1. : produces and forms urine, excretion or conservation of water, electrolyte balance, activates vitamin D, acid base balance, and production of erythropoietin
  2. : renal filtrate the kidneys form In 1 minute
    Glomerular filtration rate
  3. The average glomerular filtration rate is ______ to _____milliliters per minute
  4. Normal urine output
    30mL/ hr
  5. Renal function test may be normal until the GFR falls below _____% of normal
  6. :carries urine from kidney to bladder
  7. :measure of dissolved material in the urine
    Specific gravity
  8. Normal specific gravity is
  9. Low specific gravity =
  10. High specific gravity =
  11. Average pH is
  12. Considered normal pH range
  13. Vegetarian = more _____ urine
  14. High protein diet =more _____ urine
  15. 3 waste products of urine
    Urea, creatinine, and Uric acid
  16. _____ blood pressure occurs with kidney disease
  17. Crackles in the lungs indicate
    Fluid over load
  18. Edema in Peri orbital areas, sacrum, and abd indicate
    Fluid over load
  19. If renal disease is suspected, an ______ _____measurement should be taken
    Orthostatic BP
  20. Skin with a yellow or grey cast is called
    Uremia(build up of waste products)
  21. Crystals formed on the skin
    Uremic frost
  22. What specimen should be collected for a urinalysis
    First morning urine
  23. What would you need to instruct females to do before collecting specimen for urinalysis
    Clean peri area. With mid stream hold labia open
  24. With a UTI urine may be ______,_______,and_________.
    Cloudy, WBC positive, and Nitrite positive.
  25. This test identifies organisms in the jrine( often bacteria)
    Urine culture (antibiotic needs to be given after collections of specimen)
  26. Normal serum creatinine
  27. The higher the serum creatinine, the more ____ the kidney function
  28. :the easy product from muscle metabolism and is a very good indicator of kidney function.
    Serum creatinine
  29. :test urea in urine which is easy product of protein metabolism that is excreted by the kidneys.
  30. Elevated BUN could indicate
  31. BUN can be elevated and serum creatinine could be normal and it would indicate
  32. Normal creative clearance test range
    85-125 mL/min
  33. : measures the amount of creatinine cleared from the blood in a specified time by comparing the amount of creatinine cleared in the urine
    Creatinine clearance test
  34. Minimum creatinine clearance of ____mL/minute is needed to live without dialysis
  35. Normal serum uric acid range
    2-7 mg/dI
  36. Elevated _____ could indicated gout as well as kidney disease
    Serum uric acid
  37. Important post op for patient who had renal biopsy
    Monitor for bleeding, sand bags under abd patient needs to be laying prone during procedure, NPO 6-8 hours.
  38. :imaging of renal pelvis, calyces, and ureter.
  39. : contrast injected IV, serial x rays show contrast is cleared from blood by kidneys
    IV Pyelogram
  40. :introduction of dye through ureter
    Retrograde pyelogram
  41. :contrast introduced by percutaneous needle puncture into renal pelvis
    Antegrade pyelogram
  42. Check____ prior to contrast media for pyelogram
    Creatinine levels
  43. Check _____ and _____ before giving contrast with a renal angiography
    Creatinine and GFR
  44. The most important post care for a patient after a cystoscope and pyelogram is to measure ____ to identify retention due to swelling
    Urine out put
  45. :involuntary urine loss with abrupt/strong desir to void “unable to make it to the bathroom”
    Urge incontinence
  46. : involuntary urine loss from increasing abd pressure
    Stress incontinence
  47. :inability to get to toilet due to environment barriers ( unable to walk, dementia, etc.)
    Functional incontinence
  48. :involuntary loss of urine associated with bladder overdistention
    Over flow incontinence
  49. :continuous, unpredictable loss of urine
    Total incontinence
  50. The bladder should contain ____ or less after urination
  51. Residual urine volume of _____ to ____ mL of urine indicates the need for treatment
    150 to 200 mL
  52. ____ ____ is not justification for a catheter
    Urinary incontinence
  53. Urinary catheters increase risk for ___
  54. What is the most common hospital acquired infection?
  55. : common+pelvic pain and pressure; inflammation of the bladder
  56. : common+costovertebral tenderness, high fever, chills, N/V; inflammation and infection of the kidneys
  57. :sepsis caused by UTI
  58. To help prevent UTI encourage patient to increase fluid intake to ____ ml of fluid a day
  59. :hard. Small stones in the urinary tract, can form in kidney, ureter, or bladder.
    Renal Calculi (urolithiasis)
  60. _____ is the most common calculi
    Calcium oxalate
  61. Stones less than ____ millimeters can pass easily in urine
    5 millimeters
  62. :dilation of renal pelvis and calycs as a result of obstruction in urine flow
  63. :incision in flank area and tube is inserted directly into the kidney and attached to a collection bag
  64. Most common urinary cancer is
    Bladder cancer
  65. :multiple tags in the kidneys
    Polycystic kidney disease
  66. : long term complication of diabetes; most common cause of chronic kidney disease
    Diabetic nephropathy
  67. :large amounts of protein lost in urine
    Nephrotic syndrome
  68. :hypertension causes damage to kidneys by sclerotic changes
  69. :inflammatory disease of the glomerulus
  70. Glomerulonephritis is most commonly associated following a ______ infection of the throat
  71. :sudden loss of kidney function
    Acute kidney injury
  72. :gradual decrease In kidney function
    Chronic kidney disease
  73. Stage 1 chronic kidney disease GFR is ____ or greater
  74. Stage 2 chronic kidney disease. GFR is ____-____
  75. Stage 3 chronic kidney disease. GFR is ____ -_____
  76. Stage 4 chronic kidney disease. GFR is ____-_____
  77. Stage 5 chronic kidney disease, dialysis/transplant. GFR IS less than ____
  78. : artificial kidney removes waste products and excess water from blood
  79. :tube inserting through abd to remove waste
    Peritoneal dialysis was
  80. What are some S/S of a UTI
    Dysuria, urgency, frequency
  81. What are some actions to teach a patient to help prevent or slow profession of diabetic nephropathy?
    Control BS and BP, restrict protein in their diet
  82. What is the priority action to prevent acute kidney injury?
    Check GFR and creatinine before contrast media or nephrotoxic medications
  83. What is a nurses priority during data collection of a patient with a vascular access?
    Listen for a Bruit at the aces and palpate for a thrill
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