Lower Respiratory Disorders (final)

  1. : dilation of the bronchial air ways
  2. :inflammation of the bronchial tree
  3. This disorder is secondary to cystic fibrosis, asthma, and TB
  4. : acute inflammation and/or infection of the lungs
  5. :collapsed alveoli
  6. :fluid in the pleural space
    Pleural effusion
  7. The nurse carrying for a patient with pneumonia should check ____ and ____ levels
    WBCs and ABG levels
  8. ____ is the biggest killer world wide among adults and children
  9. : is an acid fast bacillus implant in bronchioles or alveoli
  10. People at risk for TB
    •elderly •alcoholics • those living in crowded conditions • new immigrants *HIV
  11. The people who are at the greates risk of getting TB are
    People who have HIV
  12. What are two drugs commonly used to treat TB
    Isoniazed and Rifampin
  13. With a person at risk for impaired gas exchange, the nurse would need to monitor
    • lung sound • resp rate • dyspnea •LOC • cap refill •O2 sat • ABGs •s/s of hypoxia
  14. For a patient with impaired gas exchange they need to be in ____ position with their _____ down
    Fowler’s. Good lung down.
  15. The nurse would need to monitor what with a patient with ineffective airway clearance ?
    •lung sounds •deep breathing and coughing • promote moment to loosen secretions •turn q2h and ambulate •suction PRN
  16. Would bed rest be effective for a person with ineffective air way clearance?
    No, ambulating and moving will promote the loosening of secretions.
  17. The nurse will need to monitor what when taking car of a patient with ineffective breathing pattern?
    •resp rate, depth, and effort • ABGs •O2
  18. A patient with ineffective breathing pattern can benefit from being in _____ position and teaching them to do _____ breathing
    Fowler’s or semifowlers position. Diaphragmatic breathing.
  19. _____ _____ breathing can help open alveoli and promote excretion of CO2 in patients who are acutely SOB
    Pursed lip breathing
  20. When ambulating a patient with activity intolerance use portable _____
  21. :inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleurae
    Pleurisy (pleuritis)
  22. _____ causes friction between pleurae On inspiration
  23. Pleurisy is secondary to ______,_____, and ____
    Pneumonia, TB, and cancer
  24. S/S of pleurisy
    •friction rub •pain on inspiration •fever •elevated WBC •shallow breathing
  25. As pleural membranes become more inflamed, serious fluid production increases which could lead to _____ ____
    Pleural effusion
  26. :excess fluid between visceral and parietal pleurae
    Pleural effusion *could collapse lung*
  27. :collection of pus in the pleural space
  28. One type of fluid from pleural effusion, that is a watery fluid from the capillaries is called
    Transudative. (May be the result of heart failure,liver disorders or kidney disorders)
  29. One type of fluid from plural effusion that contains WBC and proteins and comes from cells surrounding the capillaries is called_____
    Exudative. (May be the result of infection, inflammation, cancer)
  30. : alveoli become thick and scarred making gas exchange difficult
    Pulmonary fibrosis
  31. What are two types of drugs that can reduce pulmonary disease progression and preserve lung function (antifibrotic drugs)
    1. Pirfenidone (Esbriet) and Nintedanib (Ofev)
  32. :collapse of alveoli
  33. Atelectasis can be caused by anything that causes ______
  34. :trapping of air in the alveoli ; group of disorders (asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis)
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  35. COPD will be diagnosed if the patient is sick for 3 months of the year for ____consecutive years.
  36. :caused when damage to the air sacs makes it difficult to move air in and out
    Air trapping
  37. _____ is a major risk factor for respiratory problems
  38. With COPD patient they May develop _______ because the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood to the diseases lungs
    Right sided heart failure
  39. : abnormal enlargement of the right side of the heat due to diseases lungs
    Cor pulmonale
  40. : air filled blisters in the lungs
  41. COPD complications include
    •cor pulmonale •weight loss •bullae •blebs •respiratory failure
  42. : air doll blister adjacent to the pleurae
  43. Chronic O2 sat level of less than or equal to ___% should be places in home O2
  44. O2 is generally ordered at ___-____ L/min for patients with COPD
    1-2 L/ minute
  45. COPD patients receive lower O2 rates to keep from suppressing the ____ ____
    Hypoxic drive
  46. A rapid pulse, resp. rate, and decreased BO could indicated ___ ____ ___ and oxygenation is a priority!!
    Impaired tissue perfusion
  47. : chronic inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, constructing air ways, and bronchospasms
  48. Asthma triggers
    •smoking •allergies •exercise •stress •some medications •infection •sinusitis •infection
  49. : helps show a decrease in inhalations
  50. Keep daily track of asthma with a ___ ____ ____
    Peek flow meter
  51. Two types of meds given to patients with asthma
    •bronchodilators •corticosteroids
  52. Cortisol steroids reduce airway inflammation and can be administered by ___,___,___
    IV, P.O, and inhaled
  53. : an exocrine gland disorder that causes thick tenacious secretions
    Cystic Fibrosis
  54. Cystic fibrosis effects primarily the _____,_____, and ____ ____
    GI tract, lungs, and sweat glands
  55. Cystic fibrosis can cause _____ foul smelling stools
  56. : enzyme that breaks up and loosens mucus
    Dornase alfa (pulmozyme)
  57. ; improves the function of a protein that is defective in pts with Cystic fibrosis
    Ivacaftor (Kalydeco)
  58. : blood clot in the pulmonary artery
    Pulmonary embolism
  59. Most pulmonary emboli originate in the deep veins of the lower extremities also called (_____ _____ _____)
    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  60. A ____ emboli can travel from a compound fracture and cause a pulmonary emboli
  61. An _____ ____ emboli can travel and cause a pulmonary emboli during labor and delivery
    Amniotic fluid
  62. Prevention of pulmonary emboli
    •ambulating •treatment of DVT •anticoagulants
  63. What are someanticoagulant medications given to high risk pulmonary embolis patients
    •Warfarin (Coumadin) •Enoxaparin (Lovenox) •Heparin
  64. If you suspect a patient is having a pulmonary embolism yell for bell and start ____ and get someone else to notify the MD
  65. : air in the inteaoleural space (complete of partial collapse of the lung)
  66. If no injury is present, the pneumothorax is considered ______
    Spontaneous pneumothorax
  67. Penetrating injury to the chest wall and parietal pleurae allows air into the pleural space is call a _____ pneumothorax
  68. If air can enter and escape through the opening in the pleural space, it is considered an _____ pneumothorax
  69. When the heart and vessels are compressed and venous return to the heart is impaired resulting in symptoms of shock, this is considered a ____ pneumothorax
    Tension pneumothorax *MEDICAL EMERGENCY**
  70. What are some signs and symptoms of pneumothorax
    •asymmetrical chest expansion •absent breath sounds of affect lung •dyspnea •shallow, rapid respirations
  71. Signs and symptoms of tension pneumothorax
    •deviated trachea •bradycardia •cyanosis •shock, if not treated, resulting in death
  72. :sterile talc is certain antibiotics are inject into pleural space ,of a patient with recurrent pneumothorax , causing pleural membranes to stick together
  73. Common causes of fractured ribs
    •coughing •falls •trauma •CPR compressions
  74. Patient care for fractured ribs
    •cough and deep breathe •pain control •adequate ventilation
  75. : caused by multiple rib fractures, as a result the affected park of the chest collapses with inhalation and bulges with exhalation
    Flail chest
  76. : diagnosed when a patient is unable to maintain normal ABG levels. Hypoventilation may cause respiratory acidosis
    Acute Respiratory Failure
  77. Acute respiratory failure can be caused by
    •COPD •Aspiration •CNS disorder •Opioid over dose • •inhalation of toxic substances
  78. Acute Respiratory failure is diagnosed when PaO2 falls below ___ or Paco2 is elevated above____
    PaO2 below 60mm Hg. Paco2 above 50mm Hg.
  79. If a blood culture show pneumonia virus is in the blood it means the patient is ____
  80. Nurse should check ____ and ____ levels to monitor the condition of the patient with pneumonia
    WBC and ABGs
  81. : a group of disorders that has diverse causes but similar path,symptoms and treatment. (Pneumonia, trams, aspiration, sepsis, shock) eventually the alveoli will be damaged and pulmonary edema will occur
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  82. : identified by the type of cells that are effected; small cell, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
    Lung cancer
  83. ____ causes 80-90% of lung cancers
  84. Complications of lung cancer
    •pleural effusion •superior vena cava syndrome •ectopic hormone secretion •metastasis (usually spread by the time lung cancer is diagnosed)
  85. Palliative surgery for lung cancer is usually given for ____, not to cure the disease
  86. : removing the whole lung
  87. : removing one lobe of the lung
  88. : (wedge) removing a small wedge or segmental of the lung
  89. Any significant ___ ____ drop after lung surgery should be reported to MD( could indicate bleeding)
    Blood pressure
  90. What are some symptoms of bacterial pneumonia?
    •fever •hemoptysis •shaking chills I
  91. ____ and ____ are two types of fungus that can cause pneumonia
    Candida and Aspergillus
  92. What percent of people infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis develop TB disease?
  93. When reading a purified protein derivative test, the nurse should check for ?
  94. What are some nursing interventions for impaired gas exchange?
    •administer O2 •administer morphine PRN •place patient in Fowler’s position
  95. What are some restrictive disorders?
    •pleuritis •pulmonary fibrosis •empyema •atelectasis •pleural effusion
  96. ____ disorders are those that limit the ability to expand lungs to inhale air.
  97. What are some obstructive disorders?
    •COPD •emphysema •chronic bronchitis •asthma *cystic fibrosis
  98. : distraction of alveolar walls causing air trapping
  99. ____ disorder are air trapping and cause difficulty getting air out of the lungs for (exhalation)
  100. A patient this being tested for lung cancer, what diagnostic test will be most conclusive?
Card Set
Lower Respiratory Disorders (final)