limited and preventive checks voluntarily decrease birth rate and positive checks involuntarily increase death rate.
malthusian theory of population growth
Flashbulb memory (explicit) is a vivid, detailed, autobiographical event of something emotional, personal, distinct, or important.
- High confidence in memory
- Vivid details of emotions
- Vivid details of things not really important and details of what you were doing. (Me in 5th grade classroom with Mrs Hudson)
Are they accurate?
Flashbulb memories are not accurate or consistent over time.
Partial reinforcement schedules (fixed, variable, ratio, interval) are the best way to MAINTAIN already learned behaviors.
What are the three ways of making an animal learn and new behavior?
which is the best of the 3?
continuous reinforcement, shaping (reward after each approximations to correct behavior) , increase motivational state (by depriving of reward like food)
best is continuous reinforcement
_____ TENDENCY to rely heavily on strategies that have worked in the past, which can impede problem solving.
Psychoanalytic theorist and feminist psychologist ______ developed one of the best-known theories of neurosis. She believed that neurosis resulted from basic anxiety caused by interpersonal relationships. She also critiqued Freud penis envy.
birth and death rates high (population low)
then death rate drops and pop increase rapidly
then birth rates drop - population increase slower
then both death and birth low - population stable
population increase the entire time then levels off toward end
stage 2 demographic transition
death rate drops - population increase
_____ visual component of sensory memory (1/2 a second)
_____ visual component of working memory (20 or so seconds)
_____ auditory component of sensory memory (3-4 seconds)
____ auditory component of working memory
WHICH part of retina are cones found and where?
center of retina in macula densa/ fovea
____ disease classification system
_____ cultural practice that results from the blending of two cultures
_______ these healthcare systems have one entity and the healthcare providers are private but the government collects payments from the patients and pays the medical bills. All citizens pay premiums to this government or insurance provider.
_____ patient pay medical costs directly to the healthcare provider.
____ government not involved in the health insurance or delivery.
single payer plan
direct fees model
____ government controls both insurance/payments and delivery. Doctors and hospitals are government employees and government owned facilities in this system.
which theorist is associated with social exchange theory?
_____ continuously thinking about or replaying the events in ones mind of situation that is upsetting. Maintains negative emotions and could lead to depression.
example- someone was broken up with and they decide to listen to sad songs involving failed relationships
(coping would be doing something that is actively trying to get rid of the stressor or feelings, like getting a new boyfriend)
R-squared (R2) is a statistical measure that represents the proportion of the variance for a dependent variable that's explained by an independent variable or variables in a regression model
Hans eysneck - PEN (Psychotic, extraversion, neuroticism)
anxious would be what kind of score?
non-conforming or stubborn?
anxious = high score on neuroticism
withdrawn = low score on extraversion
social = high score on extraversion
stubborn/non-conforming = high score on psychoticism
____ probability that the null is true (null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference, the differences were random)
____ correlation coeff that shows how related two variables are
____ difference between observed sample statistic and its hypothesized population parameter
r^2 = variance
erving goffman studied stigma on mental illness
____ how you save face in embarrassing situations
which is more stable, triad, or dyad? why?
which is more intense, triad or dyad?
triad bcuz if relationship between two members strained the other can act as mediator.
stability increases with size in social groups
dyad more intense, not sharing attention
_____ ethnic or racial slurs
people dont want to speak up_____
people protect group by preventing or discouraging beliefs contrary to group _____
____ group fails to look at warnings, double check or reconsider
____ group cant be wrong
illusion of invulnerability
what are the three most commonly abused psychoactive drugs in the united states?
alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine
hindbrain - medulla, pons, cerebellum
forebrain- cerebral cortex, thalamus
someones ability to discriminate between two stimuli would increase or decrease as the difference between stimuli increases?
increase, becoming more accurate
trend of women making up more of the poor in US as increases in number of women heading household
feminization of poverty theory
_____ requires that the researcher directly participate in the phenomenon being studied
_____ persistent fear of place or situation not readily able to escape from
randomization of groups ensures ______
baseline equivalency and that groups aren't too different
stages of change model applied to smoking
unware of smoking issue _____
aware but not ready to stop _____
making a active plan to stop _____
actually applying plan and stopping ____
how many years of depression for diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder aka dysthymia for
child - 1 year
adult - 2 years
occurs when positive stereotypes of a group cause increased performance
stereotype boost, stereotype lift
____ this type of deviance doesn't have long term consequences and doesn't get the person labeled as deviant
___ this type of deviance occurs after someone has been labeled deviant and goes on to commit deviant act some more after internalizing label.
what is this?
The central route to persuasion consists of thoughtful consideration of the arguments (ideas, content) of the message.
The peripheral route occurs when one may be uninterested in the claims and uses superficial factors like popularity of celebrity or beauty to influence their persuasion
elaborative likelihood model
_____ collection of individuals who share a common location but not a group (all ppl in restaurant at 6:00 am)
whats more stable a dyad tetrad or triad?
triad more than dyad cuz more people and one goes away other can mediate
triad more than tetrad bcuz even tho tetrad has more they can break off into duo
less = more intense and intimate
more = more stable most of the time
more = more group think and social loafing
increase GABA = ____ anxiety and ____ episodic memory in hippocampus
decreased anxiety and decreased episodic memory in hippo
____ focused on social stratification and structural impact of power elites. How to better understand social problems.
C. Wright Mills
______ focused on social darwinism and survival of the most fit.
_____ inability to sweat.
Can occur with congenital analgesia cuz missing nerve fibers about heat or pain to brain.
this type of map is involved in sound _____
this type of map involved in position, spatial location of activity ____
tonotopic - sound
topographic - position
the proximal part of basilar membrane sensitive to ____ frequency sounds
the distal part of basilar membrane sensitive to ____ frequency sounds
proximal - high frequency
distal - low frequency
_____ skeletal muscle paralysis during REM sleep to keep us from acting out our dreams.
atonia - inhibition of motor neurons, and atonia can't be complete relaxation or paralysis of muscles because we still breath during sleep.
____ type of stressor is out of your control like war, environmental disaster, and terrorism.
____ type of stressor is negative, long lasting chronically problematic and rare in a persons life relatively, example being a cancer diagnosis
major life event stressor
______ Drives the whole system (e.g., the boss of working memory) and allocates data to the subsystems: the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. It also deals with cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic and problem-solving.
so if you hear words and letters (phonological loop is auditory component of working memory) but asked to mentally manipulate them to accomplish as task, you're using the _____
______ in this type of study which is a type of longitudinal study you ask them questions then years later ask the same questions
type of observational study in which independent variable is not artificially manipulated it happens organically.
ex- earthquake happens and u ask ppl about their life before and after
independent variable manipulated by nature (earthquake)
____ transitional poverty caused by a single life event, often natural disaster or other major adversity
types of movements:
_____ significant change; affects almost everyone
_____ significant change; affects small # of ppl
____ minor change; affects many
____ minor change; affects few
_____ thought of the concept of "the field" in which individual agents and their social positions are located. the position of each agent is dependent on specific rules of the field, and agents social, cultural, and economic capital.
if two entities are playing on the same field but one uses traditional methods and is more established and the other is new and trying new methods the traditional one will receive more respect and quality ratings due to social capital and reputation
critical window for language learning age range
6 months to 7 years old
____ associated with mild pain
___ associated with strong pain
____ may potentiate morphine
glutamate- mild pain
substance p- strong pain
GABA- may potentiate morphine
what brain region?
____ working memory
___ long term memory (semantic and episodic)
frontal lobe - working memory
hippocampus - longterm semantic episodic memory
average loss of productivity per INDIVIDUAL in a group is an example of
_____ theory helps explain the perception of sound pitch (how high or low a tone is)
at base of basilar membrane - high frequency
at apex - low frequency
place theory (hearing)