bio 380 final

  1. These recreational alkaloids were introduced to Europe with European expansion.
    Caffeine and Theobromine
  2. Caffeine and theobromine alkaloids are structurally….
  3. Drinks with stimulating alkaloids
    Cocoa, coffee, and tea
  4. What are the alkaloids in Cacao?
    Caffeine and theobromine
  5. What are the alkaloids in coffee?
  6. What are the alkaloids in Tea?
    Caffeine and theophylline
  7. Blocks adenosine from attaching to receptors. Constricts blood vessels, speeds heartbeat, raises blood pressure, and stimulates locomotor activity. Also acts as a mild diuretic.
  8. How much caffeine is in Coffee?
  9. How much caffeine in tea?
    50 mg/c
  10. How much caffeine in Cocoa?
  11. How much caffeine in soft drinks?
  12. How much caffeine in No-Doz?
  13. How much caffeine in Vivarin 200mg?
  14. How much caffeine in Excedrin?
  15. How much caffeine in Midol?
  16. How much caffeine in Aqua-Ban?
  17. How much caffeine in weight-control aids?
  18. What are the withdrawals from caffeine?
    Severe headaches caused by dilated blood vessels.
  19. How did people originally get the caffeine out of the coffee plant?
    Chewed leaves and fruits
  20. What are coffee beans?
  21. How are coffee beans processed?
    Fruit wall removed, seeds then fermented and roasted.
  22. What are the two ways the the fruit wall can be removed?
    Dry or wet.
  23. How is instant coffee made?
    Brewed and then dried
  24. Decaffeination can be done by two way.
    Solvent extraction and water extraction
  25. Extract with organic solvent like methylene chloride or ethyl actetate. Drive of solvent leaving behind commercial caffeine and decaffeinated coffee.
  26. Extract with water saturated in all water-soluble compounds except caffeine. Does not produce marketable caffeine.
    Water extraction
  27. In Theobroma cacao, what is used?
    Seeds are used. They are high in fat.
  28. Seeds are fermented and roasted. Originally mixed with pepper and vanilla. Gained popularity in Europe when mixed with sugar and cinnamon.
    Cocoa processing
  29. Human detoxify theobromine more rapidly than?
  30. Dogs enzymes cannot break this down. Takes about 17 hours compared to our 2-3. Excessive urination, hyperactivity, heart arrhythmia, and seizures
  31. What is the main plant used for tea?
    Camellia sinensis
  32. What is harvested for tea?
    Young leaves and shoot tips
  33. This alkaloid is in tea and is used to treat asthma. It relaxes smooth muscles of bronchial airways and opens them.
  34. This kind of tea: Leaf enzymes inactivated quickly. (Steamed, rolled, and dried)
    Green tea
  35. This kind of tea: leaves withered, then rolled, then fermented, then enzymes inactivated.
    Black tea
  36. Polyphenolic compounds that bind to complex proteins. Are in all the drinks we talked about but especially tea,
  37. Tannins can…
    Bind metals, act as an anti-oxidant, bind to alkaloids
  38. A polyphenolic compound in green tea that may have anti-cancer properties.
    Epigallo-cathechin 3-Gallate. EGCG
  39. Long-chain hydrocarbons with out oxygen, except at the carboxylic acid head.
    Fatty acids
  40. Oils and acids contain?
    Fatty acids
  41. Oils are?
  42. Membrane are made of?
    Phospholipids very similar to oil
  43. Oils with shorter fatty acids melt at?
    Lower temperature
  44. Unsaturated fatty acids don’t pack as tightly. Therefor?
    More fluid and lower melting points.
  45. Triacylglyceride to which hydrogen has been added to remove double bonds. Solid at room temperature.
    Hydrogenated oil.
  46. By-product of hydrogenation is?
    Trans-fatty acids. Hydrogenated oil exposed to high heat
  47. Trans fats are linked to heart disease by?
    Raising LDL (bad) and lowering HDL (good)
  48. These ate fatty-acids esters of long chain mono-hydroxy alcohols.
  49. Plant cells that store oil store it in membrane-bound organelles called?
    Spherosomes, oleosomes, oil bodies.
  50. Storage oil oils usual found?
    In seeds
  51. Some pools are found in mesocarps of fruit walls.
    Palms olives
  52. W use oils in foods and other products.
    Castor oil laxative and soap
  53. Oil treated with KOH or NaOH
  54. Oil recovery?
    Cold pressing or solvent extraction
  55. How can you eliminate impurities in oil.
    Degumming. Winterizing, deodorize, bleach
  56. Elimination meth: mix with water to remove mucilaginous substances
  57. Eliminating meth: cool & filter out crystallized particles
  58. Eliminating meth: heat woth steam under vacuum
  59. Eliminating meth: remove pigments with diatomaceous earth
  60. Drying oils. Can polymerize to form a water-proof coating
    Polyunsaturated oil.
  61. Linseed oils and tuna oil used as?
    Polishes, components of varnish and enamels, in paint, linoleum
  62. This groves linseed oil.
    Linux usitatissimum
  63. Where I stung oil from?
    Aleurites fordii from china
  64. Waxes are found where?
    In the cuticles of plants
  65. From the leaf surface of a palm tree.
    Carnuba wax
  66. Any mixture of organic compounds and water produced in laticifers.
  67. Large polymers of isoprene with elastic properties.
  68. Latex may contain.
    Long chain terpenoids compounds, proteins, alkaloids, phenol is, resins, sugars, etc
  69. Rubber in latex occurs as?
    Suspended particles (emulsion
  70. Rubber particles are surrounded by a film or membrane of?
    Glycolipids and phosphoproteins
  71. Other bodies in latex.
    Lutoids and Frey-wyssling complexes.
  72. Membrane-bound bodies, larger than rubber particles. Behave like vacuoles.
  73. Bound by double membrane. Contain osmophillic granules and system of rope-like tubules contain carotenoids.
  74. Latex occurs in… may be single cells or a series of connected cells.
  75. Latex occurs in many species and tissues.
    Opium poppy members of the Euphorbiaceae, milkweeds, the moraceae,
  76. Over 2000 species of plants produce lasted with 1-4 cis-polyisoprene.
  77. What was th pre-industrial use of elastic dried latex in central and South America.
    Aztecs used it for balls and figures. Amazon Indians used them on their feet to waterproof.
  78. Draw-backs to using native rubber.
    • It becomes brittle in cold weather and gooey in hot weather.
    • Who invented vulcanization.
    • Charles Goodyear.
  79. Has dominated the natural rubber industry.
    Hevea brasiliensis
  80. How do they get Hevea brasilienses to produce rubber
    Layers of laticifers in phloem. Tapping doesn’t damage the cambium
  81. Hevea supplies from SE Asia were cut off during WWII. The emergency rubber project started. What were the solutions?
    32000 acres of Guayule planted and synthetic rubber from petroleum was developed.
  82. Where is the latex in the Guayule plant?
    Laticifers cells scattered throughout the parenchyma in stem, leave and root.
  83. What are the five families of rubber?
    Euphorbiacea, Saportacceae, Moraceae, and Apocynaceae.
  84. Current uses of natural rubber?
    Tires for heavy vehicles and medical industry.
  85. Exudates that are not soluble in water, burn readily, are viscous liquids to solids.
  86. Resins primarily contain?
    Diterpene and triterpenes and some phenolic substances.
  87. The term gum has many different things. What is the technical term for gum?
    Complex carbohydrates soluble in water.
  88. Non-technical use of the term gum?
    Anything sticky and resins in trade are called gums
  89. Resinous exudates from plants may be?
    High in volatile terpenes, a mixture of resin and gum, and a mixture of resin essential oil and gum.
  90. High in volatile terpenes essential oils?
  91. A mixture of resin and gum.
  92. A mixture of resin, essential oil and gum
  93. Produced by secretory trichomes on surface or secretory cells lining ducts.
  94. Cannabis resin produced by?
    Glandular trichomes
  95. Functions of surface resins?
    Defense, water-proofing, protection from UV?
  96. This plant has resins used for many medicinal purposes (asthma). Resins dominated by phenolic compounds.
    Eriodictyon Yerba santa
  97. Resins we use in large quantities tend to e from species with?
    Resin ducts or canals. Defensive function of these resins is more clear.
  98. Resins from pine (pine pitch) occurs in?
    Resin canals throughout the plant
  99. Pitch tubes protect pines from?
    Bark beetles.
  100. Resin used to caulk wooden ships and..
    Preserve rigging
  101. A distillate from resin used in paint thinners
  102. Residue left from distillate. Used in varnish and oil-based paints, also in music industry and baseball.
  103. Turpentine and rosin can also be obtained…
    As a by-product of the pulping process for paper manufacturers.
  104. Can also be obtained by steam distillation of wood chips.
  105. Can be obtained by steam distillation of pine needles, twigs, and cones. Further distilled and fractionated to obtain pinene and other essential oils.
    Pine oil
  106. Nontechnical term for dark viscous liquid produced during the distillation of wood, coal, or peat.
  107. Resin collect from tress and long been used for?
    Varnishes and lacquer
  108. Resins today are mostly
    Synthetic resins
  109. Resins used as incense from small shrubby tress of the burseraceae from East Africa and Arabia
    Frankincense and myrrh
  110. Fossilized resin
  111. Involves poly,Erika Timon of the resins and volatilizations of the volatile monoterpenes in the resin. Anaerobic environment, heat and pressure.
    Fossilization of Amber
  112. Old resin. Less polymerized than amber and still contains some essential oils. Does react with alcohol and used for hard varnishes and perfumes
  113. Complex carbohydrates that are hydrophilic and alter the behavior of water.
  114. A large group of sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in similar proportions.
  115. What are carbohydrates made out of?
    Monosaccharides and their derivatives
  116. Three major types of hydrogels in plants.
    Starch, Pectin, and gums.
  117. Polymer of glucose
  118. Polymer of galacturonic acid
  119. Complex polymers of several sugars and their derivatives
  120. Stored in granules in amyloplasts
  121. Starch may attract water molecules so that water molecules?
    Do not move freely
  122. How do we use starch?
    Nutrition, thicken food, stiffen clothes, sizing paper, adhesive.
  123. Are hydrophilic complex carbohydrates of primary cell walls.
  124. Pectins make up the middle lamella and in
    Primary cell walls
  125. Pectin is primarily used in
    Jams and Jellies
  126. Usually contain several different monosaccharides and their derivatives. Contain acidic groups.
  127. Various species, gums may be…
    Wound response, sources of seed energy, keep seeds moist, provide extra cellular water
  128. Lubricates the soil for growing roots and helps roots maintain contact with the soil.
  129. Gum that is a wound response from astragalus gummifera
    Gum tragacanth
  130. From the tree acacia Senegal.
    Gum Arabic
  131. There are no special secretory cells or canals that produce or carry?
    Exuded gum
  132. Two commercially important seeds containing gums
    Guar gum and locust bean gun/carob gum
  133. Endosperm of seed ground up for gum. Mesocaro of fruit used as chocolate substitute
    Locust bean gum or carob gum
  134. Succulent tissues frequently contain
  135. Hydrogels may be deposited outside cells in
  136. Many hydrogels we use actually come from
  137. Hydrogels of algae
  138. Hydrogels from brown algae
  139. Hydrogels of algae from red algae
    Agar and carrageenan
  140. These compounds in the cell wall contribute to flexibility and toughness of algal cell walls, resist desiccation when exposed. Slough off epiphytes
  141. Another brown algae and source of alginates found in California
    Laminaria CA seaweed
  142. Used in the medical profession for cervical dilation.
  143. From Irish moss of the North Atlantic and other red algae of the phillipines
  144. Source of agar
    Gelidium and others
  145. Is especially good at forming a stiff water-filled solid at low concentration.
  146. The neutral galactose fraction of agar, yields high-quality gels for electrophoretic work.
  147. That part of food that humans cannot absorb or digest.
    Dietary fiber
  148. A long narrow cell, dead at maturity, with a secondary cell wall, functions in support
    Botanically fiber
  149. Humans use fiber for:
    Textiles, cordage, brushes, stuffing
  150. Humans can get fibers from: animals, plants, and synthetic
  151. Plant fibers may be
    Surface fibers bast fibers or entire vascular bundles of monocots
  152. Epidermal hairs especially of seed coats. Generally assist in seed dispersal
    Surface fibers
  153. Groups of fiber cells from the phloem region of stems – often poorly lignified
    Bast fibers
  154. How is cotton used.
    Textiles, cotton bond paper, absorbent stuffing.
  155. Types of cotton plants
    • Diploids short lint, tetraploid long lint, and new world tetraploids aka Egyptian cotton.
    • Invented by Eli Whitney 1793. Used to separate the hairs from the cotton seeds.
    • Cotton gin
  156. Like cotton, used for stuffing instead of textiles. Hairs shorter, have thick cuticle. Water-proof and buoyant. From the ceiba tree of the tropics.
  157. Bast pipers of Linux are low in
  158. From Dutch means to rot: pond dew and chemical
  159. After retting
    scutching and heckling
  160. beating and scraping. Separates long fibers from short fibers and other materials.
  161. Removes other material and aligns long fibers. Done with a comb
  162. Bast fibers from corchorus capsularis. Tree from India. Used in burlap and gunny sacking.
  163. Bast fibers from cannabis
  164. Tapa or kappa cloth. Cloth from paper mulberry
    Bark cloths
  165. Monocots have scattered vascular bundles in the stem and parallel veins in the leaf.
    Leaf and stem fibers
  166. Some monocots that we use for fibers.
    Yucca whipped and brevifolia, Sisal,abaca, palms,
  167. Vascular bundles from cornet mesocarp.
  168. Products of secondary growth
    Wood and cork
  169. Primary growth is produced by
    Apical meristems
  170. Is produced by lateral meristems (cambia). Results in radial growth. Increase in girth or diameter. Does not occur in all plants
  171. This produces the radial growth.
  172. There are two types of lateral registers in plants
    Vascular cambium and cork cambium
  173. Produces 2o phloem to the outside and 2o xyle to the inside.
    Vascula cambium
  174. Produces cork cells to the outside and phelloderm to the inside.
    Cork cambium
  175. Secondary xylem
  176. Wood contains
    Fibers tracheids s and or vessels
  177. Fibers tracheids and vessels have thick secondary cell walls 3 layers impregnated with
    Lignin (strong and decay resistant)
  178. Still functions in conducting water in a tree.
  179. Wood is used for
    Lumber pulp and fuel
  180. What is veneer used for?
    Plywood and furniture
  181. What are the three composite wood materials?
    Plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard
  182. Sheets of veneer glued together
  183. Chips of wood glued together
  184. Wood fibers glued together
  185. Wood pulp is used to make
  186. Is made from cellulose. Regenerated cellulose fiber
  187. The very first plastic. Cellulose combined with camphor
  188. Still used today. Produced like rayon, but extruded through a slit to produce a sheet.
  189. Is produced by the cork cambium. Protection from fire, water loss, and other things.
  190. Where gas exchange through the cork is needed what are produced?
  191. Cork oak , Quercus suber,, Bark can be stripped every?
    10 years
  192. Science that studies the relation to plant productivity. Underlying the management of brazing lands. Plant production of range lands supports animal production. The animals are used by the humans includes factors affecting the productivity and composition of the plant community.
    Range science
  193. Tends to dominate land use in marginal land.
  194. Where plant productivity is too low to support a sedentary herd, people, tend to be…
  195. The bureau of Land Management was created to sell off federal land. What is left today is land no one wanted…
    Marginal land.
  196. Was created to provide a continuous flow of water and timber for the nation’s benefit. It is under the department of agriculture.
    Forest service
  197. Was created to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment for the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired…. In the department of the interior
    Park service
  198. Large concentrations of animals tend to
    Damage their environment
  199. Overgrazing can reduce the
    Productivity of rangeland
  200. These plants must tolerate tissue loss and recover readily. Must have: protected activatable buds, carbohydrate stores reallocation response and compensatory photosynthesis
    Plants that support animal production
  201. Tend to dominate many grazing systems
  202. Grasses have many features that make them tolerant of grazing and fire.
    Apical meristems near the ground and stems near the ground
  203. Many monocots have what kind of meristems
    Intercalary meristems
  204. The ability of a leaf to regrow depends on
    Where its cut
  205. Desirable characteristics for a forage species.
    Tolerance of tissue loss, high productivity, persistence and high palatability
  206. The Venice or art of cultivation plants especially for ornamental use
  207. Plants used for aesthetic and….
    Shade, erosion control, wind breaks, and making lives more comfortable as well.
  208. What kind of plants do we use.
    Nursery trees and shrubs for shade and privacy, windbreaks, florist crops, bedding plants, ground cover.
  209. Lawns became popular in England in the
    Late 18th century
  210. Over half of all plant invasions in the US have been by
    Horticultural plants
  211. General approaches to increasing productivity.
    Plant preceding and genetic engineering, losses to plant pests low, minimize loss of fertility of soil.
  212. Cross-link when dry. Very stiff dry skins. Is susceptible to hydrolysis when wet
    Collagen fibers in skins
  213. Inhibits cohesion of adjacent collagen fibers. Makes protein less soluble and susceptible to hydrolysis.
    Tanning leather
  214. Tanning against
    Tannins mineral tans and aldehydes
  215. Tannins from plants bind protein. They displace bound water from the protein and take up many of the exposed….
    Hydrogen binding sites
  216. Tannins are found in many organs of many plants especially in…
    Bark and heartwood and perennial plants
  217. Tannins are still important in leather processing today. Unlike vegetable dyes, which have largely been replaced by…
    Synthetic dyes
  218. What are two most notable vegetable dyes
    Tyrian purple and cochineal red.
  219. From the mucous gland of whelks. Exploited by the phoenicians
    Tyrian purple (royal purple)
  220. From scale insects on opuntia. Exploited by the Aztecs
    • Cochineal red
    • Henna is used today as
    • Non-permanent hair and body dye
  221. Plants have compounds whose primary function is as a
  222. The color of the dye we obtain doesn’t necessarily reflect a color found in the plant. What can effect the color?
    PH, oxidation, other broken down plant parts
  223. Common intuitive color dyes
    Turmeric, yellow onion, black walnut
  224. Common counterintuitive color dyes
    Red Cabbage, Lilac
  225. Dyes may require a _______ to stick to fibers
  226. What are the dye types
    Direct dyes, mordant dyes, and vat dyes
  227. Dyes that are water soluble and attach to fiber readily.
    Direct dyes
  228. Dyes that require a mordant to attach to fiber
    Mordant dyes
  229. Dyes that are insoluble. Require bacterial or chemical action to become soluble. Fixes permanently to fabric. When dried and oxidized.
    Vat dyes
  230. Plant dyes of historical interest.
    Saffron, Indigo, Woad, Madder, and Butternut
  231. Yielded a yellow dye. A direct dye that required n mordant. Dyed the robes of Irish kings.
  232. Leaves yield a deep blue dye. One of the last plant dyes to disappear from use.
    Indigofera tinctoria
  233. Leaves yield a blue dye. Used for dying textiles. Picts painted their bodies blue before battle.
    Satisfied tinctoria (woad)
  234. Roots yielded the red of the British red coats
    Madder Rubin tinctorum
  235. White walnut. Yielded the gray of the uniforms of the confederate army.
    Butternut (Juglans cinerea)
  236. Haematoxylum is still used today as a stain in….
Card Set
bio 380 final
bio 380 final