Where did the Etruscans come from and what did they do?
They came from Asia Minor and were metallurgists, merchants (pirates), sailors, gladiators, and they had a necropolis and were famous for their barrel vaulted arches.
Tell the story of Romulus and Remus.
Two brothers put in basket to be free from father, raised by she wolf, found by farmer. Remus finds hill and sees 6 vultures, Romulus goes to another and sees 12. When Remus taunts Romulus, he is shot.
What form of government did rome have in 1000-500 BC?
A monarchy with an assembly of male citizens and a senate comprised of clan leaders.
What form of government did rome assume in 500-27 BC?
They had a Republic with 2 consuls.
What were the effects of the Italian wars?
Agriculture prevailed, inequality was widespread, military ideal was strengthened, patricians and plebians were formed. (Plebians could only serve in the assembly)
When the Plebians rebelled in 470 BC, what was the result?
Tribunes (lawyers) were established.
What were the grounds for the first Punic War, who won, how did they win, and what did they acquire?
Rome wanted Sicily (controlled by Carthage), so they found a Carthagenian naval ship, copied it, and added a corvus. Rome won. They got Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia.
What were the grounds for the second Punic War, who won, how did they win, and what did they acquire? Also tell about the battle of Cannae.
LaBarca's son, Hannibal, controlled Iberia, so he went to Rome by land out of vengeance to beat them. He fought up and down the peninsula for 15 years and couldn't take the capitol. Later, at Cannae, 40,000 of Hannibal's men fought 80,000 Romans who were boxed in by Hannibal's men. Rome lost almost 70,000. Finally, Scipio Africanus attacked Africa at Zama. Hannibal lost and Rome won the war.
What were the grounds for the third Punic War, who won, how did they win, and what did they do afterwards?
Rome threatened to destroy Carthage unless they moved 10 miles inland (which would kill their thriving economy). Carthage said "bring it", and Rome destroyed them. Rome claims to have salted the ground, but they actually inhabited it and then spread the Carthagenians around, killing the remnants of the empire.
What were some geographical effects of the Punic Wars?
Rome expanded to the East Med. and acquired the Greeks, Macedonians, and Syrians.
What are some socioeconomic effects of the Punic Wars?
Slavery was increased, people were displaced, classes grew apart and became hostile, there were many more excessive displays of wealth
What were the goals of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus?
Tiberius was a tribune who wanted to limit the sizes of latfundia (farms), and Gaius wanted to distribute grain at 1/2 price. They were both assasinated
Who was involved in the 1st Triumvirate?
Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus.
When Pompey banned Caesar from Rome, what did he do?
He went to Egypt where Cleopatra seduced him by hiding in a carpet. They fell in love and Caesar fought in a war against Cleopatra's brother and they were married.
Who was Cicerd?
He spoke out against Caesar's empirical rule, and indirectly had him killed.
Who was Brutus, and when did he do the deed for which he is famous?
He was the leader of Caesar's assasination plot that took place on the Ides of March (the 15th) in 44 BC.
Who was involved in the 2nd Triumvirate and what did they do to avenge Caesar's death?
Octavion, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. They put many to death, including Cicero.
When they started a war against Brutus, what did the 2nd Triumvirate cause him to do?
How was the empire divided among the 2nd Triumvirate members?
Octavian got the West, Lepidus got North Africa, and Marc Antony got the East.
When Octavian brought up false charges against Antony, and Antony lost the naval battle, what did Cleopatra and Marc Antony do?
They committed suicide to avoid facing Augustus Caesar. (Octavian)
When Rome became an empire (27 BC), what era did Augustus start?