Resting Energy Requirement calculation
- 70 x (kg)3/4 = k9
- 40 x kg = fel
Rehydration volume calculation
% dehydrated x BW kg x total body water (0.6) = re-hydration fluids required
Effective osmolality calculation
2(Na) + (glulcose/18)
[2 (Na + K)] + [glucose / 18] + [Bun / 2.8]
diastolic + [(systolic - diastolic) / 3]
A-a gradient calculation
(PAO2 - PaO2)
PAO2 = (FiO2 x (barometric pressure - water vapor)) - PaCO2/RQ
A-a gradient water vapor and barometric pressure values
- Water vapor = 47 mmHg
- Barometric pressure = 760 mmHg sea level
- 615 mmHg Denver
What is the RQ in A-a gradient?
- RQ = respiratory quotient
- CO2 production / O2 consumption
- ~0.9 (0.7 - 1.0)
Corrected Cl calculation
- Cl x normal Na/Measure Na
- Norm Na dog = 107-113 meq/L
- fel = 117 - 123 meq/L
Total body water calculation
534-660 ml/kg "normal" weight
Corrected Na calculation
Na measured + 1.6 ([measured glucose - normal glucose] / 100)
- VTS SG = 8-15 ml/kg
- work = 15 ml/kg
Coronary perfusion pressure calculation
Aortic diastolic pressure - Right atrial diastolic pressure
Cerebral perfusion pressure calculation
MAP - intracranial pressure
Free water deficit calculation
0.6 x BW kg (1 - 140 / serum Na)
What drugs is a fluid bag delivery of a CRI more appropriate for and why? (3)
- 1. Lidocaine
- 2. ketamine
- 3. dexmedetomidine
- not necessarily as variable as opioids in their dosing, can likely remain at same level for longer period of time
How much are fluid bags overfilled and can this change/why?
Overfilled by ~10% by manufacturer, then lose volume due to evaporative losses over time
What is the 10% rule?
If a drug added to a fluid bag is 10% or more of the volume in the bag, then that volume should be removed from the bag prior to addition of the drug
How do you add a drug to a burette and what is something to remember when adding more than 1 ml?
- After adding medication to injection port, instill ~1 ml of sterile fluid to flush the port to ensure entire medication dose is delivered.
- When adding volumes > 1 ml, withdraw same amount of air from the burette to minimize pressure changes that affect the filling of the burette by gravity. Swirl burette to mix, do not invert as it damages air inlet at the top of the burette.
Squeezing a burette?
Avoid. Squeezing causes pressure changes within the chamber and impedes flow by gravity into the chamber.
How much dead space is typically found in the needle, hub of the needle, and hub of the syringe?
0.1 - 0.2 ml
Chemical incompatibilities are:
those that result in a loss of potency of greater than 10% over a period of time in which they were tested