1. genes are carried on
  2. the chromosomes of eukaryotic cess are found in the
  3. a duplicated chromosome consists of two
  4. sister chromatids are joined at the
  5. are are the four stages of mitosis
    prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase
  6. the correct sequence of the stages of the cell cycle is
    prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  7. what occurs during anaphase
    centromeres divide
  8. a cell that completed the cell cycle without undergoing cytokinesis would
    have two nuclei
  9. skkin cancer is a type of
  10. what is the sex chromosome complement of a normal human female
  11. chromosomes that do not determine sex are called
  12. how many autosomes do humans have
  13. During prophase 1, the pairing of homologous chromosomes results in the formation of a
  14. during metaphase 1
    tetrads line up on the midline of the cell
  15. upon completion of telphase 1 and cytokinesis there are _____ cells
    two diploid
  16. Crossing over during prophase I results in
  17. the genetic material is duplicated during ______.
    the S phase
  18. The ______ is the trait most commonly found in nature.
    wild type
  19. The mating between a pedigreed chihuahua and a Great Dane would produce a(n)
  20. What are alleles?
    alternate forms of a gene
  21. A true-breeding plant that produces red flowers is crossed with a true-breeding plant that produces blue flowers. All of the flowers of all of the offspring are red. Why?
    the red allele is dominant to the blue allele
  22. A true-breeding plant that produces red flowers is crossed with a true-breeding plant that produces blue flowers to produce F1 plants that have red flowers. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of flower color of the offspring of an F1 x F1 cross?

  23. Blue eyes are recessive to brown eyes. What genotypic ratio is expected when an individual with blue eyes mates with an individual heterozygous for brown eyes?
  24. Virus disease are difficult to identify because
    they don't have their own metabolism
  25. Which of these crosses will only produce heterozygous offspring?
    aa x aa
  26. A couple has two male children. What is the probability that their next child will be male?
  27. All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ______ to the allele for white flowers
    incomplete dominant
  28. DNA and RNA are polymers of ______ monomers.
  29. RNA contains ______, whereas DNA contains ______.
    uracil... thymine
  30. In a DNA double helix, adenine pairs with ______ and guanine pairs with ______.
    thymine.. cytosine
  31. What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism?
  32. what is transcription
    the manufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA

  33. Translation converts the information stored in ______ into ______.
    RNA.. a polypeptide
  34. If a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC, transcription will result in a(n) ______.
    single RNA strand with the sequence: UUCGAG
  35. When you started out, you were a single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?
    cellular differentiation
  36. The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is ______.
  37. Which of the following are possible uses of reproductive cloning?
    • A) the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation
    • B) the production of potentially valuable drugs
    • C) the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans
    • D) the improvement of the quality of farm animals
    • E) All of the choices are correct.

  38. What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?
    ) Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.
  39. What name is given to cancer-causing genes?
  40. Which of these lifestyle choices will NOT increase cancer risk?
    high fiber diet

    alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and tanning booths can cause it though
  41. The Human Genome Project has the potential to ______.
    • A) lead to treatments for inherited diseases
    • B) lead to treatments for contagious diseases
    • C) increase our understanding of the historical relationships among species
    • D) aid in the solving of crimes
    • E) play a role in all of the choices listed here

  42. What is recombinant DNA?
    DNA that carries genes from different organisms
  43. The world's first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was ______.
  44. Which of these can act as a vector to introduce new genes into a cell?
  45. What are sticky ends?
    single-stranded ends of fragments of double-stranded DNA
  46. Sticky ends are produced as a result of the action of ______.
    a restriction enzyme
  47. You are attempting to determine the identity of a criminal. The only evidence is a tiny drop of blood. How can you use this drop of blood to identify the specific individual?
    You can use gel electrophoresis to determine the length of the DNA found in the sample.
  48. Cutting DNA with a particular restriction enzyme produces ______ that can be separated by gel electrophoresis
    restriction fragments
  49. Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments on the basis of differences in their ______.
  50. According to Mendel's principle of segregation, ______.
    gametes have one copy of each allele
  51. An individual who is heterozygous ______.
    carries two different alleles for a gene
  52. mitosis
    provides for growth, tissue repair, and asexual reproduction

    in the end has 2 diploid cells
  53. meiosis
    production of egg and sperm

    in the end has 4 haploid cells
  54. crossing over occurs during
    prophase 1 in meiosis
  55. independent assortment occurs
    druing metaphase 1 in meiosis
  56. Gregor Mendel
    father of genetics
  57. james watson and francis
    double helix DNA
  58. transcription
    occurs in nucleus
  59. translation
    occurs in the cytoplasm
  60. interphase
    90% of cell cycle

    • G 1- preparing (organells replaced)
    • S phase- chromosome duplication
    • G 2- preparing for mitosis
  61. radiation
  62. chemotherapy
  63. surgery
  64. crossing over
    homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information
Card Set
foe test 2