Chapter 1

  1. What are some elements in a use case?
    Actors, precondition, trigger, postcondition, normal flow, alternate flow. 

    pg. 62
  2. What is confidentiality?
    Confidentiality prevents the unauthorized disclosure of data. 

    pg. 63
  3. What is encryption?
    Encryption scrambles data to make it unreadable by unauthorized personnel.
  4. What are the three factors that combine to provide access controls?
    Identification, authentication, and authorization. 

    pg. 63
  5. What is identification?
    Users claim identity with a unique username. 

    pg. 63
  6. What is authentication?
    Users prove their identity with authentication, such as with a password. 

    p 63
  7. What is authorization?
    Granting or restricting access to resources using an authorization method such as permissions. 

    p 63
  8. What is steganography?
    The process of hiding data within data. It obscures the data and can be used in a use case to support obfuscation. 

    p 64
  9. What is obfuscation?
    the action of making something obscure, unclear, or unintelligible

    - google.
  10. What do many people refer to as "hiding in plain sight"?
    Stenography

    p64
  11. What ensures that data is only viewable by authorized users?
    Confidentiality 

    p 64
  12. According to the book, what is the best way to protect the confidentiality of data?
    By encrypting it

    p 64
  13. What helps protect confidentiality by restricting access?
    Access controls 

    P 64
  14. What is integrity?
    Integrity provides assurance that the data has not changed. 

    p 64
  15. What is a hash?
    A hash is simply a number created by executing a hashing algorithm against the data, such as a file or message. 

    p 64
  16. What are the 3 meanings of 'MAC' within the context of CompTIA Security+?
    • Media Access Contro
    • Mandatory access control 
    • Message Authentication Code

    p 65
  17. What does Integrity provide?
    Integrity provides assurances that data has not been modified, tampered with, or corrupted. 

    pg 65
  18. What is one way you can verify information integrity once you receive it?
    By comparing hashes on the file. 

    p 66
  19. What is a similar concept to a handwritten signature?
    a digital signature. 

    p 66
  20. What is non-repudiation?
    Non-repudiation refers to a situation where a statement's author cannot successfully dispute its authorship or the validity of an associated contract. The term is often seen in a legal setting when the authenticity of a signature is being challenged. In such an instance, the authenticity is being "repudiated"

    p 66 - answer is from google.
  21. What does PKI stand for?
    Public Key Infrastructure 

    p 66
  22. What can verify the integrity of emails and files and they also provide authentication and non-repudiation? They also require certificates.
    Digital Signatures 

    p 67
  23. What is availability?
    It indicates that data and services are available when needed. Can be 24/7 or can be regular 9 - 5

    p 67
  24. What does it mean when a system has a fault tolerance?
    The system can suffer from a fault and still continue to operate due to redundancy or other measures. 

    p 67
  25. What does SPOF stand for?
    Single point of failure

    p 67
  26. What is commonly used in Disk redundancies?
    • Fault-Tolerant Disks 
    • - RAID 1
    • - RAID 5
    • - RAID 10

    p 67
  27. How is RAID-1 fault-tolerant?
    RAID-1 uses mirroring 

    p 67
  28. How is RAID-5 fault-tolerant?
    RAID-5 striping with parity 

    p 67
  29. How is RAID-10 fault-tolerant?
    striping with mirror

    p 67
  30. What are some common examples of fault-tolerance and redundancy techniques?
    • Disk redundancies
    • Server Redundancies
    • Load Balancing
    • Site redundancies
    • Backups
    • Alternate Power
    • Cooling Systems
    • Patching from bugs. 

    p 67
  31. Why would you not want to encrypt all data in your organization?
    The balance between resources and security constraints. Having everything encrypted would utilize more resources that the company might not have. 

    p 68
  32. What is a risk?
    the possibility or likelihood of a threat exploiting a vulnerability resulting in a loss. 68
  33. What is a threat?
    any circumstance or event that has the potential to compromise confidentiality, integrity, or availability. 68
  34. What is vulnerability?
    A weakness. It can be a weakness in the hardware, software, configuration, or even the user's operating system. 68
  35. What is a security incident?
    An adverse event or series of events that can negatively affect the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an organization's information technology systems and data.
  36. What are the three control types that refer to how the security controls are implemented?
    • technical - implemented with technology
    • administrative - implemented using administrative or management. 
    • and physical. - items you can touch. 

    69
  37. Encryption, Antivisur Software, Intrusion Detection systems (IDS), and Intrusion prevention systems (IPS), Firewalls, and least privilege are all examples of what type of control?
    Technical control 

    70
  38. According to the book, what are some common administrative controls? pg. 70
    • Risk assessment
    • Vulnerability assessment 
    • Penetration tests 

    71
  39. What else is 'administrative controls' known as?
    Operational or management controls. 

    71
  40. Awareness and training, configuration and change management, contingency planning, media protection, physical and environmental protection are all examples of what type of control?
    Administrative controls / operational or management controls.
  41. What does NIST stand for?
    National Institute of Standards and Technology. 72
  42. What are some examples of preventative controls?
    • Hardening
    • Security awareness and training
    • Security guards
    • Change management
    • Account disablement policy

    72 -73
  43. What preventative control method uses a defense-in-depth strategy with layered security that involves disabling unnecessary ports and services, implementing secure protocols, using strong password policy and disabling default and unnecessary accounts?
    Hardening 

    72
  44. What is change management?
    Ensures that changes don't result in unintended outages. Organizations must have a submission process for changes to be approved before making changes. 

    73
  45. What is the policy that ensures that user accounts are disabled when an employee leaves?
    Account disablement policy

    73
  46. What type of control discovers the event after it has occurred?
    Detective controls. 

    73
  47. What are some examples of detective controls? (5)
    • Log monitoring
    • Trend analysis
    • security audit
    • video surveillance
    • motion detection 

    73
  48. According to the book, what are two examples of prevention controls?
    • Video surveillance
    • Guards
  49. What are Corrective controls and two examples?
    Corrective controls attempt to reverse the impact of an incident or problem after it has occurred. 

    IPS- Intrusion prevention system - detects and modifies the environment to block the attack. 

    Backups and system recovery. 

    p 74
  50. What are deterrent controls and two examples?
    Deterrent controls attempt to discourage a threat. 

    • Cables Locks
    • Hardware Locks

    p 74
  51. What is a hypervisor?
    Software that creates, runs and manages the VMs. 

    p 75
  52. What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 hypervisors?
    Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the system hardware and the two runs as software within a host operating system. 

    p 76
  53. What is an application cell?
    virtualization or container virtualization runs services or applications within isolated application cells( or containers). 

    p 76
  54. What does VDI and VDE stand for?
    • Virtual desktop infrastructure 
    • Virtual Desktop Environment

    78
  55. What dies UCMP stand for?
    The Internet Control Message Protocol
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frk1xx7
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Chapter 1
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Chapter 1
Updated