Survey of Meteorology Chapter 7 Circulation of the Atmosphere

  1. Microscale winds
    These small, often chaotic winds normally last for seconds or at most minutes.
  2. Mesoscale winds
    Generally last for several minutes and occasionally exist for hours.
  3. Macroscale winds
    The largest wind patterns

    • 1. Planetary-scale winds
    • 2. Synoptic-scale winds.  Two well-known synoptic-scale systems are the traveling midlatitude cyclones and anticyclones that appear on weather maps as areas of low and high pressure.
  4. Sea Breeze
    Develops as cooler air over the over moves landward toward the area of low pressure.
  5. Valley Breeze
    Can often be identified by the cumulus clouds that develop over adjacent mountain peaks and may account for late afternoon thunder showers that occur on warm summer days.

    Are most common during warm seasons, when solar heating is most intense
  6. Mountain Breeze
    Rapid heat loss along the mountain slopes cools the air, which drains into the valley.

    Tend to occur more frequently during cold seasons.
  7. Chinook (Foehn) Winds
    Such winds are usually created when a strong pressure gradient develops in a mountainous region.  As the air descends the leeward slopes of the mountains, it is heated adiabatically.  Because condensation may have occurred as the air ascended the windward side, releasing latent heat, the air descending the leeward side will be warmer and drier than at a similar elevation on the windward side.
  8. Katabatic (Fall) Winds
    These local winds originate when cold, dense air situated over a highland area such as the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, begins to move.  Under the influence of gravity, the cold air cascades over the rim of a highland like a waterfall.
  9. Country Breeze
  10. Equatorial Low
    Near the equator, the warm rising branch of the Hadley cells is associated with the low-pressure zone known as the Equatorial Low.
  11. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
    Where the trade winds converge
  12. Subtropical highs
    About 20° to 35° on either side of the equator, where the westerlies and trade winds originate and go their separate ways, are the high-pressure zones.
  13. The Hadley Cell
    In the zones between the equator and roughly 30° latitude north and south.
  14. Ferrell Cell
    In the three-cell model, the circulation between 30° and 60° (north and south) accounts for the westerly surface winds in the middle latitudes.
  15. Polar Cell
    Is driven by subsidence near the poles that produces a surface flow that moves equator-ward.
  16. Polar Front
    The region where the flow of cold air clashes with warm air.
  17. Subpolar low
    Another low-pressure region is situated at about 50° to 60° latitude, in a position corresponding to the polar front.  Here the polar easterlies and the westerlies clash.
  18. Polar highs
    From which the easterlies originate.
  19. Monsoons
    Large seasonal changes in Earth's global circulation.  It refers to a particular wind system that reverses its direction twice each year.
  20. Winter monsoon
    Winter is associated with winds that blow predominantly off the continents
  21. Summer monsoon
    In summer, warm moister-laden air blows from the sea toward the land.
  22. North American Monsoon
    This circulation pattern produces a dry spring followed by a relatively rainy summer that impacts large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.
  23. Polar Jet Stream
  24. Subtropical Jet Stream
    Mainly a wintertime phenomenon.
  25. Meridional
    North-South
  26. Zonal
    West-East
  27. Aridity
    A deficiency of moisture.
  28. Upwelling
    The rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface waters, is a common wind-induced vertical movement.
  29. Southern Oscillation
    Seesaw pattern of atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western Pacific.
  30. Teleconnection
    The link between the weather occurring in widely separated regions of the globe.
  31. Climate outlooks
    National Weather Service predictions for periods from 1 to 13 months into the future.
  32. Subsidence
    When there is a general downward flow.
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davecowman
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Survey of Meteorology Chapter 7 Circulation of the Atmosphere
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Survey of Meteorology Chapter 7 Circulation of the Atmosphere
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