1. grouphate
    the feeling of antipathy and hostility many people have about working in a group, fostered by the many ineffective, time-wasting groups that exist
  2. group
    • three or more people with an interdependent goal who interact and influence each other
    • “persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person” (Marvin Shaw)
  3. interdependent goal
    an objective shared by members of a small group in such a way that one member cannot achieve the goal without the other members also achieving it
  4. small group
    a group of at least three but few enough members for each person to perceive all others as individuals, share some identity or common purpose, and share standards for governing their activities as members
  5. small group discussion
    a small group of people communicating with each other to achieve some interdependent goal, such as increased understanding, coordination of activity or solution to a shared problem
  6. Types of Small Groups
    • primary group
    • secondary group
    • activity group
    • personal growth group
    • learning group
  7. primary group
    a group whose main purpose is to meet members’ needs for inclusion and affection
  8. secondary group
    a group whose major purpose is to complete a task, such as making a decision, solving a problem, writing a report, or providing recommendation to a parent organization
  9. activity group
    a group formed primarily for members to participate in an activity such as bridge, bowling, hunting, and so forth
  10. personal growth group
    a group of people who come together to develop personal insights, overcome personality problems, and grow personally through feedback and support of others
  11. learning group
    a group discussing for the purpose of learning about and understanding a subject more completely
  12. problem-solving group
    a group whose purpose is finding ways to solve a problem or address a particular condition
  13. committee
    a small group of people given an assigned task or responsibility by a larger group (or parent organization) or person with authority
  14. ad hoc committee
    a group that goes out of existence after its specific task has been completed
  15. standing committee
    a group given an area of responsibility that includes many tasks and continues indefinitely
  16. quality control circle
    a group of employees who meet on company time to investigate work-related problems and to make recommendations for solving these problems
  17. self-managed work group
    a small group of peers who determine within prescribed limits their own work schedules and procedures
  18. top management team (TMT)
    a team composed of top officers of an organization charged with making complex strategic decisions
  19. social loafer
    a person who makes a minimal contribution to the group and assumes the other members will take up the slack
  20. participant-observer
    an active participant in a small group who at the same time observes and evaluates its processes and procedures
  21. ethics
    the rules or standards that a person or group uses to determine whether conduct or behavior is right and appropriate
  22. contexts
    the situations or environments that influence the dynamics of communication
  23. communication
    a process in which messages produced by people are received, interpreted, and responded to by other people
  24. symbol
    • an arbitrary, human creation used to represent something with which it has no inherent relationship;
    • all words are symbols
  25. transactional process
    all interactants mutually and simultaneously define both themselves and others during communication
  26. message
    any action, sound, or word used in interaction
  27. listening
    receiving and interpreting oral and other signals from another person or source
  28. Listening Preferences
    • people-oriented listener
    • action-oriented listener
    • content-organized listener
    • time-oriented listener
  29. people-oriented listener
    a listener who is sensitive to others, nonjudgmental, and concerned about how his or her behavior affects others; can become distracted from task by others’ problems
  30. action-oriented listener
    a listener who focuses on the task, remembers details and prefers an organized presentation
  31. content-organized listener
    a listener who enjoys analyzing information and dissecting others’ arguments; can be seen as overly critical
  32. time-oriented listener
    • a listener sensitive to time;
    • may be impatient or try to move group prematurely to closure
  33. Characteristics of a Good Listener
    Good listeners...
    • 1. Pay attention to the context of what is said.
    • 2. Pay close attention to the feelings of the speaker.
    • 3. Help facilitate understanding in the group.
    • 4. Interpret silence carefully.
  34. active listening
    listening with the intent of understanding a speaker the way the speaker wishes to be understood and paraphrasing your understanding so the speaker can confirm or correct the paraphrase
  35. paraphrase
    restatement in one’s own words of what one understood a speaker to mean
  36. computer-mediated communication (CMC)
    group members’ use of computers to communicate with one another
  37. net conference
    a conference that takes place electronically over networked computers
  38. social presence
    the extent to which group members perceive that a particular communication medium is socially and emotionally similar to face-to-face interaction
  39. asynchronous communication
    communication where there is a delay between messages (such as e-mail)
  40. nonverbal behavior
    messages other than words to which listeners react
  41. emoticons
    symbols and combinations of characters used in computer-mediated communication to help convey relational messages and social presence
  42. regulators
    nonverbal behavior used to control who speaks during a discussion
  43. proxemics
    the study of uses of space and territory between and among people
  44. paraproxemics
    the illusion of proximity individuals may have when they are using vieoconferences for group business
  45. kinesics
    study of communication through movements
  46. paralanguage
    nonverbal characteristics of voice and utterance such as pitch, rate, tone of voice, fluency, pauses, and variations in dialect
  47. backchannel
    • nonverbal vocalizations such as mm-hmm and uh-huh that are uttered while another is speaking;
    • partly determined by one’s culture, can indicate one’s interest and active listening
  48. dialect
    a regional variation in the pronunciation, vocabulary, and/or grammar of a language
  49. haptics
    the study of perception of and use of touch
  50. system
    an entity made up of components in interdependent relationship to each other, requiring constant adaptation among its parts to maintain organic wholeness and balance
  51. interdependence
    the property of a system such that all parts are interrelated and affect each other as well as the whole system
  52. nonsummativity
    the property of a system that the whole is not the sum of its parts, but may be greater or lesser than the sum
  53. equifinality
    the system’s principle that different systems can reach the same end point
  54. multifinality
    the system’s principle that systems starting out at the same place can reach different end points
  55. multiple causation
    the principle that each change in a system is caused by numerous factors
  56. variables
    observable characteristics or qualities that can vary
  57. input variables
    • the energy, information, and raw material used by an open system that are transformed into output by throughput processes;
    • in a small group these include the members; the reasons for the group’s formation; resources such as information, expertise, money, and computer technology; and environmental conditions and forces that influence the group
  58. throughput variables
    • the actual functioning of a system or how the system transforms inputs into outputs
    • (e.g. roles, rules, and norms; procedures the group follows; the group’s leadership; communication among members; and all the other things that are part of the process as the group works toward completing its task)
  59. output variables
    • anything that is produced by a system, such as a tangible product or a change in the system;
    • in a small group, includes such things as reports, resolutions, changes in cohesiveness, and attitude changes in members
  60. environment
    the context or setting in which a small group system exists; the larger systems of which a small group is a component
  61. open system
    a system with relatively permeable boundaries, producing a high degree of interchange between the system and its environment
  62. closed system
    a system, such as a small group, with relatively impermeable boundaries, resulting in little interchange between the system and its environment
  63. feedback
    • a response to a system’s output;
    • it may come in the form of information or tangible resources and helps the system determine whether or not it needs to make adjustments in moving toward its goal
  64. bona fide group perspective
    the perspective that focuses on naturally occurring groups with stable but permeable boundaries and are interdependent with their environment
  65. collaborating group
    a group whose members come from different organizations to form a temporary alliance for a specific purpose
  66. boundary spanners
    a group member who monitors the group’s environment to import and export information relevant to the group’s success
  67. ethnocentric
    • the belief that one’s own culture is inherently superior to all others;
    • tendency to view other cultures through the viewpoint of one’s own culture
  68. culture
    the patterns of values, beliefs, symbols, norms, procedures, and behaviors, that have been historically transmitted to and are shared by a given group of persons
  69. cultural identity
    the identification with and acceptance of a particular group’s shared symbols, meanings, norms and rules for conduct
  70. co-culture
    a grouping that sees itself as distinct but is also part of a larger grouping
  71. intracultural communication
    interaction between and among individuals from the same culture or co-culture
  72. intercultural communication
    interaction between and among individuals from different cultures or co-cultures
  73. worldview
    one’s beliefs about the nature of life, the purpose of life, and one’s relation to the cosmos
  74. individualistic culture
    culture in which the needs and wishes of the individual predominate over the needs of the group
  75. collectivist culture
    a culture in which the needs and wishes of the group predominate over the needs of any one individual
  76. power distance
    • the degree to which a culture emphasizes status and power differences among members of the culture;
    • status differences are minimized in low power-distance cultures and emphasized in high power-distance cultures
  77. uncertainty avoidance
    • the degree to which members of a culture avoid or embrace uncertainty and ambiguity;
    • cultures high in uncertainty avoidance prefer clear rules for interaction whereas cultures low in uncertainty avoidance are comfortable without guidelines
  78. masculinity
    the quality of cultures that value assertiveness and dominance
  79. femininity
    the quality of cultures that value nurturing and caring for others
  80. low-context communication
    communication wherein the primary meaning of a message is carried by the verbal or explicit part of the message
  81. high-context communication
    communication wherein the primary meaning of a message is conveyed by features of the situation or context instead of the verbal, explicit part of the message
  82. gender
    learned and culturally transmitted sex-role behaviors of an individual
  83. sex
    biologically determined characteristics of femaleness and maleness
  84. builder generation
    • individuals born before 1945;
    • key experiences include the Great Depression and World War II
  85. boomer generation
    • individuals born from 1946 to 1964;
    • key experiences include the Vietnam war, the civil rights movement, and Watergate
  86. X generation
    • individuals born from 1965 to 1976;
    • key experience includes divorce on a massive scale
  87. net generation
    • individuals born from 1977 to 1997;
    • the first truly “wired” generation, comfortable with technology in all forms
  88. mindful communication
    communication in which the participants are thoughtful, paying careful attention to what the other participants say and also to what they say
Card Set
Chapters 1-4