1. What these hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?
    • T3
    • T4
    • Calcitonin
  2. The posterior pituitary gland stores
    • ADH
    • Oxytocin
  3. What produces ADH and oxytocin?
  4. What hormone increases the amount of water tea sorbet by the kidneys?
  5. ADH helps maintain normal _____ and _____
    • Bp
    • Blood volume
  6. What is the stimulus for ADH secretion?
  7. What is oxytocin’s action?
    • Causes contractions of smooth muscle in the myometrium (labor)
    • Real ease milk during breast feeding
  8. What hormones are secreted from the anterior pituitary gland?
    FSH, LH,prolactin,TSH, ACTH, GH

    (FLP TAG)
  9. GH increases ______ in this tissues capable of mitosis to aid in growth
    Cell division
  10. GH increase the release of ___ from adipose tissue and uses the ___ for energy production
  11. What is the target organ for TH
  12. ____ stimulates the secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex
  13. What can cause the release of ACTH?
    Stress such as: injury, exercise, or hypoglycemia
  14. TSH stimulate the release of _____and____ from the thyroid gland
    T3 and T4
  15. _____ initiates and maintains Milne production by the mammary glands
  16. FSH is a _____ hormone
  17. FSH’s target organs are the ____ or____
    Ovaries or Testes
  18. ______initiates the sperm production in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and growth of ova follicle and secretion if estrogen In women
  19. ___ is another hormone from the ovaries and testes that decreases the secretion if FSH
  20. Besides FSH, ____ is also a gonadotropic hormone.
  21. ____ causes ovulation and stimulates the secretion if testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testes
  22. The ____ is located on the front and sides of the trachea just below the larynx.
    Thyroid gland
  23. What three hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?
    • T3
    • T4
    • Calcitonin
  24. What are the functions of T3 and T4
    • Increase energy production and protein synthesis
    • Increases metabolic rate (heat and energy production) are the most important regulators of metabolic rate
    • They are essential for normal physical growth, mental development, and reproductive maturation
  25. What is the stimulus for T4 and T3 secretion?
  26. _______ inhibits resorption if calcium and phosphate by osteoclasts, thereby lowering the blood levels of theses minerals and retaining them into bones.
  27. Name three actions of Calcitonin
    • 1. Maintains strong, stable bone matrix
    • 2. It maintains normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate
    • 3 very important during childhood physical development
  28. ______ stimulates the secretion if calcitonin
  29. While calcitonin tones down calcium in blood,_____increases the blood calcium level
  30. ____ is the antagonist to calcitonin
  31. What are PTH’s targets ?
    • Bones,
    • Small intestines, and
    • Kidneys
  32. PTH increases absorption of calcium and phosphate from the food in the small intestines by activating _____ in the kidneys
    Vitamin D
  33. The overall effect of PTH is to ______
    Raise the blood calcium level and lower the blood phosphate level
  34. PTH secretion is stimulated by _____ and is inhibited by _____
    • Hypocalcemia
    • Hypercalcemia
  35. _____is the most important regulator of blood calcium level in adults
  36. The adrenal glands are located
    On the top of each kidney
  37. What main catecholamines are secreted by the adrenal medulla
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
  38. ______ is secreted in larger amounts and increases HR and force of contraction, stimulates vasoconstrictionof the skin and skeletal muscles, dialates the bronchioles, and decreases peristalsis.
  39. What can cause the secretion if epinephrine and norepinephrine
  40. The most significant function of norepinephrine is
    Vasoconstriction in skin and viscera thereby raising BP
  41. The adrenal cortex secreted what types of steroid hormones?
    • Mineralcorticoids (salt)
    • Glucocorticoids (sugar)
    • Sex hormones
  42. What is the most abundant mineralcorticoid from the adrenal cortex?
  43. ______ helps the body reabsorb sodium and excrete K+
  44. What is the most abundant glucocorticoid from the adrenal cortex?
  45. ____ stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver; this increase capabilities of energy production and it has an anti inflammatory effect.
  46. ______ is also a stress hormone
  47. Excess cortisol can have damaging effects such as:
    • Raising glucose levels
    • Decreasing the immune response
    • Delays healing of damaged tissue
  48. The _____ extends from the curve of the duodenum to the spleen
  49. The endocrine parts of the pancreas are called_______
    Islets of langergans
  50. Glucagon secretion is stimulates by
  51. Delta cells in the islets secretes________ which inhibits secretion of both insulin and glucagon
  52. ____ increases the transport of glucose from the blood into cells by increasing the permeability if cell membranes to glucose
  53. The pancreas excretes ______ and ______
    Insulin and glucagon
  54. _______ disorders are caused by problems outside of the gland
  55. _______ disorders are a problem within the gland
  56. ______ _______ is caused by a deficiency of ADH
    Diabetes Insipidus
  57. S/S associated with DI
    • Increased urination
    • Extreme thirst
    • Dehydration (main concern)
    • Increased fluid loss
    • May develop an enlarged bladder and kidney damage if consistently holding urine
  58. ______ are the most reliable method for monitoring the amount of fluid being lost
    Daily weights
  59. This disorder is a result of too much ADH
    • SIADH
    • Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone
  60. This disorder causes an excess of water to be reabsorbed by the kidney tubules and collecting ducts, leading to decreases iron out put and fluid over load
  61. Normal calcium
  62. NormL serum sodium level
  63. ______ is responsible for normal growth of bones, cartilage, and soft tissue
    Growth hormone
  64. ________ occurs when growth hormone is deficient in childhood

    *a deficiency in adult hood does not effect growth
  65. _______ is the most common cause of GH deficiency world wide
  66. Diagnostic test for GH deficiency
    • GH levels
    • MRI
  67. _______ a rare excess of GH that effects adults usually in their 30s or 40s
    If it occurs in children the condition is gigantism
  68. Deficient secretion of T3 and T4 (TH)
  69. Excess secretion of T3 and T4 (TH)
  70. Hypothyroidism in adults is called
  71. ______ hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to produce enough TH even with enough TSH
  72. ________ hypothyroidism is caused by low levels of TSH which fails to stimulate the release of TH
  73. ______ hypothyroidism results from inadequate release of TRH
  74. _______ is an autoimmune disorder that eventually destroys thyroid tissue leading to hypothyroidism
  75. _______ hyperthyroidism occurs when a problem within the thyroid gland causes excess hormone release
  76. _____ hyperthyroidism occurs because of excess TSH release from pituitary
  77. _____ hyperthyroidism is caused by excess TRH from the hypothalamus
  78. ____ is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism ( thyroid stimulating antibodies are present in the blood of affected patients)
    Graves’ disease
  79. Enlargement of the thyroid gland
  80. Care of radioactive patients
    • Avoid pregnant women and getting pregnant (for a year)
    • Increase fluids
    • Avoid close contact with people (1 week)
    • Throughly wash eating utensil
    • Body secretions are considered radioactive
  81. What foods to avoid with goiter( that interfere with the body’s use of
    • Horseradish
    • Broccoli
    • Cabbage
    • Turnips
    • Cauliflower
    • Carrots
  82. An ominous sign that relates to goiter and should be reported immediately
    Stridor or obstructed air way
  83. Post op care for thyroidectomy
    • Check back if neck for pooling of blood
    • Monitor serum calcium levels
    • Any even since if tetany
    • Watch for respiratory distress
  84. Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone in response to
    Low serum calcium levels
  85. Decreased PTH activity is called
  86. Increase PTH activity is called
    Hyper parathyroid
  87. As calcium levels fall, phosphate levels ___
  88. _____ is an uncommon tumor that arises from the chrimaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
  89. ______ is the insufficient production of the hormones of the adrenal cortex also known as adrenocortical insufficiency
    Addison’s disease
  90. A disorder characterized by excess secretion of too much ACTH by the pituitary
    Cushing’s disease
  91. S/S of this disorder include Buffalo hump, obesity with thin extremities, thin skin, moon face
    Cushing’s disease
  92. _____ is a group of metabolic diseases in which defects in insulin secretion or action in high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia)
    Diabetes mellitus
  93. ______ is the leading cause of lowering limb amputation in the US
    Diabetes mellitus
  94. Glucose is able to enter the cells only with the help of
  95. ______ and _____ work together to keep the blood glucose at a constant level
    Glucagon and insulin
  96. Insulin dependent DM.
    The pancreas does not produce insulin.
    Common in children and teens .
    Type 1 DM
  97. ________ is common with DM type 1
  98. _______ is when blood glucose is elevated, and ketones are seen in the blood and urine
  99. 95% of diabetics have type
  100. ____ is when the body tissues (cells) are resistant to insulin
    Type 2 DM
  101. ______ refers to blood glucose levels that are above normal but do not meet the criteria for diagnosing diabetes
    Pre diabetes
  102. ______ May develop as a result of another chronic illness that damaged the islet cells, such as pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis
    Secondary diabetes
  103. ______ is diagnosed when atleast 3 of a list of criteria are met
    Metabolic syndrome
  104. Diabetes is found to be linked to
    Metabolic syndrome
  105. S/S of hyperglycemia are the three P’s which are
    • Polysipsia
    • Polyuria
    • Polyphagia
  106. _______ is a result of the 3 P’s of hyperglycemia which is glucose in the urine
  107. There is currently ______ way to prevent type 1
    No known
  108. There are ways to prevent or delay onset of type 2 DN which include
    Weight loss and regular exercise
  109. The only cure for DM is
    Pancreas transplant
  110. ______ is limited in patients with any degree of kidney impairment
  111. What insulin’s can’t be mixed
    70/30 and lantus
  112. Insulin is mixed clean to _____ or clear to____
    • Dirty
    • Cloudy
  113. ______ May be at fault when the patients BS seems to be rising in spite of increasing insulin doses
  114. ______ is thought to occur because of the natural release of GH and cortisol during early morning hours which causes hyperglycemia
    The Dawn Phenomenom
  115. _____ is an injectable medication that’s works in conjunction with oral hypoglycemic medications and stimulates insulin secretion, lowers production of glucagon, slows gastric emptying, and promotes weight loss.
  116. _____may be found in urine if BS of 180 or greater is present
  117. Most common cause of hyperglycemia is __________ and __________
    Eating mode than the meal plan prescribes and stress
  118. Normal Be range
  119. _____ occurs when Bs levels become very high and insulin is deficient
    DKA (diabetic ketoacidosis)
  120. If BS is a pick 30” the patient should use a _____ _______ to check for ketones in the urine
    Urine you Dip stick
  121. ______ occurs primarily in type 2 DM, when BS levels are high as a result of stress or illness.
    • HHNK
    • (Hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic, non ketotic ssyndrome)
  122. Diabetes is the leading cause of ____ _____ _____ In the US
    End stage renal disease
  123. BS must maintain ____ or below for effective wound healing to occur
  124. _____ occurs when the BS drops below a normal level, usually below 50
    Reactive hypoglycemia
  125. A diabetics patient needs to maintain a high _____ and low _____ diet
    Protein, Carbohydrate
  126. : impaired vision
  127. : burning pain in legs and feet
  128. :Profound hyperglycemia without ketones in urine
  129. : ketones in blood and urine
  130. :food intolerance
  131. DKA occurs mainly in which type of diabetics
    Type I
  132. What symptoms do you expect if a patient forget to take a dose of glynuride?
    Fatigue, thirst, blurred vision
  133. What is the acceptable blood sugar range for a patient with diabetes
  134. What routes can insulin be administered?
    IV and SQ
  135. Before giving insulin the nurse should always check
    BS level
  136. What is the peak for NPH insulin?
    6-12 hrs
  137. What is the peak action of regular insulin
    2-5 hours
  138. S/S of hypoglycemia
    Cold, clammy skin, and tremor
  139. Some patients use SQ glucagon for emergency episodes of
  140. S/S of hyperglycemia
    3 Ps ( polyphagia,polyuria,polydipsia)
  141. What test measures blood glucose I. Intervals after a patient drinks a concentrated carb drink
    Oral glucose tolerance test
  142. Normal HbA1C levels
  143. NPH is a _____ acting
  144. Lantus is a ____ acting
  145. Regular insulin is a ______ acting
  146. Humalog is a ______ acting
    Very short acting
  147. What may cause a patients breath to smell sweet and fruity?
  148. What medication may help reduce painful nerve implicates related to neuropothy
  149. What laboratory test on diabetics indicates compliance
    Hgb A 1C
  150. What is the stimulus for secretion of calcitonin?
  151. What hormones are included in the sex hormones excreted by the adrenal cortex?
    Estrogens and androgens
  152. The pancreas contains islets of Langerhans which contains alpha cells that produce_____ and beta cells that produce insulin
  153. The patient states they are experiencing dry skin, hair and feeling cold. What would you suspect?
  154. S/S of hyperthyroidism
    Heat intolerance, fatigue, and tachycardia
  155. A patient is being treated for low calcium. They begin complaining of tingling in the fingers and peri oral area. This leads you to suspect?
  156. Low cortisol levels causes hypocalcemia, weakness, and fatigue with the most significant being hypotension one what disorder?
    Addisons disease
  157. Steroid therapy can cause_____ and _____
    Osteoporosis and increase BS
  158. Tetany is caused by
  159. What may be seen with insufficient PTH
    Hypocalcemia and tetany
  160. What may be seen with excess PTH
    Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism
  161. ADH hypofunction disordering
    Diabetes insipidus
  162. GH hypofunction disorder
  163. TH hypofunction disorder
  164. Epinephrine hyperfunction is
  165. PTH hypofunction disorder is
  166. Cortisol hypofunction is
    Addisons disease
  167. GH hyperfunction is
  168. ADH hyper function is
  169. TH hyperfunction is
  170. PRH hyperfunction is
  171. People at risk for iodine deficiency are
    Strict vegetarians
  172. Iodine toxicity has occurred in
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