SAND FLIES PHE

  1. INTRODUCTION
    These flies get the common name of sand flies (not to be confused with sand flies in subfamily Phlebotominae of the Psychodidae) from their being a major pest in coastal areas, biting midges because of their painful bite and the strong resemblance of some species to midges, and that of no-see-ums from the fact that most people do not see them because of their small size. These are a pest because of the severe or painful bites they inflict, and they are vectors of disease in livestock. Although found throughout the United States and Canada, they are concentrated along coastal areas and waterways.
  2. RECOGNITION
    • SAND FLIES
    • female with WHAT AND WHAT mouthparts.

    biting and sucking
  3. SAND FLIES
    Antennae usually 15-segmented (range 13-15), male’s WHAT AND WHAT
    plumose or featherlike.
  4. SAND FLIES
    Larvae of Leptoconops burrow in soil, primarily in arid areas and on
    coastal and inland beaches.
  5. SAND FLIES
    Fortunately in the United States, biting midges/sand flies are not
    known to be disease vectors to humans.
  6. SAND FLIES
    However, Culicoides spp. are vectors of blue tongue virus in
    sheep and cattle and epizootic haemorrhagic disease in the Virginian white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann).
  7. SAND FLIES
    Adults typically live in moist areas around the
    larval habitat.
  8. SAND FLIES
    in heavily fertilized areas frequented by
    livestock
  9. SAND FLIES
    Most species of sand flies are crepuscular, active at
    dusk/sunset.
  10. SAND FLIES
    Both sexes commonly feed on
    nectar but some males do not feed.
  11. SAND FLIES
    The mouthparts are somewhat crude compared to
    mosquitoes.
  12. SAND FLIES
    They use a sawlike motion to gain entry through the skin which typically causes a
    sharp pain and leaves a bright red dot
  13. SAND FLIES
    WHAT can be intense and usually lasts for several days.
    Itching
  14. SAND FLIES
    The intensity of their WHAT is far out of proportion to their size
    bite
  15. SAND FLIES
    and they can be very voracious and persistent
    feeders.
  16. SAND FLIES
    assemble in swarms for
    mating purposes.
  17. SAND FLIES
    Such swarms maintain a to-and-fro dancing flight above a landmark such as a
    bush or pond margin.
  18. SAND FLIES
    For control in structures,
    exclusion is the only practical method.
  19. SAND FLIES
    Special fine-mesh screening which is
    punkie-proof must be used
  20. SAND FLIES
    In commercial structures, the use of
    air curtains can also be quite effective for exclusion.
  21. SAND FLIES
    most satisfactory control method has been impoundment that was originally devised for
    saltmarsh mosquito control.
  22. SAND FLIES
    With this method, a dike is built to permanently maintain the
    water level 2-3" (5-8 cmm) above the mud surface.
    IMPOUNDMENT
Author
ianquinto
ID
351452
Card Set
SAND FLIES PHE
Description
SAND FLIES PHE
Updated