Health Assessment Test 1

  1. what is the 5th most frequent reson for ambulatory visits
    • lower back pain
    • common and expensive
  2. types of connective tissue
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • ligaments/tendons
    • fascia and bursae
  3. Muscle
    • millions of individual muscle fibers that contract and relax to facilitate movement
    • more than 600 in the body
    • 2-60cm long
  4. makeup of muscle
    • 75% water
    • 20% protein
    • 5% inorganic and organic compounds
  5. types of muscle contraction
    • isometric: changes in muscle tension but not length
    • isotonic: changes in muscle length but same tension
  6. 2 types of isotonic contraction
    • eccentric: extension, muscle lengthens
    • concentric: contraction, muscle shortens
  7. bone
    • rigid connective tissue
    • gives form to body, supports structures, protects organs
    • permits movement with muscles
    • a site for blood cell formation
    • plays a role in mineral and hormone homeostasis
  8. how many bones in the human body and the 2 regions
    • 206 total
    • axial skeleton: 80 bones; skull, vertebrae, thorax
    • appendicular skeleton: 126 bones; shoulder, pelvic, upper and lower extremities
  9. joints
    • sites where tow or more bones meet/attach
    • provide stability and mobility to the skeleton
    • aka areas of articulation
  10. functions of cartilage
    • support
    • articulation
    • growth
    • protection
  11. tendons
    • attach muscle to bone
    • transfer forces from muscle to bone
    • act as a type of biologic spring for muscles to allow additional stability when moving
  12. ligaments
    • attach bone to bone
    • stabilize joints against excessive movement
  13. fascia
    layers of connective tissue with intermeshed fibers that can withstand limited stretching and provides strenght to muscle tissue
  14. types of fascia
    • superficial: lies immediately under the skin
    • deep: dense, fibrous tissue that surrounds the muscle bundles, nerves, and blood vessels
  15. bursae
    • small sacs of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and containing viscous synovial fluid
    • typically located at bony prominences or joints to releive pressure and decrease friction between moving parts
  16. how does aging affect bones joints and muscles
    • bones: bone loss, less strong, more brittle. remodel time lengthened
    • joints: cartilage becomes more rigid, fragile and susceptible to fraying, decreased ROM
    • muscles: sarcopenia (muscle wasting), decrease in mass and strength, reduced o2 intake, reduced BMR and reduced lean body mass
  17. common accompanying symptoms to musculoskeletal problems
    • rash
    • fever
    • bowel/bladder dysfunction
    • fatigue
  18. what do you palpate the musculoskeletal system for
    • muscles and joints for skin temp, tenderness, swelling and crepitus
    • look for general contour, abnormal prominances and local landmarks
    • palpate superficially to deep- sore areas first
  19. what do atrophied muscles feel like
    • soft and boggy
    • kinda like a uterus thats boggy
  20. muscle strength scale
    • 0: no detection of muscle contraction
    • 1: a barely detectable flicker or trace of contraction with observation and palpation
    • 2: active movement of body part with elmination of gravity
    • 3: active movement gainst gravity only but not against resistance
    • 4: active movement against gravity and some resistance
    • 5: active movement against full resistance with no fatigue (normal)
  21. joints to pay attention to
    • hand and wrist
    • elbows
    • shoulders
    • temporomandibular joint
    • cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine
    • hips
    • legs and knees
    • feet and ankles
  22. planes of movement
    • sagittal: divites body into left and right. flexion extension movements (back and forth)
    • frontal: divides body into front and back. abduction and adduction movements (lateral and medial)
    • transverse: divides body into top and bottom. rotational movements
  23. what do you start the musculoskeletal assessment after
    the romberg test which is last in the neuro exam
  24. what to do when patient is standing
    • look at gait and stance
    • look for smooth coordinated movement
    • test active ROM of hips (abd, add, flex, exten, internal/ext rot)
  25. what to do when patient is sitting on end of exam table
    • observe muscle bulk symmetry of upper extremities
    • test active ROM of shoulders
    • assess grade of muscle strength of forearms
  26. what to test for when patient is lying on the exam table
    • observe muscle bulk symmetry of lower extremities
    • assess and grade muscle strength of lower extremities
  27. normal posture
    • standing: upright with parallel aligntment of hips and shoulders
    • sitting: some degree of rounding of the shoulders is normal
  28. steps of normal gait
    • heal strike
    • foot flat
    • midstance
    • push-off
  29. average step size
    2-4 inches
  30. HIP ROM
Card Set
Health Assessment Test 1
test of 2/20