High yield of All subjects

  1. Some points about Respiratory burst
    • •Oxygen dependent killing is largely mediated through reactive oxygen intermediates.
    • ▪Superoxide anion (O2)
    • ▪Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
    • ▪Hydroxyl radical (OH)
    • ▪Hypochlorite (HOCl)

    •The generation of reactive oxygen intermediates is due to Rapid activation of NADPH oxidase.

    •Catalase , Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase are all Radical scavenging enzymes that prevent Oxygen mediated injury.
  2. Drugs that can be eliminated by
    • Alkaline diuresis : [@ PSC LIMB]
    • •Salicylates
    • •Barbiturates (long acting)
    • •Chlorpropamide
    • •Methotrexate
    • •Primidone
    • •Lithium & Isoniazid (Controversial)

    • Acid Diuresis : [@ Q PAS]
    • •Amphetamine
    • •Quinine
    • •Phencyclidine
    • •Strytchnine
  3. Pseudo fracture is seen in
    Osteomalacia

    • Also known as
    • ▪Milkman's fracture
    • ▪Pseudofracture
    • ▪Looser's zone
    • ▪Osteoid seams
  4. Phrenic nerve
    C3, C4, C5
  5. Maternal serum AFP
    • Increased in
    • ▪Wrong gestational age
    • ▪Open neural tube defects and anencephaly
    • ▪Multiple pregnancy
    • ▪Anterior abdominal wall and renal anomalies
    • ▪Fetal bladder tumors

    • Decreased in
    • ▪Downs syndrome
    • ▪Gestational Tropoblastic disease
  6. Most common
    • •Grey matter degenerative disease : Alzheimer's disease
    • •Etiology for temporal lobe epilepsy : Gangliogliomas
    • •Causative agent causing Acute pyogenic Meningitis in adults : S. Pneumoniae
    • •Causative agent causing Neonatal pyogenic Meningitis : E.Coli
  7. Antidotes
    • Acids : β-aminoproprionitrile *
    • Alpha adrenergics : Phentolamine *
    • Amantins : Benzyl penicillin *
    • Arsenic : Dimercaprol , Unithiol *
    • Beryllium : Aurintricarboxylic acid, Sodium salicylate
    • Beta adrenergics : Propanolol
    • Beta blockers : Glucagon , Isoprenaline
    • Botulism : Guanidine *
    • CO : Hyperbaric oxygen , Tocopherol
    • Central anticholinergics : Physostigmine
    • Chloroquine : Diazepam
    • Cholinergic agents : Atropine
    • Copper : Penicillamine , Trientine *
    • Couramin derivatives : Vitamin K
    • Cyanide : Amyl nitrate , Dicobaltedetate , Hydroxocobalamine , Sodium nitrate , Sodium thiosulphate. *
    • Cyanide , CO , H2S : Oxygen
    • Digitalis : Digoxin specific antibody fragments
    • Ergotism : Sodium nitroprusside *
    • Iron , Aluminum* : Desferrioxamine
    • Lead , mercury : Succimer *
    • Mercury : N-Acetyl penicillamine * , BAL
    • Methanol , Ethylene alcohol : Ethanol , 4-methylpyrazole *
    • Organic peroxides : Ascorbic acid *
    • OP : Oximes
    • Oxalates , Fluorides : Calcium salts
    • PCM : N-Acetyl cysteine , Methionine*
    • Peripheral anticholinergics : Neostigmine
    • Radioactive metals : Pentetic acid *
    • Thallium : Potassium hexacyanoferrate *
    • Methyl alcohol : Ethanol / Fomepizole
    • Ethylene glycol : Fomepizole
    • Belladona poisoining : Physostigmine
  8. Most common
    • Agent causing naive valve IE : S. Aureus
    • Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism : Klinefelter's syndrome
    • Chronic Hypercalcemia : 1° hyperthyroidism
    • Respiratory hypoxia : V-P mismatch
    • Histologic response to hepatotoxic stimuli : Fatty liver
    • Hypocalcemia : Impaired PTH or Vit D production
    • Pattern of IBD : Constipating alternating with diarrhoea.
    • Glycolytic defects a/w exercise intolerance : Mc Ardle's or Myophosphorylase deficiency
    • Predisposing condition for subdural empyema : Sinusitis
    • Indicaton for liver transplantation : 1° sclerosing cholangitis
    • Clinical sign of renal disease in lupus nephritis : Proteinuria
    • Cause of sensory gangliopathies : Sjogrens syndrome , Paraneoplastic disease
    • Hereditary neuropathy : Charcot marie tooth disease
    • Extraarticular manifestation of Ankylosing spondylitis : Acute anterior uveitis
    • Form of peripheral neuropathy a/w HIV : Distal symmetric Polyneuropathy
    • Cranial mononeuropathies : 7th > 3rd > 6th CN
    • Peripheral neuropathy in developing countries : Leprosy
    • Indication for surgery in Ankylosing spondylitis : Severe hip joint arthritis
    • Cause of renal failure in septic shock : ATN
    • Lytic lesions in MM : Vertebra > Ribs > Skull
    • Site of COA : Distal to origin of SCA
    • Cause of nephrotic range proteinuria : membranous nephropathy / DM
    • Feature of aortitis in CXR : Calcification of Ascending aorta
    • Blood transfusion reaction : Febrile non hemolytic reaction.
    • Location of brain abscess in Cyanotic heart disease : Frontal > Parietal
    • CNS tumour a/w NF-1 : Optic nerve glioma
    • Symptom of alcohol withdrawl : Hangover
    • Sign of alcohol withdrawl : Tremor
    • Sequelae d/t Periventricular leukomalacia : Spastic diplegia
    • Cause of acute RVF : Acute Cor-Pulmonale / PE
    • Cause of Renal artery stenosis in children in india : Takayasu arteritis
    • Cause of Renal artery stenosis in children in west : Fibromuscular dysplasia
    • Cause of Renal artery stenosis in older patients : Atherosclerosis
    • Affected organ in amyloidosis : Kidney > Heart
    • Form of localized amyloidosis : Aα amyloidosis
    • Form of xeroderma pigmentation : Absence of UV specific endonuclease
    • Renal lesion in leprosy : Membranous Glomerulonephritis
    • Pathological findings in nephrogenic DM : Diffuse glomerulosclerosis
    • Non epidemic meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent individuals in US : Herpes Encephalitis
    • Subcortical degenerative disease : Parkinsonism
    • Presenting symptom of Osler weber Rendu syndrome : Hemoptysis
    • Mycotic Pneumonia in AIDS patient : Cryptococcus
    • Organism causing pyogenic meningitis in infants & children : N. Meningitis
    • Motor neuron disease : ALS
    • Oppourtinistic infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis
    • Lysosomal storage disease : Gaucher's disease
    • Manifestation of asbestosis exposure : Pleural plaques
    • Asbestos related pleural disease : Pleural effusion
    • Systemic vasculitis in adults : GCA
    • Hereditary hypercoagulable condition : Factor V leiden
    • Hereditary leukodystrophy : Metachromatic leukodystrophy
    • Fluid collection seen in transplant patients : Lymphoceles
    • Form of AS : Valvular
    • Form of HOCM : Asymmetric involvement of interventricular septum.
    • Cerebral mass lesion in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis
    • Chest radiograph finding in Acute Pulmonary embolism : Atelectasis
    • Collagen disorder for a pleural effusion : SLE
    • Organism causing acute pyogenic Meningitis in adults : S. Pneumoniae
    • Organism causing acute pyogenic Meningitis in neonates : E. Coli
    • Etiology of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy : Gangliogliomas
    • Diffuse grey matter degenerative disease : Alzheimer's disease
    • Cardiac manifestation of SLE : Pericarditis (Not Libman sack's endocarditis)
    • Aortic branch involved in Takayasu arteritis : Left subclavian artery
    • Acute Complication of hemodialysis : Hypotension
    • Abnormality in ECG in PE : Sinus tachycardia (Not S1Q2T3 pattern)
    • Cause of acute hepatitis : Hepatitis E
    • Congenital bleeding disorder : Von Willebrand disease
    • Cause of death in Marfan syndrome : Dilatation of aortic root
    • Causative agent of endocarditis following placement of permanent pacemaker : S. Aureus
    • Cause of TR : Dilatation of Rt. Ventricle
    • Cause of CAP : Pneumococcus
    • Death in diptheria : Toxic cardiomyopathy
    • Death in measles : Pneumonia
    • Cause of sudden death in Sarcoidosis : Arrythmia
    • Type of RCC : Clear cell Ca
    • Site of metastasis in RCC : Lungs
    • Cause of poststernotomy osteomyelitis : S. Aureus
    • Cause of death in Menke's disease : Cardiac rupture
    • Arrythmia in ICU patients : AF
    • Arrythmia in pts with cardiac arrest : VF
    • Arrythmia in COPD : Multifocal atrial tachycardia
    • Sustained Arrythmia : AF
    • Benign rhythm : Atrial premature contraction
    • Mechanism of arrythmia : Reentry
    • Associated Arrhythmia with alcohol binge in alcoholic : Atrial fibrillation > Atrial flutter > Ventricular premature contraction.
    • Cause of pleural effusion in AIDS patients : Kaposi sarcoma
    • Type of pitutary adenoma : Prolactinoma
    • Gene mutation in beta Thalassemia : Intron 1 inversion
    • Foodborne outbreaks worldwide : S. Aureus
    • Cause of Cystitis : E. Coli
  9. DOC for
    • Necrotising fascitis : Clindamycin + Vancomycin + Gentamycin
    • Acne : Clindamycin
    • Acute HCV infection : Ribavirin + INF-α
    • Acute meningococcal pyogenic Meningitis : CP G
    • Acyclovir resistant herpes : Foscarnet
    • Anthrax : Ciprofloxacin
    • Antifungal prophylaxis : Fluconazole
    • Asymptomatic intestinal amoebicides : Diloxanide furoate
    • Brucellosis : Rifampicin + Doxycycline
    • CAP with cardiopulmonary infections : FQ / beta lactams + Macrolides / doxy
    • Chagas disease : Nifurtimox
    • Chlamydal infection in pregnancy : Erythromycin
    • Chloroquine resistant F.malaria : Quinine
    • Chloroquine resistant F.malaria in pregnancy : Quinine
    • Chronic HBV : Lamivudine + INF alpha
    • Chronic HBV (newer drugs) : Entacavir
    • Cryptococcal Meningitis : Amphotericin B
    • Early african sleeping sickness : Suramin
    • Enterobacter , Klebsiella , Actinobacter : Carbapenem
    • Exo-erythrocytic stage of malaria : Primaquine
    • Gut sterilization in Hepatic Encephalopathy : Neomycin
    • Herpes labialis : Docosanol
    • Hydatidosis : Albendazole
    • Invasive aspergillosis : Voriconazole
    • Late African sleeping sickness : Melarsoprol
    • Malaria in pregnancy : Chloroquine
    • Melioidosis : Ceftazidime
    • Papilloma virus : Cidofovir
    • Pleurodesis in malignant effusion : Doxycycline
    • Pulmonary MDR-TB : Bedaquiline
    • Radical cure of P.vivax malaria : Primaquine
    • Relapsing fever : Doxy
    • Superficial mycosis : Ketoconazole
    • Surgical prophylaxis : Cefazolin
    • Systemic mycosis : Itraconazole
    • Topical keratoconjunctivitis by HSV : Idoxuridine
    • Topical treatment of impetigo : Retapamulin
    • Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy : Spiramycin
    • Tularemia : Streptomycin
    • Prophylaxis of Meningococcal meningitis : Rifampicin
    • Strongyloides : Ivermectin
    • GTCS / Atonic / Absence / Myoclonic epilipsy : Valporate
    • Partial seizure : Carbamazepine
    • Generalized Pustular psoriasis : Methotrexate (Pregnancy → Steroids)
    • Acute Iridocyclitis : Atropine
    • Nausea in pregnancy : Doxylamine & Pyridoxine
    • Antiepilleptic in pregnancy : Phenobarbitone
    • Essential thrombocytosis : Hydroxyurea
    • Night terrors : Diazepam
    • Lymphadema : Penicillin
    • Pustular psoriasis : Retinoids
    • Antidiabetic in obese patients : Metformin
    • CML : Imatinib
    • Diarrhoea in AIDS : Ocrreotide
    • Mania with dysphoria (Mixed mania) : Valporate
    • Mania with psychosis : Valporate with Olanzapine or risperidone.
    • Typhoid carriers : Ampicillin or Amoxicillin
    • Bier's block : Lidocaine
    • For pneumonic plaque : Streptomycin
    • Chemoprophylaxis of Pneumonic plaque : Tetracycline
    • Plaque meningitis , pleuritis , endopthalmitis and myocarditis : Chloramphenicol
    • Belladona poisoining : Physostigmine
    • Allergic Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis : Prednisolone [New recommendation → Itraconazole]
    • Clostridium : lV penicillin + Clindamycin
    • Listeria : IV Ampicillin or penicillin
    • Klebsiella : Carbapenem
    • Campylobacter : Erythromycin
    • Y.Pestis : Streptomycin
    • Pertusis : Erythromycin
    • Brucella : Streptomycin
    • Mycoplasma : Erythromycin
    • CHF in Paediatric age group : ACE Inhibitiors
    • Primzmetal angina : Nitrates
    • Orthostatic hypotension : Midodrine
    • Akathesia : Propanolol
    • Intractable hiccups : Chlorpromazine
    • For treatment of plaque : Streptomycin
    • Chemoprophylaxis of Pneumonic plaque : Tetracycline
    • Pre term labour : Nifedipine
    • HIV associated lipodystrophy : Tesamorelin
    • Prophylaxis of bleeding varices : Propanolol
    • Dysentry due to Shigella : Ciprofloxacin
    • Chlamydia infection in pregnancy : Azithromycin
    • Specific myoclonic syndrome : Valporic acid
    • Cyanide poisoining : Hydroxycobalamine
  10. HUS is due to
    Shigella
    Salmonella
    E. Coli
    None
    E. Coli
  11. Viral markers in Hepatitis
    • Acute diagnosis : HBsAg , IgM anti-HBc
    • Chronic diagnosis : IgG anti-HBc, HBsAg
    • Markers of replication : HBeAg , HBV DNA
  12. Lateral geniculate body
    • 6 Layers
    • ▪ Layers 1,4,6 : Receive input from CONTRALATERAL hemicornea
    • ▪ Layers 2,3,5 : Receive input from IPSILATERAL hemicornea.

    • Pathways
    • •Magnocellular (Large) Pathway:
    • ▪ Layers 1, 2
    • ▪ Movements, depth, flickering

    • •Parvocellular pathway:
    • ▪ Layers 3 to 6
    • ▪ Fine details, shape, colour, texture etc.

    Q) Most afferent fibres from the LG nucleus terminate in 1° visual cortex is : Layer 4.
  13. Oral Ca
    • M/c site : Lower lip
    • M/c site of Oral ca in Nepal & India : Alveolobuccal sulcus
    • M/c site of tongue : Mid 1/3rd lateral margin or Distal 2/3rd.
    • M/c HPE : SCC
    • M/c route of spread in Oral cancer : Lymphatics
    • Distant Metastasis is rarer,If developed m/c site is "Lung."
    • Premalignant condition:
    • M/c : Leucoplakia
    • Most Premalignant condition : Erythroplakia
    • Chronic Hyperplastic Candidiasis.
    • IOC : Wedge biopsy (from edge of ulcer)
    • Radiological IOC : MRI
    • For Alveolar involvement, Radiological IOC : NCCT > OPG.
  14. Most common cause of
    • •Unilateral proptosis in children : Orbital cellulitis
    • •Non inflammatory cause of unilateral proptosis in children : Dermoid cyst
    • •Bilateral proptosis in children : Metastatic neuroblastoma ; and or leukaemia (chloroma)
    • •Unilateral / bilateral proptosis in adults : Thyroid ophthalmopathy
    • •Benign orbital tumors in adults : Cavernous hemangioma
    • •Malignant orbital tumor in adults : lymphoma
    • •Intraocular malignant tumour in children : Retinoblastoma
    • •1°Intraorbital malignant tumour in children : Rhabdomyosarcoma
    • •Intraorbital tumour in children : Capillary Hemangioma
    • •Benign orbital tumor in children : Dermoid cyst or Capillary Hemangioma (??)
    • •1°Intraoccular malignant tumour in adults : Uveal Melanoma
    • •Intraocular malignant tumour in adult : Metastasis
    • •Source of Orbital Metastasis in adults : Breast
    • •Source of Orbital Metastasis in children : Neuroblastoma
    • •Epithelial tumour of Lacrimal gland : Pleomorphic Adenoma
    • •Eyelid tumour : BCC
  15. Prader willi syndrome Vs Angelman syndrome
    • Prader willi syndrome
    • Paternal deletion / Maternal additions
    • Paternal inheritence
    • Maternal imprinting

    Angelman syndrome
  16. TIPSS
    •Shunt is placed between Right hepatic vein and Right portal vein.
  17. Oral Ca
    • M/c site : Lower lip
    • M/c site of Oral ca in Nepal & India : Alveolobuccal sulcus
    • M/c site of tongue : Mid 1/3rd lateral margin or Distal 2/3rd.
    • M/c HPE : SCC
    • M/c route of spread in Oral cancer : Lymphatics
    • Distant Metastasis is rarer,If developed m/c site is "Lung."
    • Premalignant condition:
    • M/c : Leucoplakia
    • Most Premalignant condition : Erythroplakia
    • Chronic Hyperplastic Candidiasis.
    • IOC : Wedge biopsy (from edge of ulcer)
    • Radiological IOC : MRI
    • For Alveolar involvement, Radiological IOC : NCCT > OPG.
  18. Most common
    • • Mediastinal mass in adults (overall) : Neurogenic tumours (23%) > Thymomas (2nd)
    • • Mediastinal mass in children : Neurogenic tumours (Thymoma are rare)
    • • Most frequent location of mediastinal mass : Anterosuperior mediastinum
    • • Neurogenic tumours in adults : Neurofibromas and Neurilemomas
    • • Neurogenic tumours in children : Gangliomas and Neuroblastomas.
    • • Most malignant masses of mediastinum : Lymphomas
    • • Most common mediastinal germ cell tumours : Teratomas.
  19. Incidence rate is calculated by
    Cohort study
  20. Osteochondritis of
    • Central bony nucleus of vertebral body : Calve's disease
    • Metatarsal head : Frieberg's disease
    • Calcaneal tuberosity : Sever's disease
  21. All of the following enzymes may contribute to generation of free oxygen radicals within neutrophils for killing intracellular bacteria except



    D) Glutathione peroxidase
  22. Test for syphilis
    • Most sensitive test for 1° syphilis : TP-PA
    • 1st test to become positive : FTA-ABS
    • Test of choice for rapid serological diagnosis : RPR
    • Test for monitoring the response of therapy : RPR or VDRL
    • Testing large no. of sera for screening or diagnostic purpose : RPR or VDRL
    • Test for confirmation : FTA-ABS or TPPA or TPHA
    • Test for Congenital syphilis : 195 IgM FTA-ABS
    • The diagnostic test : TP-PA
    • Test of choice for diagnosis of Neurosyphilis : VDRL of CSF
  23. Metabolic disturbance in
    • Ureterosigmoidoscopy : Hyperchloremic hypokalemic metabolic acidosis
    • TPN : Hyperchloremic hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis
    • Large Villous adenoma : Hypokalemic metabolic acidosis
    • Post burn patient : Hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis
  24. Most common joint involved in
    • Syphilitic arthritis : Knee
    • Gonococcal arthritis : Knee
    • RA : MCP
    • Reactive arthritis : Knee
    • Psoriatic arthritis : DIP>PIP
    • Senile osteoporosis : Vertebra
    • Pagets disease : Pelvic bone>femur>skull
    • Actinomycosis : mandible
    • Acute Osteomyelitis : Lower end of femur
    • Brodie abscess : Upper end of tibia
    • Charcot's arthropathy : Mid tarsal
  25. Edge of Septic ulcer is
    Sloping
  26. Absolute C/I of OCPs are all except



    B. Sickle cell disease
  27. Neoplastic vs Non neoplastic polyps
    • Non neoplastic polyps :
    • ▪Hyperplastic polyp
    • ▪Juvenile polyp
    • ▪Peutz-Jeghers polyp
    • ▪Mucus retention polyp

    • Neoplastic polyps :
    • ▪Adenomatous polyp
    • ▪Tubular adenomas
    • ▪Villous adenomas
    • ▪Familial polyposis coli
    • ▪Gardner's syndrome
    • ▪Turcot's syndrome

    Pseudopolyps are not premalignant.
  28. Hepatitis B virus
    • Acute diagnosis : HBsAg, IgM anti-HBc
    • Chronic diagnosis : IgG anti-HBc, HBsAg
    • Markers of replication : HBeAg, HBV DNA
  29. Not transmitted through sexual route



    B. Hepatitis E

    As a sexually transmitted disease, Hepatitis A may occur mainly among homosexual men due to oroanal contact.
  30. Labourer's nerve is
    Median nerve

    Ulnar nerve is a/k/a "Musician's nerve".
  31. Flail chest is defined as
    3 or more fracture in 2 or more consecutive ribs
  32. Sleep apnea is defined as a temporary pause in breathing during sleep lasting at least
    10 seconds

    Five or more episodes of obstructive apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep documented during a sleep study.
  33. α-helix and β-pleated sheets are example of which protein structure



    A. Secondary structure
  34. Marker for hepatitis B virus replication



    D. HBeAg
  35. Herpes simplex Encephalitis involves



    C. Temporal lobe
  36. WHO recommended dose of Zinc in Acute diarrhoea
    • •< 6 months : 10 mg daily
    • •> 6 months : 20 mg daily

    Recommended treatment for 10 to 14 days.
  37. Sumitriptan is a
    5-HT1D/1B agonist

    Lorcaserin : 5HT2C agonist (Anti-obesity drugs)

    • Tegaserod :
    • 5HT4 partial agonist
    • Newer drug
    • Acts as an partial agonist in the colon.
    • Approved for the use of chronic constipation but because of CVS toxicity, its use is now restricted.
  38. Conditions that resemble Atropic rhinitis is



    D. Rhinoscleroma
  39. Strawberry gall bladder is seen in



    D. Cholesterosis
  40. Which of the following is associated with development of Chalcosis
    Iron
    Copper
    Lead
    Mercury
    Copper
  41. Different time events during fertilization
    • LH surge : 24 hr before ovulation
    • Ovulation : 0 hrs
    • Fertilization : 24 hrs after ovulation (Day 1)
    • Reaches uterine cavity : 3-4 days post fertilization (Day 4-5 post ovulation)
    • Implantation : 7-9 day post fertilization
  42. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
    • 2 or more of the following criteria are met for SIRS
    • ▪Temperature ≥38°C (100.4°F) or ≤36°C (96.8°F)
    • ▪HR ≥90 beats/min
    • ▪RR ≥20 breaths/min or PaCO2 ≤32 mm of Hg or mechanical ventillation.
    • ▪WBC ≥12000/microL or ≤4000/microL or ≥10% band forms.
  43. Paranasal sinuses and their openings
    • 1) Anterior ethmoidal air cells :
    • Drain through tiny openings in the hiatus semilunaris of the middle meatus.
    • 2) Middle ethmoidal air cells :
    • Drain through the ethmoidal bulla of the middle meatus.
    • 3) Posterior ethmoidal air cells :
    • Drain through openings in the superior meatus.
    • 4) Frontal sinuses :
    • Drains into the anterior part of the hiatus semilunaris.
    • 5) Maxillary sinuses :
    • Opens into the posterior aspect of the hiatus semilunaris in the middle meatus.
    • 6) Sphenoidal sinuses :
    • Drains into the space above the superior concha called the sphenoethmoidal recess.
  44. Shoulder dystocia is managed by



    C. Suprapubic pressure
  45. Most common uterine anomaly is
    Septate uterus > Bicornuate uterus
  46. Type of error
    • Type l error : Null hypothesis is true but rejected.
    • Type ll error : Null hypothesis is false but not rejected ( or accepted )
  47. Some points
    • ★Specificity of a screening test is the ability of a test to detect : True negatives
    • ★Sensitivity of a screening test is the ability of a test to detect : True positives
    • ★Usefulness of screening test is given by : Sensitivity
    • ★Statistical index of Diagnostic accuracy : Sensitivity
    • ★Diagnostic power of a screening test : Predictive accuracy
    • ★Diagnostic power of screening test to correctly identify a disease : Positive predictive value
    • ★Diagnostic power of screening test to correctly exclude a disease : Negative predictive value
  48. Most common hematological malignancies in children



    A. ALL
  49. An anaesthesia resident was giving spinal anaesthesia when the patient had certain aphonia and loss of consciousness. What could have happened



    B. Vasovagal shock
  50. Incubation period
    • 1-6 hrs : Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus
    • 12-48 hrs : Salmonella, E. Coli
    • 48-72 hrs : Shigella, Campylobacter
    • >7 days : Giardiasis, Amoebiasis
  51. M/C organisms causing CAP is
    S. Pneumoniae
  52. All of the following have higher risks of malignancy except



    A. Juvenile polyps
  53. Colour of stools in breastfeed newborn is



    B. Golden

    • Meconium is the first stool passed within 24 hours.
    • After that meconium stools (black tarry) can be passed up to 3 days.
    • On 4th - 5th days transitional stools (Greenish) are passed.
    • After 5 days regular milk stools (Golden yellow) are passed.
  54. Staphyloma involves
    Iris with cornea

    • Most common cause of anterior staphyloma is Sloughing corneal ulcer.
    • Most common cause of posterior staphyloma is degenerative high axial myopia.
  55. Albinism is due to
    Tyrosinase deficiency
  56. Creeping fat is characteristic of



    B. CD
  57. Openings in lateral wall of nose
    ★ Sphenoethmoidal recess : Opening of the sphenoidal air sinus

    ★ Superior meatus : Opening of the posterior ethmoidal air sinus

    • ★ Middle meatus :
    • ◇ On bulla : Opening of the middle ethmoidal air sinus
    • ◇ In hiatus semilunaris :
    • ▪ Anterior part : Opening of frontal air sinus
    • ▪ Middle part : Opening of anterior ethmoidal air sinuses
    • ▪ Posterior part : Opening of the maxillary air sinuses

    ★ Inferior meatus : NLD in anterior part of meatus.
  58. Gall stones seen in Sickle cell anemia is
    Calcium bilirubinate
  59. Craniosacral outflow is mediated by
    Sympathetic postganglionic fibres
    Sympathetic preganglionic fibres
    Parasympathetic postganglionic fibres
    Parasympathetic preganglionic fibres
    Parasympathetic preganglionic fibres
  60. Smoking is most commonly associated with



    C. Squamous cell carcinoma
  61. Le fort fracture
    • Le fort l : Floating palate (horizontal)
    • Le fort ll : Floating maxilla (Pyramidal)
    • Le fort lll : Floating face (transverse)
  62. Most common
    • Tumor of Salivary gland : Pleomorphic adenoma
    • Benign tumor of salivary gland : Pleomorphic adenoma
    • Malignant tumor of major salivary gland : Mucoepidermoid tumor
    • Malignant tumor of minor salivary gland : Adenoid cystic carcinoma
    • Benign and overall tumor of parotid in children especially in <1 yr : Hemangloma
    • Malignant tumor in children : Mucoepidermoid
    • Radiation induced neoplasm of salivary gland : Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
  63. Supports of uterus are all except



    B. Broad ligament
  64. Post exposure prophylaxis is given in all except



    B. Pertusis

    • Others :
    • Rabies
    • Measles (within 3 days of exposure)
    • Tetanus
    • Hepatitis B
    • Varicella
  65. Wernicke's encephalopathy is characterised by all except



    D. Peripheral neuritis

    Peripheral neuritis is a manifestation of dry beriberi.
  66. Cranial irradiation is also indicated in the treatment of which variety of lung cancer



    A. Small cell cancer
  67. Cubitus valgus deformity is a complication of



    B. Fracture of lateral epicondyle of humerous
  68. Best indicator of fertility



    D. NRR
  69. Lithium produce



    A. Hypothyroidism
  70. Splenomegaly for which Splenectomy is effective



    B. ITP
  71. Antimalarial of choice in a pregnant woman in the first trimester who is chloroquine resistant is



    C. Mefloquine

    Chloroquine is the DOC for malaria in pregnancy.
  72. Drugs used in prophylaxis of preeclampsia is



    C. Aspirin
  73. Vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis is suspected if AFP develops within how many days of receipt of OPV



    B. 30
  74. Mechanism of action of methotrexate
    Inhibit dihydrofolate reductase
  75. The cell junctions allowing exchange of cytoplasmic molecules between two cells are called



    B. Gap junctions
  76. Blindness as per WHO defination is



    A. VA of <20/400 (6/120) in the better eye with best possible correction
  77. Hypothermia grading
    • Mild : 35°C (95°F) to 32.2°C (90°F)
    • Moderate : <32.2°C (90°F) to 28°C (82.4°F)
    • Severe : <28°C (<82.4°F)
  78. Infant mortality rate doesnot include



    D. Perinatal mortality
  79. Type of amputation and length of the stump
    • Above knee : 12 cm (4.8 inches)
    • Below knee : 14 inches (5.6 inches)
    • Below elbow : 18 cm (7.2 inches)
    • Above elbow : 20 cm (8 inches)
  80. Commonest malignancy of ovary



    A. Serous
  81. Hypoxia causes deoxygenation of Hb by
    • Increasing band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation.
    • This stimulate releasing of all glycolytic enzymes of band 3 on RBC membrane thereby stimulating glycolysis.
  82. Uterine souffle is



    C. Is due to increase in blood flow through the dilated uterine vessels

    • Funic souffle :
    • •It is a sharp whistling sound that is synchronous with fetal pulse.
    • •It is caused by the rush of blood through the umbilical arteries and may not be heard consistently.
  83. Haversian system is seen in



    A. Cortical bone
  84. Familial dyslipidemias
    • Type l : Hyperchylomicronemia
    • ▪ AR
    • ▪ LPL or Apo C ll deficiency
    • ▪↑blood level : CM, TG, Cholesterol

    • Type ll : Familial cholesterolemia
    • ▪ AD
    • ▪ Absent or defective LDL receptors
    • ▪↑blood level : lla : LDL, Cholesterol , llb : LDL, Cholesterol, VLDL

    • Type lll : Dysbetalipoproteinemia
    • ▪ AR
    • ▪ Defective Apo E
    • ▪↑blood level : CM, VLDL

    • Type IV : Hypertriglyceridemia
    • ▪ AD
    • ▪ Hepatic overproduction of VLDL
    • ▪↑blood level : VLDL, TG
  85. Four muscles compress the vagina and acts as a sphincter
    • Pubovaginalis
    • External urethral sphincter
    • Urethrovaginal sphincter
    • Bulbospongiosus
  86. Gold standard / Best investigation for Tubal patency



    A. Laproscopic chemotubation
  87. Most common site of gastric malignancy
    • Ca stomach : Proximal stomach
    • Ca stomach in Pernicious anaemia : Fundus
    • Diffuse variety : Fundus
    • Gastric lymphoma : Antrum
    • Burkitt's lymphoma / EBV : Cardia / Body
  88. Most common cause of Community aquired bacterial meningitis



    B. S. Pneumoniae (50%)
  89. Approximate duration between LH surge and ovulation



    D. 34-36 hrs

    LH secretion peaks at 10-12 hrs before ovulation.
  90. Signature fracture of skull is seen in



    C. Depressed fracture
  91. Billings method is



    C. Cervical mucous method

    Rhythm method : Calander method
  92. Spermatic pathway
    [@ STEEVE]

    • Seminiferous tubules
    • rete Testis
    • vasa Efferentia
    • Epididymis
    • Vas deferens
    • Ejaculatory duct
  93. Menopausal hot flashes is due to



    A. Decreased estrogen
  94. Km vs Vmax
    In competitive inhibition : Km value increases but Vmax remain constant.

    In non competitive inhibition : Vmax decreases but Km remains constant.
  95. One of the following drug penetrates into caseous necrosis in tuberculosis



    A. Rifampicin
  96. After renal transplantation of patient develop fever and symptoms of encephalopathy. Histology shows post transplant lymphoma. It occurs due to proliferation of



    B. B cells
Author
Animesh
ID
351042
Card Set
High yield of All subjects
Description
Updated