Chapter 1

  1. Family Stress pg 3
    • Boss defines it as...
    • pressure or tension on the status quo; it is a disturbance of the family's steady state
  2. Hooke pg 3
    Used the term stress in the context of physical science
  3. Stress pg 3
    With change comes disturbance and pressure, known as stress

    Stress is variable defined as a stimulus, an inferred inner state, and an observable response to a stimulus or situation
  4. Cannon pg 3
    Laid the foundation for systematic research on the effects of stress in observations of bodily changes

    He showed that stimuli associated with emotional arousal (e.g. pain, hunger, cold) caused changes in basic physiological functioning
  5. Selye pg 3
    Was the first researcher to define and measure stress adaptations in the human body

    He defined stress as an orchestrated set of bodily defenses against any form of noxious stimuli

    His work accounts for much of the scholarly interest in stress and coping
  6. Meyer pg 3
    Taught that life events may be an important component in the etiology of a disorder and that the most normal and necessary life events may be potential contributors to pathology
  7. Holmes and Rahe
    Investigated life events and their connection to the onset and progression of illness 

    Through their Schedule of Recent Events, they associated the accumulation of life changes and those of greater magnitude to a higher chance of illness, disease, or death
  8. Alienation pg 4
    Conceptualized as synonymous with powerlessness, meaninglessness, and self-estrangement
  9. Freudian Psychology pg 4
    Highlighted the process of coping and established the basis for a developmental approach that considered the effect of life events on later development and gradual acquisition of resources over the life cycle
  10. reinforcement-learning Theorists pg 4
    Viewed anxiety as a classically conditioned response that led to unserviceable (pathological) habits of anxiety reduction
  11. Existentialists pg 4
    Focused on anxiety as a major barrier to self-actualization
  12. Devlopmentalists pg 4
    Proposed various stage models that demand that a particular crisis be negotiated before an individual can cope with subsequent developmental stages
  13. Crisis Theorists pg 4
    Conceptualized these life changes as crises, with the assumption that disequilibrium may provide stress in the short run but can promote the development of new skills in the long run
  14. Reuben Hill pg 4
    Referred to as the father of family stress research

    The first scholar to conceptualize family stress theory when he developed the ABC-X  model of family stress and his model of family crisis
  15. Boss pg 4
    Addressed recent developments in the evolution and use of family stress theory which includes:

    • 1. mind-body family connection 
    • 2. family resilience
    • 3. spirituality and faith
    • 4. post-traumatic stress disorder 
    • 5. use of "disaster" teams
    • 6. stress resulting from caring for an individual
    • 7. demands created by balancing work and family 
    • 8. perceptions, interpretations, and beliefs
    • 9. social constructionism
    • 10. narrative analysis
  16. Mind-body-family connection pg 4
    In contrast to the measurements of life events, the emphasis is on the measurement of human reactivity during intensely stressful situations
  17. Family resilience pg 4
    A process that implies growth within families becoming stronger for having had a stressful experience with greater emphasis on context
  18. Narrative analysis pg 5
    Distressed people tell their story, their truth, and interpretation of what they believe about their situation
  19. Family theorists pg 5
    Families are viewed as living organisms with both symbolic and real structures

    They have boundaries to maintain and a variety of instrumental and expressive functions to perform to ensure growth and survival 

    • Families strive to maintain a steady state
    • Families are the products of both subsystems (e.g., individual members, dyads) and suprasystems (e.g., community, culture, nation)

    The primary interest of family stress theory is the entire family unit 

    This is a social systems perspective
  20. Systems theory pg 5
    The system is more than the sum of its part. In terms of families, this means that the collection of family members is not only a specific number of people but also an aggregate of particular relationships and a shared memories, successes, failures, and aspirations 

    Involves studying the individual to more completely understand a family's response to stress 

    Allows the researcher to focus beyond the family and the individual to the wider social system (suprasystem)

    This external environment in which the family is embedded is referred to as the "ecosystem". It consists of historical, cultural, economic genetic, and developmental influences 

    The families response to a stressor event is influenced by living in a particular historical period, its cultural identification, the economic conditions of society, its genetic stamina and resistance, and its stage in the family life cycle
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Chapter 1
Chapter 1