bot exam 2

  1. What are secondary compounds used for?
    Spice and perfume
  2. Compounds not part of a plants photosynthetic or metabolic system. They are synthesized for color, protection, or attraction.
    Secondary compound
  3. What are three characteristics of secondary compounds?
    Restricted distribution. Not important for synthesizing the cell itself. Important for plant survival.
  4. Evidence that the compound is a secondary compound.
    Defensive compound is related to distribution risk of herbivory. The presence of the compound benefits the plant. The compound costs to produce.
  5. What are some ways to test cost and benefits of secondary compounds?
    Mutations and gene knock-out. Antisense mRNA addition.
  6. The compounds easily diffuse into the air. They usually are relatively small. Lipid-soluble. Organic.
  7. What are some examples of volatile oils that sever functions?
    Pollination, allelopathy, attracting enemies of hebivors, attracting specialized herbivores.
  8. How does having a special relationship with pollinators benefit plants?
    Pollen more likely to be taken to a conspecific.
  9. How does having a special relationship with pollinators benefit the pollinator? (Most often the case)
    Nectar and other rewards not accessible to other species.
  10. Inhibition of seeding germination or growth by volatile compounds.
  11. Example of volatiles attracting a protective insect.
    Wild tobacco releases volatile compounds in response to the saliva of it main herbivor, the five-spotted hawk moth larve.
  12. Volatile oils are also known as?
    Essential oils
  13. Most volatile oils are chemically….
    Benze ring. Terpenoid compound derived from isoprene
  14. Compounds with lower molecular weights ( less isoprene units) may?
  15. Compounds with more isoprene units are?
    Less volatile
  16. What are isopentenol and isoamyl alcohol?
  17. 2 isoprene units (10 carbon atoms). Most common components of essential oils.
    Geraniol, lomonene
  18. 3 isoprene units, 15 carbons. Components of essential oils and other things
  19. 4 isoprene units; 20 carbons. Components of resins
  20. 5 isoprenes units; 25 carbons. Components of waxes
  21. 6 isoprene units; 30 carbons. Steroids and others
  22. 8 isoprene units; 40 carbons. Carotene and xanthophylls.
  23. Lots of isoprenes. Rubber etc.
  24. Resin canals are lined with?
    Glandular cells
  25. Where can volatile compounds be found?
    In special glands or on the epidermis and hairs
  26. What is the top of the glandular hairs called?
  27. The glandular hairs on peppermint?
    Glandular Trichome
  28. What are the methods for extracting volatile oils for perfume?
    Distillation, Solvent extraction, enfleurage, expression
  29. Plant parts exposed to steam. Steam with oil is condensed. Oil is separated from water. Only good for stable compounds resistant to heat.
  30. Sleeping plants in a solvent.
    Solvent extraction
  31. Methods of solvent extraction.
    Tincture, concrete, resinoid, and Absolute
  32. Obtained by steeping plants in alcohol.
  33. Obtained by steeping plant parts in petroleum ether or hexane and then evaporating the solvent.
    Concrete. (Waxes
  34. Like a concrete but an exudate. Saps.
  35. Result of extraction of a concrete, resinoid or pomade with alcohol. Most waxes and other impurities left behind and alcohol is driven off
  36. A cold fat method of extraction. Odors migrate into cold fat from plant tissues. Fat saturated with essential oils= pomade. Maybe extracted w/ alcohol
  37. Mechanically pressing oil from tissues with high oil content.
  38. Often herbs come from?
  39. Often spices come from?
    Other parts
  40. Spices and silk drove the devlopment of
    Extensive trade routes and rise of empires
  41. Why do we like spicy foods?
    Eliminates rotting odor, increases perspiration, and antibacterial properties.
  42. There is greater spice use in meat dishes in what kind pol climates?
  43. In the piperaceae. Not related to member of the Solanaceae ( chili peppers). Native to India. We eat the whole fruit drupe.
    Black pepper
  44. This is native to the Banda islands. A very small archipelago in eastern Indonesia.
  45. Where is nutmeg made from?
    The endosperm of the seed
  46. Where is Mace made from?
    The red, fleshy aril attached to the seed.
  47. May be the hallucinogenic compound in netmeg.
    Myristicin (Methoxysafrol)
  48. A family of woody species named for the laurel tree.
  49. What some spices that come from Lauraceae?
    Cinnamon and camphor
  50. Bay tree are in the
  51. What are the Bay leaf species?
    Laura’s Nobilis and Unbellularia californica
  52. Is from the bark of cinnamomum zeylanicum.
  53. A small tree of the Lauraceae. Only North American spice. Used on rootbeer.
  54. What is the drug in sassafrass.
  55. What are some medical facts about Safrol?
    Causes cancer in mice. Cherokee used it for worms diarrhea, and rheumatism.
  56. Woody plants of the Myrtle or eucalyptus family
  57. What is the spice from myrtaceae?
    Allspice from Jamaica. The fruit is used. Cloves from Indonesia. Unopened flower buds used
  58. What are some medicinal properties of Clove oil?
    Antibacterial, antifungal, and antispasmodic. Local Anethetic. Used for mouth inflammation, cough, and bronchitis, etc.
  59. What are more medical products form Myrtaceae?
    Eucalyptus and Melaleuca
  60. What is eucalyptus used for?
    Used for colds to help the respiratory system.
  61. What is melaleuca leucadendron used for?
    Oil of cajput. Pain relief. Tiger balm
  62. The ginger family.
    • Zingiberaceae
    • What is ginger used for?
    • Spice. Peristalsis, secretion of saliva, gastric juices and bile. Motion sickness and loss of appetite
  63. What is another member of the ginger family?
  64. From the fruits and seeds of an orchid
  65. Is from the stigma of crocus sativus
    Saffron. Spice and yellow dye
  66. Mustards, wasabi and horseradish
  67. Sunflowers inflorescene consists of heads of flowers
  68. Is a. Family with many spices used as herbs. Stems square in cross section. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical.
    The lamiaceae
  69. What are the spices from lamiaceae?
    Savory, sage, rosemary, thyme, basil, oregano, mint, and marjoram
  70. Carrot family. Infloresscense is an umbel
  71. Many fruits of th apiaceae are used as spices. Name some
    Dill, Caraway, Coriancer, Cumin, Fennel, Anise
  72. Family of Chile peppers and paprika
  73. The spice in peppers. Mild in the plant tissue and high in the seeds.
  74. How does capsaicin work?
    Acts on the heat receptors on the membrane. They are ion channels binders that open in the presence of heat. So it mimics the heat.
  75. How does Capsaicin interfere with chronic pain?
    Depletes sensory cells of substance P, a short peptide released by C fibers associated with persistent, chronic pain. Also interfere with the production os substance P.
  76. How is camphor oil used?
    Moth repellent and in vapor rubs. Safrol removed
  77. How is Camphor w/o safrol removed?
    Kills fish, sterilizes birds and livestock
  78. What is the history of drugs from plants?
    Use is very old and even non-human primates use plants medicinally.
  79. Examples of chimps using plant drugs?
    They will swallow whole leaves with trichomes to removes worms from their GI. Bitter juice form Veronia to GI issues and parasites.
  80. History of drugs. Clay tablets with herbal remedies 4000BP some tablets with images of Opium Poppy.
  81. History of drugs 3500 BP Medicine and remedies, including mandrake for pain relief and garlic for heart/ circulatory disorders.
    Embers Papyrus (Egypt
  82. History of drugs. 3600BP or earlier Mostly treatment of traumatic injuries. Also moldy bread for preventing and curing infection.
    Edwin Smith Papyrus (Egypt)
  83. Plant on Greek coins 300BC contraceptive and other uses. Collected to extinction by romans.
  84. History of drugs: Discorder Roman military book that described over 600 species for plants and their medicinal uses. It remained the standard medical reference in Europe for 1500 years.
    De Material Medica a 5- volume set, 1st century A.D.
  85. History of drugs: Renaissance 14th century. A plant or plants part appearance indicated what it would cure.
    The doctrine of signatures by paracelsus
  86. History of drugs: 17th century to present.
    Science hypothesis testing, understanding human physiology and better procedures isolating and purifying compounds.
  87. Influences areas that control pleasure centers; low concentrations associated with Parkinson’s disease. High concentrations with schizophrenia.
  88. Regulates sensory perception, sleep, body temperature.
  89. Accelerates heartbeat, stimulates secretion of adrenaline, relaxes bronchial passages and bladder. Inhibits stomach activity.
    Sympathetic Norepinephrine.
  90. Slows Heartbeat, constricts bronchial passages, contracts bladder, stimulates stomach activity.
    Parasympathetic Acetylcholine
  91. Trapane alkaloids are from? 8-point double-ring structure containing N.
  92. This Trapane alkaloid was used to dilate pupils in the renaissance. Commonly known a deadly night shade and belladonna.
    Atropa belladonna
  93. Second source of Trapane alakloids. Also in the Solanaceae
  94. Henbane and nightshade tropane alkaloids act on?
    Smooth muscle systems
  95. These tropane alkaloids can be used to treat what kind of ailments?
    Cramping of bladder and stomach, stiffness and tremors in Parkinson’s disease, dilate iris, and heart ailments.
  96. This is from the cinchona bark. Grows in the Amazon, on the east slope of the Andes. It’s an alkaloid.
  97. What is Quinine use for?
    Kills malaria parasite. 2lbs to treat 1 person.
  98. Clears the most dangerous species of Plasmodium from the blood faster than any other drug. From Chinese herbal medicine. Discovered in 1972. Is NOT an alkaloid.
  99. Artemisinin is from what plant?
    Artemisia annua
  100. An alkaloid from ephedra sinica.
  101. Acts like adrenaline. Increases heart rate, opens bronchioles, reduces swelling, weight loss drug and allergy med.
  102. Are made from other members of the genus Ephedra. Alkaloid is in lower concentrations.
    Mormon tea and desert tea.
  103. Opium poopy comes from?
    Papaver somniferum
  104. Papaver somniferum, poppy has how many alkaloids.
    26+ in the latex
  105. What are the drugs made from poppy aka papaver somniferum
    Papaverine, codeine and morphine, and heroin.
  106. From the poppy used to treat internal spasms(colon).
  107. Drug from the poppy. Binds to same receptors in the brain as endorphins. Inhibits the perception of pain.
    Codeine and morphine.
  108. Drug from the poppy. An acetylation of morphine. Developed as a non-addictive morphine substitute.
  109. Snakeroot aka reserpine comes from?
    Rauwofia serpentina
  110. This drug depletes stores of several neurotransmitters in both central and peripheral nervous system. Destroys the intracellular vesicles that store neurotransmitters.
    Reserpine (snakeroot)
  111. What is snakeroot reserpine used to treat?
    Hypertension and calming schizophrenia. Can cause depression.
  112. What effect can some alkaloids have on tumors?
    They can inhibit cell growth.
  113. Cancer treating plants.
    Periwinkle, mayapple, autumn crocus, the pacific yew
  114. What are the alkaloids from periwinkle?
    Vinblastine and vinchristine
  115. How does periwinkle work?
    Inhibit cell division and slow tumor growth.
  116. What kind of cancer is periwinkle good for?
    Lymphoma and lymphocytic leukemia.
  117. Where does mayapple come from.
    Podophyllum peltatum.
  118. Mayapple podophyllum contains what drug? (NOT AN ALKALOID)
  119. What is phodophyllin used for?
    Natives used it for skin disorders and tumors. Now used for testicular and other cancers.
  120. Autumn crocus comes from? And what is it’s alkaloid?
    Colchicum autumnale. Colchicine
  121. This drug alkaloid interferes with mitotic spindles and cell division. Used in plant breeding to form polyploids. Somewhat useful for cance4 treatment. Historically used for pain and gout.
    Autumn cross colchicine.
  122. The pacific yew taxis brevifolia yields?
  123. What does taxol do?
    Overstabilizes mitotic spindles interfering with cell division.
  124. Almost all psychoactive drugs are alkaloids except one.
  125. How do psychoactive drugs effect you.
    Interact with neutransmitters or hormones. Mimic or interfere with norepinephrine. Or mimic acetylcholine.
  126. Neurotransmitters of interest.
    Norepinephrine, Reserpine, Cocaine, ephedrine, mescaline,acetylcholine, nicotine, tropane alkaloids, endorphins.
  127. Released onto many organs by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, preparing body for fight or flight.
  128. Depletes norepinephrine and other neurotransmitters
    Reserpine Snackroot
  129. Blow I reuptake of norepinephrine. Also blocks the reuptake of dopamine.
  130. Where does cocaine come from?
    Erthroxylum coca
  131. Cocaine was used for eye surgery. What synthetic compounds mimic now?
    Procaine and lidocaine
  132. Similar in structure and action to norepinephrine and epinephrine.
  133. Mimics norepinephrine. Somewhat like serotonin. One of 40 alkaloids in peyote
  134. Simulates skeletal muscle. Relaxes or stimulates smooth muscle and slows heart rate.
  135. Mimics acetylcholine effects of skeletal muscle.
  136. Blocks acetylcholine transmission in smooth muscle.
    Tropane alkaloids
  137. Blocks perception of pain. Opium, morphine, and codeine.
  138. Opium dissolved in alcohol
  139. Not an alkaloid and mimics neurotransmitter
  140. Milk based drink with ground pot leaves
  141. Where is the THC resin produced?
    Glandular hairs of cannabis.
  142. What are the three compounds from cannabis we are interested in?
    THC, CBN, and CBD
  143. Compounds related to steroids. Soap like
  144. Tubers of Dioscorea (the yams) contain?
  145. Steroids that affect the heart contraction
    Cardiacs glycosides
  146. What plant contain cardiac glycosides?
    Nerium oleander and foxglove
  147. Foxglove is know as?
    Digitalis purpurea
  148. Cardiac glycosides from digitalis is used to treat?
    Heat failure. Aka dropsy
  149. A poison that we use medicinally and stimulates the CNS and stomach, causing vomiting.
    Syrup of ipecac
  150. Willow leaves and bark have been long used to alleviate pain. What is the drug?
  151. Historically used fir a variety of symptoms. Raises levels of serotonin in the brain. Treats depression.
    St.johns wort
  152. Long history for. Skin ailments including burns. Has many uses: skin growth, inhibit bacteria and fungi, inhibit pain, irrates GI fo poop, lowers blood glucose and moisturizes.
    Aloe Vera
  153. Tree native to India and surrounding area. History of use in medicine and to repel insects. Antibacterial and antifungal. Disrupts insect development of chitin with analogues of insect hormones called liminoids.
  154. Al alkaloid from seed of strychnos and bark of another species. A CNS stimulant that leads to muscle spasms and asphyxiation. With curarine more commonly known as an arrow poison or fish poison.
  155. Used as an insecticide especially when treated with sulfuric acid.
  156. From the roots of a couple of tropical legumes. Native use as fish poison. Used to be in flea powders.
  157. From the heads of Chrysanthemums. Nerve poison:paralyses insects
  158. Drugs used to achieve relief from pain.
  159. Substance that shrinks tissue
  160. A herb or preparation that either prevents formation of gas in the GI or facilitates the expulsion of said gas, thereby combating gas.
  161. A substance that induces vomiting
  162. A substance that accelerates defecation
  163. Steeping plant parts in water that isn’t boiling.
  164. Boiling plant parts in water
  165. Alcohol based solution extract.
  166. Solid material ground fine
  167. Honey or sugar added. Liquid w/ sweetener.
  168. Material dissolved in a hydrophobic oil or fat based substance.
  169. Like an ointment, but is an emulsion. Has more water.
  170. Extract (medication) put onto a cloth and applied externally.
  171. Plant material itself (Boiled or otherwise) is applied to the body.
  172. Alcohol effects what three neurotransmitters of the brain?
    GABA, Dopamine, Endophins, and Glutamate
  173. Is a neurotransmitter that prevents neurons from firing. Alcohol increases sensitivity to this.
  174. Is involved in mood, producing pleasure, euphoria, etc. alcohol at first increases this but with continued use it decreases level and transporters.
  175. Are hormones that inhibit the perception of pain. Alcohol stimulates the production of this.
  176. Is an excitatory neurotransmitter, also involved in memory and learning. Alcohol blocks this.
  177. Starch in rice is converted to sugar by pretreatment with a fungus called?
  178. Barley is fermented to produce
  179. Honey is fermented to produce
  180. Grapes and other fruit are fermented to produce
  181. Rice is fermented to produce
  182. Is produced by fermentation of sugars bu yeast. This is an anaerobic process to release energy from sugars.
  183. What is the name of yeast that carries out the fermentation.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  184. Why will fermentation only yield 18abv?
    Yeast can only tolerate 18
  185. How are beverages made that are higher than 18?
  186. Name four super distilled products.
    Whiskeys, rum, brandy and liqueurs, tequila and mescal
  187. Bark or leaves for diarrhea. Infusion of leaves for poison oak. Poultice of chewed leaves for sores, burns, and cuts.
  188. Produces a sweet resin that acts as a mild laxative
    Sugar pine
  189. Resin used to extract splinters and maybe for burns and other skin problems.
    Piñon pine
  190. Used for gum. Used to treat warts, ringworm, sores, rattlesnake bite, measles.
  191. Seeds produced mucilage and were placed under the eyelids to fight eye infections
    Salvia columbariae
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bot exam 2
exam 2