1. PNF
    • Propreoceptive Neuromuscular Function
    • Response of neuromuscular mechanisms can be hastened throught stimulation of the proprioceptors
  2. PNF goal directed activities are coupled with _______ techniques
  3. PNF Evaluation
    • Proximal to distal
    • Movements in response to visual, auditory and tactile stimulation
    • Head and neck patterns odserved
    • Diagonal patterns evaluated
  4. Quick Stretch
    • PNF intervention
    • Utilized to elicit a contraction
    • In direction opposide of pull
  5. D1 Flexion
    • Scapula: AB and upwardly rotated
    • Shoulder: Flexed, AD, externally rotated
    • Elbow: slightly flexed
    • Forearm: Supinated
    • Wrist: Flexed toward radial side
    • Fingers: Flexed, AD
    • Thumb: Flexed, AD
    • Image Upload 1
  6. D1 Extension
    • Scapula: AD, downwardly rotated
    • Shoulder: Extended, AB, internally rotated
    • Elbow: Extended
    • Forearm: Pronated
    • Wrist: Extended toward ulnar side
    • Fingers: Extended, AB
    • Thumb: Extended AB
  7. D2 Flexion
    • Scapula: AD and upwardly rotated
    • Shoulder: Flexed, AB , externally rotated
    • Elbow: Extended
    • Forearm: Supinated
    • Wrist: Extended toward radial side
    • Fingers: Extended, AB
    • Thumb: Extended, AB
  8. D2 Extension
    • Scapula: AB, downwardly rotated
    • Shoulder: Extended, AD, internally rotated
    • Elbow: Towards flexion
    • Forearm: Pronated
    • Wrist: Flexed toward ulnar side
    • Fingers: Flexed, AD
    • Thumb: Flexed, AD
  9. PNF Patterns
    Image Upload 2
  10. Rhythmic rotation
    Used when restriction is felt during ROM in PNF
  11. Contract- relax
    • Isometric contraction of the antagonist
    • relaxation then passive movement of agonistic pattern
  12. Hold Relax
    • Isometric contraction on the antagonist,
    • relaxation then active movement of the agonist
  13. agonist
    • the muscle that moves
    • passes over a joint ( two seperate parts)
  14. antagonist
    a muscle that acts in opposition to the specific movement generated by the agonist and is responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.
  15. Rhythmic Initiation
    • PNF technique
    • Improves muscle initiation
    • Passive rhythmic movement followed by active participation in the same pattern
  16. Brunntrom six stages of motor recovery
    • Falaccidity or no coluntary motion
    • developing synergies
    • beginning voluntary movement within the synergy
    • initial movements that deviate from synergy
    • Independence from the basic synergies
    • Isolated, near normal movement with minimal spacticity
  17. Dysdiadochokinesia
    imparined ability to perform rapid alternating movements
  18. Ataxia
    Loss of motor control in culding tremors, dysdiadochokinesia, dyssynergia and visual nystagmus
  19. Resting tremor
    involuntary tremor noted in resting positions
  20. Intention tremor
    worsening of action tremor as the limb approaches the target in space
  21. Dysmetria
    undershooding or overshooting of a target
  22. Dyssynergia
    • breakdown in movement resulting in joints being moved separately to reach a desired target as opposed to moving in a smooth trajectiory
    • decomposition of movement
  23. Rigidity
    • an increased resistance to passive movement throughout the range
    • may be cogwheel: alternative contraction/ relaxation of muscles being stretched OR
    • leadpipe: Consistent contraction throughout range
  24. Bradykinesia
    overall slowing of movement patterns
  25. Akinesia
    inability to initiate movements
  26. Athetosis
    • Dyskinetic condition that includes inadequate timing, force and accuracy of movements in the trunk/ limbs
    • movements are writhing and worm-like
  27. Dystonia
    incoluntary sustained distorted movement or posture involving contraction of groups of muscles
  28. Chorea
    involuntary movements of the face and extremities which are spasmodic and of shor duration
  29. Hemiballismus
    unilateral chorea characterized by violent forcefull movements of the proximal muscles
  30. Static splint
    No moving parts
  31. Dynamic splint
    • has moving parts
    • used to increase passive motion, assist weak motions or substitute for lost motion
  32. Serial splints
    used to achieve a slow, prgressive increase in motion by progressive re-molding
  33. Cock up splint
    • supports wrist in 10-20 degrees of extension to prevent contracture
    • Allows the digits to function
  34. Resting Hand Splint
    • Utilized for persons who need to have thier wrist, digits and thumb supported in a functional positionf for prolonged periods
    • ie: when devoloping contracture of the long flexors
  35. Neurological FOR
    • Contemporary
    • Motor relearning program (MRP)
    • Contemporary task oriented approach
    • Principles of Motor Learning
    • Traditional
    • Sensorimotor
    • Margaret Rood's Approach
    • NDT/ Bobath
    • PNF
  36. Rood Approach Principles/ Assumptions
    • Techniques to provide sensory input to the nervous system to evoke a reflex-based muscular response
    • Developmental sequences
    • Utilization of activity ro demand purposeful response
  37. Rood 4 sequential phases
    • Reciporacal inhibition/innervation: An early mobility pattern that is primarily a reflex governed by spinal centers
    • Co-contraction: simultaneous contraction of the agonist and antagonist that provides stability in a static pattern, used to stabilize for a long duration
    • Heavy work: mobility superimposed on stability, proximal muscles contract and move and distal segments are fixed
    • Skill: highest level of control, stability and mobility, stabilized proximal segment while distal segments move in space
  38. Rood sequence of motor development
    • Supine withdrawl
    • Rollover
    • Prone extension
    • Neck cocontraction
    • Prone on elbows
    • Quadruped
    • Standing
    • Walking
  39. Rood interventions
    • Stimulation
    • Fast brushing
    • Stretch/ tendon tapping
    • High frequency vibration
    • Quick icing
    • Heavy joint compression
    • Resistance utilizing gravity via therapists hands
    • Inhibitory
    • gentle rocking
    • slow stroking
    • slow rolling of individual
    • tendinous pressure over muscle insertion
    • maintainted stretch
    • Neutral warmth
    • Prolonged icing
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