2020 psych

  1. In conflict theory the _____ describes the initial environment. The status quo.

    The ____ is the push-back/reaction to those who disagree with status quo.

    ex) Blacks have no rights in 60s would be ___ and what MLK did gathering people to fight back and march is the ____.
    Thesis

    Anti-thesis
  2. _____ believed language structure and traits are universal across all human language. Genetics.
    Naom Chomsky.
  3. ____ relies on background knowledge and expectations to influence what is perceived. Prior knowledge, starts in your brain. ex- If its a pen, you seen many, look if twist off, clickable, etc. Theory/ knowledge/ context driven.


    ____ See something for the first time, new artifact, nothing to compare, observe it, gather data to look at color, shape, inscription on sides, material its made from. No pre-existing mental representation and use the artifact itself to guide perception. Data driven. Starts with hands.
    Top down

    Bottom up
  4. ____ the tendency to give non-human objects, human characteristics. This occurs during preoperational (age 2-7) piaget stage.
    Animism.
  5. _____ hypothesis is that language determines thought.
    Whorfian
  6. During ovulation the ____ release estrogen which causes the ____ to release ____ causing ____ to release ____
    Ovaries release estrogen which causes the hypothalamus to release GnRh which causes the a. pituitary to release LH.
  7. The ventromedial hypothalamus maintains homeostasis daily by monitoring satiety by the presence of _______
    Insulin- which is released at satiety bcuz there will be high amounts of sugar in the blood needed to be brought down.

    Leptin is more about long-term satiety and doesn't play a huge role in hunger/satiety on daily basis whereas Insulin is responsible for satiety felt after eating a meal.
  8. brain region

    short term / working memory

    long term memory
    short term / working memory- prefrontal lobe

    long term memory- hippocampus
  9. _____ study design expose participants to all experimental conditions

    _____ study design expose participants each to only one experimental condition.
    within group- each person subject to all conditions

    between group- each participant subject to ONLY one condition of experiment
  10. light from the left visual field hits the ____ side of the left eye then ____ side of the right eye to be interpreted by the right hemisphere
    light from the left visual field hits the NASAL side of the left eye then temporal side of the right eye to be interpreted by the right hemisphere
  11. The parvo pathway is important for spatial resolution and the magno pathway important for temporal resolution

    The parvo pathway is responsible for encoding ____ and ____

    magno pathway encodes _____
    parvo - color / form (fine details)

    magno - motion (rapidly changing components of object)
  12. The ___ is part of the visual system in the brain and plays a role in high level visual processing and recognition so damage to this could effect ability to recognize a familiar face based off facial recognition alone (prosagnosia).
    Fusiform Gyrus
  13. ____ helps delineate social relationships and interactions. Helps identify community ties and key members or "key nodes" (individuals who exert stronger influence) and "nodes" (individuals within the group).

    Crucial to understanding attitudes and behavior
    Social network analysis
  14. Which theory explains deviance in this manner?

    societies socialize members into desiring shared cultural goals but many are unable to achieve this in a socially acceptable way and deviants give up on the goals and use disapproved means to attain.
    functionalist 

    societal functions include affirming norms, promoting social change, and social unity.
  15. 65+ erikson- integrity vs despair

    If one isn't successful in this stage they will have regret, bitterness, and anger and won't feel fulfilled. What virtue will one have if they're successful?
    Wisdom
  16. match the virtue associated with each  erikson stage

    trust vs mistrust - 0-1
    autonomy vs shame and doubt- 1-3
    initiative vs guilt- 3-5
    industry vs inferiority- 6-12
    ego identity vs role confusion- 12-18
    intimacy vs isolation- 18-40
    generativity vs stagnation- 40-65
    ego integrity vs despair - 65+
    • trust vs mistrust - 0-1 - hope
    • autonomy vs shame and doubt- 1-3- will
    • initiative vs guilt- 3-5- purpose
    • industry vs inferiority- 6-12- competence 
    • ego identity vs role confusion- 12-18- fidelity
    • intimacy vs isolation- 18-40- love
    • generativity vs stagnation- 40-65- care
    • ego integrity vs despair - 65+- wisdom
  17. _____ are long stereocilia 

    stereocilia are connected together by _____
    kinocilium - long sterocilia 

    stereocilia connected by tip link
  18. Cochlear implants external parts ____ and ____

    internal parts ____ _____ and _____
    speech processor (contains microphone) and transmitting coil

    receiving coil, stimulator, and electrode array
  19. Hair cell conduction:

    Mechanical stimulation of stereocilia open ____ channels so ___ can rush (endolymph rich in them) in and cause depolarization and then voltage gated ___ channels allow ___ to come in and synaptic vesicles secrete ___ to bind to auditory nerve.
    potassium channels

    potassium

    calcium

    calcium

    glutamate
  20. high internal or external control would help increase self esteem, self efficacy and decrease depression and pessimism?
    High internal locus of control
  21. break down maslows needs into psychological, self fulfillment, and basic needs

    one of the needs has two terms, whats the two terms?
    basic: physiological (food , water, sex, warmth, rest) and safety (secure from war/disease, etc)

    • psychological:
    • love/belonging (family, affection, relationships),
    • esteem (respect and confidence, accomplishments) 

    self fulfillment: self actualization (achieving full potential)

    -------------------------------------------

    love/ belonging- family, affection, relationships
  22. ______ schizophrenia: lack of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or disorganized or catatonic behaviors. However they are experiencing at least two of those symptoms to a lesser extent but definitely have negative symptoms 

    ______ schizophrenia: dramatic withdrawal from the world and muteness, can be rigid, maintain unusual posture or extreme movements and echolalia (mimic words) or echopraxia (mimic movement)


    _____ schizophrenia: delusions of persecution and grandiosity hallucinations and mostly positive symptoms but without or very little of disorganized speech, flat affect, catatonic, disorganized behavior. 


    ____ schizophrenia: is characterized by predominantly disorganized symptoms. All of the following must be present to fit the criteria for this subtype:
    Disorganized speech (e.g., word salad, incoherence, perseverance)
    Disorganized behavior (e.g., difficulty starting or finishing a task, difficulty acting appropriately in social situations)
    Flat or inappropriate affect (e.g., poor eye contact, lack of facial expressions)
    residual schizophrenia

    catatonic schizophrenia

    paranoid schizophrenia


    disorganized schizophrenia
  23. what technique/device used for schizophrenia:

    decreased prefrontal brain function:

    increase d2 dopamine receptors:

    decreased temporal lobe gray matter:
    decreased prefrontal brain function: fMRI / PET Scan

    increase d2 dopamine receptors: PET Scan

    decreased temporal lobe gray matter: MRI
  24. experiments

    ____ method: statistically or mathematically based.

    ____ method: those based on narrative or words.
    quantitative method

    qualitative method
  25. which theory is based on modeling?
    social learning/ observational/ social cognitive theory
  26. systematic desensitization - associative learning goes with which theory?
    behaviorist (classical conditioning)
  27. _____ which stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.
    thorndikes law of effect
  28. george mead

    agents of socialization become part of the _____ the social self but must be approved by the ____, the spontaneous, creative, independent self
    ME

    I
  29. _____ is a systematic attempt at problem solving in which every single possible combo is attempted in order to come to a solution. Guarantee you'll come to solution.
    algorithm
  30. core nations lead the global market through export of ______

    periphery nations are taken advantage of and rely on exportation of ____ to core nations
    goods

    resources (oil, coffee, labor)
  31. short term memory: ____ seconds and 7 +/- 2 items

    long-term memory: explicit/ implicit 

    Is the fear response and startle reflex of a conditioned stimulus like a shock implicit or explicit memory?


    ______ memory of experience or event
    short term- 20 seconds

    implicit- emotion (fear) and reflex, which are both of which are not consciously recalled, just like skills and tasks done many times. 

    explicit / episodic memory
  32. Based off _______ social institutions have manifest and latent (unintended) functions like how industrialization caused increase in "masculine" and "feminine" socially labeled jobs and shifts in gender expectations.
    Structural functionalism
  33. _____ theory is that population grows exponentially but resources limited and preventive checks voluntarily decrease birth rate and positive checks involuntarily increase death rate.
    malthusian theory of population growth
  34. Flashbulb memory (explicit)  is a vivid, detailed, autobiographical event of something emotional, personal, distinct, or important.

    - High confidence in memory
    - Vivid details of emotions
    - Vivid details of things not really important and details of what you were doing. (Me in 5th grade classroom with Mrs Hudson)

    Are they accurate?
    Flashbulb memories are not accurate or consistent over time.
  35. Partial reinforcement schedules (fixed, variable, ratio, interval) are the best way to MAINTAIN already learned behaviors.

    What are the three ways of making an animal learn and new behavior? 

    which is the best of the 3?
    continuous reinforcement, shaping (reward after each approximations to correct behavior) , increase motivational state (by depriving of reward like food)

    best is continuous reinforcement
  36. _____ TENDENCY to rely heavily on strategies that have worked in the past, which can impede problem solving.
    Mental set
  37. Psychoanalytic theorist and feminist psychologist ______ developed one of the best-known theories of neurosis. She believed that neurosis resulted from basic anxiety caused by interpersonal relationships. She also critiqued Freud penis envy.
    Karen Horney
  38. demographic transition

    birth and death rates high (population low)

    then death rate drops and pop increase  rapidly

    then birth rates drop - population increase slower 

    then both death and birth low - population stable

    population increase the entire time then levels off toward end
  39. stage 2 demographic transition
    death rate drops - population increase
  40. _____ visual component of sensory memory (1/2 a second)

    _____ visual component of working memory (20 or so seconds)

    _____ auditory component of sensory memory (3-4 seconds)

    ____ auditory component of working memory
    iconic memory

    visuo-spatial sketchpad

    echoic memory

    phonological loop
  41. WHICH part of retina are cones found and where?
    center of retina in macula densa/ fovea
  42. ____ disease classification system
    folk taxonomy
  43. _____ cultural practice that results from the blending of two cultures
    Syncretism
  44. _______ these healthcare systems have one entity and the healthcare providers are private but the government collects payments from the patients and pays the medical bills. All citizens pay premiums to this government or insurance provider.


    _____ patient pay medical costs directly to the healthcare provider.

    ____ government not involved in the health insurance or delivery.
    single payer plan

    direct fees model

    free market
  45. ____ government controls both insurance/payments and delivery. Doctors and hospitals are government employees and government owned facilities in this system.
    socialized medicine
  46. which theorist is associated with social exchange theory?
    George Homans
  47. _____ continuously thinking about or replaying the events in ones mind of situation that is upsetting. Maintains negative emotions and could lead to depression.

    example- someone was broken up with and they decide to listen to sad songs involving failed relationships
    rumination

    (coping would be doing something that is actively trying to get rid of the stressor or feelings, like getting a new boyfriend)
  48. R-squared (R2) is a statistical measure that represents the proportion of the variance for a dependent variable that's explained by an independent variable or variables in a regression model
  49. Hans eysneck - PEN (Psychotic, extraversion, neuroticism)

    anxious would be what kind of score?

    withdrawn?

    social? 

    non-conforming or stubborn?
    anxious = high score on neuroticism

    withdrawn = low score on extraversion

    social = high score on extraversion

    stubborn/non-conforming = high score on psychoticism
  50. ____ probability that the null is true (null hypothesis is that there is no significant difference, the differences were random)

    r^2 = 

    ____ correlation coeff that shows how related two variables are

    ____ difference between observed sample statistic and its hypothesized population parameter
    p-value

    r^2 = variance 

    r

    t-value
  51. erving goffman studied stigma on mental illness

    ____ how you save face in embarrassing situations
    tact
  52. which is more stable, triad, or dyad? why?

    which is more intense, triad or dyad?
    triad bcuz if relationship between two members strained the other can act as mediator.

    stability increases with size in social groups

    dyad more intense, not sharing attention
  53. _____ ethnic or racial slurs
    ethnophaulisms
  54. group think:

    people dont want to speak up_____

    people protect group by preventing or discouraging beliefs contrary to group _____

    ____ group fails to look at warnings, double check or reconsider

    ____ group cant be wrong
    self censorship 

    mind guards

    collective rationalization

    illusion of invulnerability
  55. what are the three most commonly abused psychoactive drugs in the united states?
    alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine
  56. hindbrain - medulla, pons, cerebellum

    forebrain- cerebral cortex, thalamus
  57. webers law-

    someones ability to discriminate between two stimuli would increase or decrease as the difference between stimuli increases?
    increase, becoming more accurate
  58. trend of women making up more of the poor in US as increases in number of women heading household
    feminization of poverty theory
  59. _____ requires that the researcher directly participate in the phenomenon being studied
    participant observation
  60. _____ persistent fear of place or situation not readily able to escape from
    agoraphobia
  61. randomization of groups ensures ______
    baseline equivalency and that groups aren't too different
  62. stages of change model applied to smoking

    unware of smoking issue _____

    aware but not ready to stop _____

    making a active plan to stop _____

    actually applying plan and stopping ____
    precontemplation 

    contemplation

    preparation

    action stage
  63. how many years of depression for diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder aka dysthymia for 

    child

    adult
    child - 1 year

    adult - 2 years
  64. occurs when positive stereotypes of a group cause increased performance
    stereotype boost, stereotype lift
  65. ____ this type of deviance doesn't have long term consequences and doesn't get the person labeled as deviant 


    ___ this type of deviance occurs after someone has been labeled deviant and goes on to commit deviant act some more after internalizing label.
    primary deviance 

    secondary deviance
  66. what is this?

    The central route to persuasion consists of thoughtful consideration of the arguments (ideas, content) of the message.

    The peripheral route occurs when one may be uninterested in the claims and uses superficial factors like popularity of celebrity or beauty to influence their persuasion
    elaborative likelihood model
  67. _____ collection of individuals who share a common location but not a group (all ppl in restaurant at 6:00 am)
    aggregate
  68. whats more stable a dyad tetrad or triad?
    triad more than dyad cuz more people and one goes away other can mediate

    triad more than tetrad bcuz even tho tetrad has more they can break off into duo

    less = more intense and intimate

    more = more stable most of the time

    more = more group think and social loafing
  69. increase GABA = ____ anxiety and ____ episodic memory in hippocampus
    decreased anxiety and decreased episodic memory in hippo
  70. ____ focused on social stratification and structural impact of power elites. How to better understand social problems.
    C. Wright Mills
  71. ______ focused on social darwinism and survival of the most fit.
    Herbert Spencer
  72. _____ inability to sweat.

    Can occur with congenital analgesia cuz missing nerve fibers about heat or pain to brain.
    anhirosis
  73. this type of map is involved in sound _____

    this type of map involved in position, spatial location of activity  ____
    tonotopic - sound

    topographic - position
  74. the proximal part of basilar membrane sensitive to ____ frequency sounds

    the distal part of basilar membrane sensitive to ____ frequency sounds
    proximal - high frequency 

    distal - low frequency
  75. _____ skeletal muscle paralysis during REM sleep to keep us from acting out our dreams.
    atonia - inhibition of motor neurons, and atonia can't be complete relaxation or paralysis of muscles because we still breath during sleep.
  76. ____ type of stressor is out of your control like war, environmental disaster, and terrorism.

    ____ type of stressor is negative, long lasting chronically problematic and rare in a persons life relatively, example being a cancer diagnosis
    catastrophic

    major life event stressor
  77. ______ Drives the whole system (e.g., the boss of working memory) and allocates data to the subsystems: the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. It also deals with cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic and problem-solving.

    so if you hear words and letters (phonological loop is auditory component of working memory) but asked to mentally manipulate them to accomplish as task, you're using the _____
    central executive
  78. ______ in this type of study which is a type of longitudinal study you ask them questions then years later ask the same questions
    panel study
  79. type of observational study in which independent variable is not artificially manipulated it happens organically.

    ex- earthquake happens and u ask ppl about their life before and after
    natural experiment 

    independent variable manipulated by nature (earthquake)
  80. ____ transitional poverty caused by a single life event, often natural disaster or other major adversity
    situational poverty
  81. types of movements:

    _____ significant change; affects almost everyone

    _____ significant change; affects small # of ppl

    ____ minor change; affects many

    ____ minor change; affects few
    revolutionary

    redemptive 

    reformative

    alternative
  82. _____ thought of the concept of "the field" in which individual agents and their social positions are located. the position of each agent is dependent on specific rules of the field, and agents social, cultural, and economic capital.

    if two entities are playing on the same field but one uses traditional methods and is more established and the other is new and trying new methods the traditional one will receive more respect and quality ratings due to social capital and reputation
    pierre bourdieu
  83. critical window for language learning age range
    6 months to 7 years old
  84. ____ associated with mild pain

    ___ associated with strong pain

    ____ may potentiate morphine
    glutamate- mild pain

    substance p- strong pain 

    GABA- may potentiate morphine
  85. what brain region?

    ____ working memory

    ___ long term memory (semantic and episodic)
    frontal lobe - working memory

    hippocampus - longterm semantic episodic memory
  86. average loss of productivity per INDIVIDUAL in a group is an example of
    social loafing
  87. _____ theory helps explain the perception of sound pitch (how high or low a tone is)

    at base of basilar membrane - high frequency
    at apex - low frequency
    place theory (hearing)
Author
JAM41MAN
ID
352085
Card Set
2020 psych
Description
ttete
Updated