Most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults?
Common sequelae of bacterial meningitis?
- Hearing loss
Major cause on meningitis in neonates?
Group B Strep
MRI changes in congenital CMV infection?
What does congenital CMV cause?
- Sensorineural hearing loss
What does congenital Toxo cause?
- Scattered intracranial calcifications
What does congenital rubella cause?
- Cardiac malformations
Most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in AIDS?
HIV mediated vacuolar myelopathy
Most common cause of mono neuritis multiplex in AIDS?
What is coccidiomycosis?
- Common pulmonary fungal infection
- Will cause confusion and ataxia secondary to hydrocephalus
- TNF alpha MABs significantly increase your risk of it.
Which fungal infection causes soap bubble cysts in the basal ganglia?
Which fungal infection causes haemorrhage strokes in post transplant patients?
Whats standard therapy for GBM?
Presence of which genetic mutation confers a favourable response to alkylating agents?
Histologic feature of GBM?
- From SCLC
- Sensory neuronopathy
- Cerebellar degen
- Limbic encephalitis
- Hodgkins lymphoma
- Cerebellar degeneration
- Mostly ovarian and breast
- Testicular cancer
- Limbic encephalitis
- Testicular and lung
- Limbic and brainstem encephalitis
What is foster-kennedy syndrome?
- Olfactory groove tumors - lose sense of smell.
- Cause ipsilateral optic nerve atrophy
- Contralateral papilloedema
What mutations are meningioma associated with?
Mutations of the Merlin gene
Which cell line do meningiomas arise from?
Which is the most common primary brain tumour to haemorrhage?
Histology of ol-egg-odendrogliomas?
- Chicken wire capillaries
- Fried egg appearing cells
Acute cerebellar toxicity
- Cystic cerebellar lesion with an enhancing mural nodule
- Pilo means hair which represents the Rosenthal fibres on histology
- Respond well to treatment
- Due to mutation in ATM gene responsible for DNA repair
- Sensitive to radiotherapy
- Have an Immunoglobulin deficiency so they get sinopulmonary infections
- Increased risk of leukaemia and lymphoma
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) are typical for what?
Most common location for a DNET?
Which variant of ependymomas arises from the filum terminale?
Common haemorrhage mets?
What cancer is Anti-ampiphysin assoc with?
Most common tumor associated with GABA-a?
2 most common causes for leptomeningeal mets?
Glial neoplasm with necrosis and pseudopallisading nuclei
"Fried egg" appearance
Oligodendroglioma (fixation artefact)
Marker of nuclear proliferation
Marker of glial intermediate filaments
Marker of epithelial intermediate filaments
- Pilocytic astrocytomas
- Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
- Alexander Disease
Chromosome 1p and 19q deletion
Good prognostic factor in ODG
Where do Brain mets arise from?
Tumors typically presenting with seizures?
- Opsoclonus myoclonus
- Breast, lung and ovarian
Posterior fossa tutor with drop mets?
Radiological features of gangliomas?
Often in temporal lobes with cystic component.
What differentiates a dermoid from an epidermoid?
- Dermoids and teratomas have all sort fo tissue in them so they have a heterogenous internal sinal.
- Epidermoid cysts are lined with squamous cells and are homogenous.
What is a dandy walker malformation
- A posterior fossa cyst that communicates with the 4th ventricle.
- Severe atrophy of the vermis
What differentiates GBM from lymphoma on MR?
- Lymphoma - Avid + homogenous enhancement NEAR CSF spaces
- GBM - Heterogenous enhancement, situated peripherally.
Commonest intracranial tumor?
- Then Meningioma, GBM, pituitary microadenomas
Whats the relevance on HHV 6?
- Often comes out to play after bone marrow or solid organ transplant
- Usually causes a limbic encephalitis
- Can cause myelitis or leukoencephalopathy
What percentage of patients with confirmed HSV have plum normal CSF?
What is Lemierre's syndrome?
- Primary oropharyngeal, tonsillar or peritonsillar inflammation
- With later development of sepsis, internal jugular vein thrombosis and septic emboli.
- This is typically caused by the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum.
- Often presents in status/NORSE
- multifocal T2 lesions
Which neoplasia is Morvan's most strongly associated with?
How long do you give dexamethasone for pneumococcal meningitis?
What is intracranial germinoma?
- Homogenous, avidly enhancing, extra axial mass on or near the pineal.
- Often presents in young male
- Don't do surgery, you'll spread it everywhere - radiology works very well for it.
How would you manage cryptococcal meningitis?
- IV Amphoterocin
- Oral flucytosine (better than fluconazole)
- Daily LPs to drop ICP
- Start antiretroviral 10-14 days after start of anti-fungal