Chapter 1 Commercial Pesticide Applicator Study Manual Public Health

  1. Define the term pest
    Living things that compete with us for food, fiber, and space, or attack us directly are pests.
  2. Define the term host
    The living plant or animal some pests depend on for survival.
  3. List five main groups of pests
    • Insects, mites, ticks, and spiders.
    • Snails and slugs.
    • Vertebrates.
    • Plant disease agents.
    • Weeds.
  4. Name two identifying characteristics common to all adult insects.
    • Six jointed legs.
    • Three body regions.
  5. Name two characteristics which aid in distinguishing one insect from another.
    • Wings.
    • Mouth parts.
  6. Explain the differences between the basic life cycles of insects.
    • Ametabolous (without metamorphosis) - The adults lay eggs. A nymph which looks like a tiny adult hatches from the egg and goes through several stages. These nymphs change into wingless adults. Usually, the nymphs and adults have similar mouth parts and eat the same types of food.  And example of this kind of insect is the bristletail.
    • Hemimetabolous (gradual metamorphosis) - nymphs hatch from eggs. These nymphs, which have no wings, go through several growing stages before changing into winged adults. Examples are chewing lice, sucking lice, thrips, termites, grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, true bugs, aphids, leafhoppers, spittle bugs, and the scale insects.
    • Holometabolous (complete) - they go through four stages. The egg hatches into a larva. The lava is a worm this is the stage in which these insects grow the most and do the most damage. When full-grown, the larva changes into a pupa. During this stage it changes into the adult. The adult stage usually has wings. The larvae and adults may have completely different mouth parts and may eat food from entirely different sources, or they may have similar mouthparts in the same types of food. Examples of insects in this category are months, butterflies, Beatles, flies, mosquitoes, bees, wires, ants, and sawflies.
  7. Name three identifying characteristics of mites, ticks, and spiders.
    • Have eight jointed legs instead of six.
    • Have two body regions.
    • Do not have wings.
  8. List four types of vertebrate animals that can be pests.
    • Fish.
    • Reptiles and amphibians.
    • Birds.
    • Mammals.
  9. List types of living organisms that cause plant diseases.
    • Fungi.
    • Bacteria.
    • Viruses.
    • Nematodes.
  10. List three main ways a plant responds to infection by a plant disease agent.
    • Over development of tissue, such as galls, swellings, and leaf curls.
    • Underdevelopment of tissue, such as stunting, lack of chlorophyll, and incomplete development of organs.
    • Death of tissue, such as blights, leaf spots, wilting, and cankers.
  11. Define weeds.
    Plants are considered weeds when they interfere with human activities or welfare. Weeds are simply plants growing where they are not wanted or in a way that is not desirable.
  12. State the characteristics of herbaceous grasses.
    Grass seedlings have only one leaf as they emerge from the seed. Their leaves are generally narrow and upright with parallel veins. Most grasses have fibrous root systems. The growing point on the seedling grasses is sheathed and located below the soil surface. The growing point gradually moves above the soil as the plant grows and matures. Examples of weed species are crabgrass, Johnsongrass, Bermudagrass, and annual bluegrass.
  13. State the characteristics of broadleaf plants.
    Herbaceous (plants that do not develop persistent woody tissue above ground) broadleaf seedlings have two seed leaves as they emerge from the seed. Their true leaves are generally broad with net like veins. Broadleaves usually have a taproot and a relatively course root system. All actively growing broadleaf plants have exposed growing points at the end of each stem and in each leaf axil. Perennial broadleaved plants may also have growing points on roots and stems below the surface of the soil.  Examples of broadleaf weed species include pigweed, mullein, dandelion, plantain, henbit, and spurge.
  14. State the characteristics of woody plants.
    • Woody plants are those that form word. They include:
    • Brush and shrubs - woody plants that have several stems are less than 10 feet tall. When trees are present, brush or shrubs may be called understory.
    • Trees - woody plants that have a single stem trunk and are over 10 feet tall.
  15. Explain the developmental stages of plants.
    • All plants have four stages of development:
    • Seedling - Small and vulnerable. Seed leaves still present or seed leaves lost and true leaves present.
    • Vegetative - Rapid growth of stems, roots, and foliage. Uptake of water and nutrients is rapid.
    • Reproductive - Little or no growth; production of flowers and fruit. Uptake and movement of water and nutrients slow and directed mainly to reproductive parts: flowers, fruits, and seeds.
    • Maturity - Little or no growth. Movement of water and nutrients in plant is slow.
  16. Explain the difference in life cycle for annuals, biennials, and perennials.
    Annuals complete all four stages of development in less than 12 months. Biennials complete their life cycle in two years. Biennial plants complete the seedling and vegetative stages of growth in the first year and the seed production and maturity stages in the second year. Perennials may complete all four stages in the first year and then repeat the vegetative, seed production, and maturity stages for several following years, or the seed production and maturity stages may be delayed for several years.
  17. What type of plant is pigweed?
  18. What type of plant is mullein?
  19. What type of plant is henbit?
  20. What type of plant is Johnsongrass?
  21. What kind of plant is curly dock?
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Chapter 1 Commercial Pesticide Applicator Study Manual Public Health