How do you calculate LSALT for IFR vs Night VFR with RNP 2?
- RNP 2: 5nm from any point along nominal track inc dep/dest.
- Night VFR: 10nm either side of track. Where no obstacles exist <360ft add 1360'. Where obstacles >360ft add 1000'. Round up to nearest 100ft.
- GEN 3.3 Para 4.4, 4.7 and 4.9
Validity of Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC)?
- Valid from when flight test was passed until the 12th month after the month it was passed on.
- CASR 61.880
How do you calculate a LSALT for IFR flight?
- Draw area - NAVAID use 10.3 deg splay. DR use 15 deg splay. Max width either side of track 50NM. Always add 5NM buffer. If no aid at destination scribe a circle on it at current LSALT width. Find height - Any Obs >360ft add 1000ft. Obs all <360ft add 1360ft. Round to nearest 100ft.
- GEN 3.3 para 4.6
RNP2: Within 5nm of track
If told by ATC to change levels how long do you have to make that change?
- Must commence change ASAP but no later than 1 minute.
- ENR 1.7 para 4.1.1
What do you put in the flight plan for a non standard DEP or DEST?
- In the DEP and DEST fields put 'ZZZZ'. In REMARKS put DEP/OK091005 (091 radial and 5NM) or position using 11 figures with S and E at end. DEST/2731S15231E.
- ENR 1.10 appendix 2
When is AIPAB published and how does it work with SUP. AIC and NOTAM?
AIPAB every 4 weeks. Does not duplicate information supplied in SUP. AIC or NOTAM.
On the flightplan do you include WPs from approaches you intend to fly?
- No. Only include ATS routes and designated WPs on those routes.
- ENR 1.10 item 15
How much clearance is provided by the missed approach?
- Minimum obs clearance 100' @ 2.5% gradient from MDA or DA. If this gradient cannot be maintained the MDA or DA should be increased.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.10 note 2
What should you do if you cannot meet the missed approach climb gradient?
- You must increase the DA/MDA or take other action to achieve the obstacle clearance.
- 1- Identify req'd ROC
- 2- Identify actual ROC
- 3- Whiz wheel those 2 figures
- 4- Identify height req'd to climb to lsalt
- 5- Match that height on req'd ROC figure on whiz wheel
- 6- Whatever that figure lands on will be the height you can climb
- 7- Minus height that can be climbed from lsalt and that's your new MDA
- ENR 1.5 para 1.10.1 Note 2
When descending to CTAF IFR what should you tell ATS?
- If you cannot monitor the ATS freq you have to report changing to CTAF with Aerodrome Loc and Freq. SARWATCH should be extended with an OPS NORMAL time.
- ENR 1.1 para 10.9 and 10.10
When must you conduct a missed approach?
- Aid becomes suspect or fails.
- Aircraft outside tolerance for aid.
- Not visual at or before MAPT or DA.
- Visual reference is lost whilst circling.
- A landing cannot be done from a rwy approach...unless a circling approach can be made with wx suitable for circling.
- ENR1.5 para 1.10.1
What does a 'Positive Fix' actually mean?
- Passage over NDB.VOR/TAC.DME or Intersection of two or more position lines at angles not less than 45deg. (If position lines from NDBs they must both be within 30NM) OR 1x TSO 146a GNSS
- ENR 1.1 para 22.214.171.124
ADF Ref - If you are converging or head-on what should you do?
- Converging - The aircraft on your right is 'in the right'. You must give way. Head on - Alter course to the right.
- FIHA ENR 1.1 para 1.6.4 and 1.6.5 jQuery110108276728884957996_1490409523540?
In aircraft seperation what does 'well-clear' mean?
- Old old old
- 500ft and 600m.
- ENR1.1 para 1.6.1
What is CAVOK?
- Vis 10km.
- No cloud below 5000ft or 25NM MSA whichever is higher
- No CBs
- No significant Wx.
- GEN 3.5 para 4.4.1 g
Can you plan IFR to single aid destination?
- Yes, if operating AWK (if only crew on board). We can plan to single aid destinations. If CHTR (paying pax) then need 2.
- ENR 1.1 para 126.96.36.199
What is the alternate minima if there is no navigation aids?
- Night: Req 1 x navaid per AWK ops
- Day: No navaid req IF Ceiling - Final route LSALT + 500'. Visibility - 8KM.
- ENR 1.1 para 188.8.131.52
What is VMC in Class C. D. E and G?
- C. E and G - 10000' or higher 8km vis/1000'/1500m. <10000' 5km vis/1000'/1500m.
- D - 5km vis/1000' above cloud/500' below cloud/600m.
- 1 - Class G below 3000'AMSL/1000'AGL 5km vis/Clear cloud.
- 2 - Helicopter below 700'AGL 800m vis/Clear cloud.
- ENR 1.2 para 2.2
What are these weather descriptors - BC BL DR FZ MI SH TS PR?
- BC(French 'Banc')=Patches. BL=Blowing. DR=Drifting. FZ=Freezing. MI(French 'Mince')=Shallow. SH=Showers. TS=Thunderstorm. PR=Partially Covered.
- GEN 3.5 para 13
What are these TAF weather abbreviations - BR DU DS DZ FC FG FU GR GS?
- BR(French 'Brume')=Mist. DU=Dust. DS=Dust Storm. DZ=Drizzle. FC=Funnel Clounds. FG=Fog. FU(French 'Fumer')=Smoke. GR(French 'Grele')=Hail. GS=Grele Small.
- GEN 3.5 para 13
What are these extra TAF weather abbreviations - HZ IC PL PO RA SA SG SN SQ SS UP VA?
- HZ=Haze. IC=Ice Crystals. PL=Ice Pellets. PO(French Poussire)=Dust Devils. RA=Rain. SA=Sand. SG=Snow Grains. SN=Snow. SQ=Squalls. SS=Sand Storm. UP=Unknown Precipitation. VA=Volcanic Ash.
- GEN 3.5 para 13
Can you be vectored when under Special VFR?
- Only in emergency situations.
- ENR 1.6 para 3.3
Will you be clear of obstacles under radar vectors?
- Yes - Controller will assign altitudes for terrain clearance. In Day VMC they can vector and say 'Visual' - then you must do terrain clearance.
- ENR 1.6 para 3.6
If cleared for an instrument approach what does that actually mean?
- Clearance for an approach authorises you for final approach. If visual at minima the nominated rwy becomes clearance limit. If visual reference is lost you are cleared to conduct the MAP. Must seek further instructions prior to end of MAP.
- ENR 1.1 para 184.108.40.206
What is the takeoff minima for ME helicopter?
- Clear of cloud until Vyse or Vmin IMC and passing defined pt after takeoff (PC2)
- Vis - 800m or 550m if edge lighting 60m AND
- centreline lighting OR markings AND
- Per Part 139 in MOS, aerodrome has secondary pwr for lighting with switchover capability of <1sec
- ENR 1.5 para 4.5.2
- 1- Must ensure suitable alt landing within 60min flight time OEI; OR
- 2- Increase take off minima to landing minima to ensure safe return in case of eng failure.
- Ops Man Part A Sect 6
What are the 3 ways to navigate under the IFR?
- 1. Approved ANAV system
- 2. Radio nav aids if a 9 deg tracking error allows you to come within coverage of next radio aid (Max 2hrs between fixes)
- 3. Visual reference to gnd/water (Max 30min between visual fixes).
- ENR 1.1 para 4.1.1
How do you work out the max distance you can go between radio aids?
Max distance between aids = 6.67 x Rated Coverage of NEXT enroute aid.
How do you know the range of a VOR/DME or a TACAN?
- Below 5000ft = 60NM
- 5000ft to below 10000 = 90NM
- 10000ft = 120NM.
- GEN 1.5 para 2.3
What is the range of a LOC?
- At 2000ft AGL and +- 10 deg = 25NM. Below 5000ft = 30NM. Above 5000ft = 50NM.
- GEN 1.5 para 2.3 c
What is PEC and when does it apply?
- PEC = Pressure Error Correction. All DA must be adjusted for PEC per FM or just add 50ft.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.19.3
In a clearance do you have to read back the full approach name?
- The full chart title must be used for: Clearances; Co-ordination; and Read backs. NB: For circling apps you may omit the suffix ( eg NDB A) if there is no possiblity of confusion.
- ENR 1.1 para 220.127.116.11
What is the order of accuracy for NAV systems?
- Most accurate to least accurate. LLZ - GNSS - VOR/TACAN - NDB/Locator.
- ENR 1.1 para 18.104.22.168
How do you calculate PA + DA?
- PA = Correct for pressure. +1 Hpa = -30ft.
- DA = PA corrected for ISA temp deviation. +1 deg C = +120'.
When can you descend below LSALT/MSA?
Only IAW ENR 1.5 Sect 1.15.b
ENR 1.10 para 1.5.2.c
If you are using an area QNH do you need to adjust the minima?
- Where the forecast area QNH is used, the minima used must be increased by 50FT.
- ENR 1.5 para 5.3.4
What are the three entries to a holding pattern? What is the flexibility between these types?
- Sector 1 - Parallel entry.
- Sector 2 - Offset entry (30 deg from outbound track).
- Sector 3 - Direct entry.
- The zone of flexibility is 5 deg.
- ENR 1.5 para 3.4
What is the maximum time you can fly outbound on a sector 2 entry?
- 1 min 30 secs.
- ENR 1.5 para 3.4.3.b.1
If a localiser approach usually has a HIAL and it is U/S what do you do?
- The visibility minima for a localiser app must be increased by 900m.
- ENR 1.5 para 4.7.2
What do you need in order to use the visibility specified on an ILS chart?
- Min vis 1.5km if HIAL not avail (See 1000ft markers)
- Min vis 1.2km unless (See start on rwy) unless
- 1- can manually fly to DA with Flight director or Coupled Auto-Pilot and
- 2- Serviceable Pri ATT + HDG warning systems and
- 3- high intensity rwy edge lighting.
- Min vis 0.8km if RVR info not avail
- ENR 1.5 para 4.7.3
When must you be established on track during a departure?
- Unless doing SID or instructed by ATC - you must be established on track within 5nm of departure aerodrome.
- ENR 1.1 para 2.7.3
In a CTAF if an aircraft takes off before you when can you take off?
- Other aircraft has
- 1. Crossed upwind threshold
- 2. Commenced turn
- 3. If RWY is >1800m he is airborne and 1800m ahead
- 4. Landing AC has vacated and taxied away
- 5. Another AC has stopped short or crossed.
- ENR 1.1 para 22.214.171.124
What do you say to centre when you are told to contact them?
- "Climbing or Descending or Maintaining. ""ML CEN RSCU 51 maintaining 6000"""
- ENR 1.1 para 126.96.36.199
When can you descend below MDA (circling approach)?
- In circling area.
- Visibility along intended flightpath as specified.
- Visual contact with landing runway environment. AND either
- Intercept posn on DW / base / final leg at alt NB MDA and complete cont descent to landing threshold using NML RoD and maintain obs clearance until aligned with RWY.
- By day maintain min obs clearance until aligned with RWY.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.7.6
When can you do an IFR visual approach by night?
- Above LSALT/MSA or DME/GPS step or the MDA for procedure flown, and are
- Clear of Cloud
- In sight of ground or water
- 5km (800m by day) vis AND within
- 1. Circling area OR
- 2. within 5nm of AD aligned with RWY centreline and NB ""on slope"" TVASIS / PAPI (7nm ILS RWY) OR
- 3. within 10nm est NB ILS glidepath and less than full scale LLZ deflection."
- ENR 1.5 para 1.15
What is the tolerance to enter a reversal procedure?
- You must be +- 30 deg of outbound track. Note: Base turns where the reciprocal of the inbound track is outside this 30 deg sector the sector is expanded to include it.
- ENR 1.5 para 2.7.3
When does the clock start on a holding pattern? How long is the outbound leg?
- Wings level or abeam the fix - whichever comes later.
- Max time 1 min or time or distance specified on plate.
- ENR 1.5 para 3.3.1.b
When can you request a frequency change?
- Descent from CTA or Form or SAR or police mission.
- ENR 1.1 para 6.1.2 and 6.1.3
Give an example of calls to approach when identified and when not radar identified?
- Not ID: RSCU 52. 20DME on the 205 Radial. Maintaining 8000'. In cloud / visual. Received ATIS (App type reqd). Request Clearance.
- ID: RSCU 52. Maintaining 8000'. In cloud / visual. Received ATIS.(App type Reqd). Request Clearance.
- ENR 1.1 para 188.8.131.52
How does the spacing and colour of runway lights work?
- Runway edge lights are White Spacing = 60m for Instrument runways or max 90m for non-instrument or non-precision runways at country aerodromes.
- Precision app CAT1 / 2 last 600m = Yellow. Centreline lights: White ( first 900m) then Red + White and finally Red (last 300m).
- AD1.1 para 5.4
When can you commence descent during the outbound leg on a reversal procedure?
- You have crossed the fix or facility and Established on outbound leg or on a heading to intercept. Further descent inbound cannot be commenced until established.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.21.2
What does established mean?
- Within half full scale deflection for the ILS/VOR/GNSS.
- Within 5 degrees of NDB bearing.
- Within 2nm of the DME arc.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.21.2 note.
How much clearance is provided by MSAs?
- MSAs provide 1000' obstacle clearance from all obstructions within 5nm of the aircraft.
- ENR 1.5 para 2.2.1
What are the three types of reversal procedure? Are there any additional restrictions for CAT A + B?
- 1 - 45/180; Max time from start of 45 deg turn for CAT A + B is 1 min.
- 2 - 80/260.
- 3 - Base turn.
- ENR 1.5 para 2.7.2
How much clearance is provided by a RTCC? Where is it referenced from?
- Old old old
- 1000' and 3nm from all known obstacles. RTCC distances and bearings are measured from the radar head unless otherwise stated.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.4.1 Note 1
What is 'Special VFR'?
- By day when VMC does not exist.
- For the purpose of entering or leaving CTR.
- May operate Clear of Cloud.
- 800m vis.
- At a speed to see and avoid.
- ENR 1.2 para 1.2
How long before operating in CTA should you submit details?
- At least 30 mins before EOBT (Est Off Block Time) is recommended.
- ENR 1.10 para 2.18
Can you descend below DA/MDA when weather is continuously less than that needed?
- Only in an emergency.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.6
When ATC issue you a restriction or requirement can that be amended?
- Old old old
- "If a subsequent restriction/requirement is imposed it will cancel all previous restrictions/requirements unless:
- 1. all are restated or
- 2. the subsequent instruction is prefixed ""further requirement"".
- ENR 1.1 para 3.14"
What is Vat and how do you calculate it?
- Vat is Velocity at the threshold either - Vso (Stalling speed) x 1.3 or Vs1g (Stalling speed) x 1.23. Both are in landing config and at max cert landing weight.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.2.1 note
What do runway code numbers represent? What is a STODA?
- Code Numbers represent the obstacle survey area size for the RWY. STODA is a shorter take-off distance for a set gradient of 1.6% - 1.9% - 2.2% - 2.5% and 3.3%.
- ERSA INTRO para 1.5.2
When can you request a visual departure?
- Wx allows VMC climb to MSA/LSALT or VMC cruise at less than LSALT/MSA. During departure a pilot must 1. Track + HDG IAW ATC; 2. >500' above LL CTA; and 3. Vis Obs Clearance.
- ENR 1.1 para 184.108.40.206
How much aircraft tracking deviation in CTA for all the different NAV systems?
- VOR/TACAN: Half scale deflection.
- NDB/Locator: +- 5 deg.
- DME: +-2nm.
- RNAV: When system error plus flight technical error exceed RNAV/RNP value
- Visual Nav: +-1nm.
- You must notify ATC if you go outside these tolerances and make corrective action.
ENR 1.1 para 220.127.116.11
How much must you avoid controlled airspace by?
- OLD -
- NDB: 6.9 deg.
- VOR/TACAN: 5.2 deg.
- DR: 12 deg (9 deg if initially tracking by navaid).
- RNAV: 14nm. Visual: 0-2000'AGL = 1nm. 2001'-5000'AGL = 2nm. 5001'-10000'AGL = 4nm.
- ENR 1.1 para 19.12
- NEW -
- If leaving VFR you mustn't allow the aircraft to enter CTA if ATC clearance required or restricted area.
- ENR 1.1 para 18.104.22.168
Why are SIDs named weird names like BOGEY THREE?
- Named by the first enroute WP or a WP within the SID and the amendment status.
- ENR 1.5 para 8.2.1
What are the approved sources of actual QNH? How long is it valid for?
- ATC. ATIS. AWIS. and CASA approved met observer.
- Valid for 15 mins.
- ENR 1.5 para 5.3.2
When do you need an alternate due lighting?
- Portable Lgt - Need responsible person.
- No Stby Pwr - Need responsible person to put out portable lights.
- PAL + Stby Pwr - Need responsible person to manually switch on stby pwr.
- PAL at Alt Aerodrome - No responsible person req if dual VHF or single VHF + HF + 30min holding.
- Responsible person attendance - 30min before ETA until taxi complete. 10min before ETD until T/O + 30min.
- NB/ Our CASA permit allows us to descend below LSALT so if visual do we need alternate for lightingjQuery112409410830082589847_1581172001376? I think yes because regardless of being visual rules still need alt.
- ENR 1.1 para 22.214.171.124
At a CTA will ATC issue a clearance to fly into an adjoining CTR?
- When T/O in a CTA ATC will issue a clearance to operate in adjoining controlled airspace.
- ENR 1.1
- ENR 1.4 para 5.3.4
If OCTA close to CTA when should you obtain clearance?
- 10min prior to entering airspace or as soon as prac after take-off provided the aircraft does not enter controlled area until cleared.
- GEN 3.3 para 7.4
Does a control instruction amend a clearance? When will a clearance be re-issued?
- A control instruction issued after a clearance amends the appropriate item in the clearance. A complete clearance will be re-issued when there is any change in the clearance limit or route specified.
- ENR 1.1 para 2.2.9
Who can go into Class E airspace?
- IFR need clearance. VFR does not require a clearance. But - VFR should avoid IFR routes and holding points & monitor Class E freq to avoid conflict.
- ENR 1.1 para 3.1 and 3.2
- ENR 1.4 2.1.4
When operating below MDA what is the minimum obstacle clearance?
- Pilots should maintain maximum practical obstacle clearance.
- Mins are - Cat A & B: 300'.
- Cat C & D: 400'.
- Cat E: 500'.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.7.6 note 2
How big is the circling area?
- Arcs centred on the thresholds of useable RWYs and joined by tangents.
- A: 1.68nm
- B: 2.66nm
- C: 4.20nm
- D: 5.28nm
- E: 6.94nm.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.7.6 note 3
Give an example of a departure report to approach?
- """ADL APP - RSCU 51 - turning left 200 - Passing 1200 - Climbing 8000"".
- Dir of turn & hdg - alt passing - assigned level.
- ENR 1.1 para 2.7.2
What are the handling speeds for a Cat A aircraft?
- Vat = <91.
- Initial & Intermediate = 90 - 150.
- Final = 70 - 100.
- Visual Circling = Max 100.
- Missed App = Max 110.
- Reversal (This is a 45/180 or 80/250 or a Base Turn Proceedure) = Max 110.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.16.1
ADF Ref - What the hell is 'Well Clear'?
- 500' vertical and 600m (2000') horizontal separation.
- FIHA ENR 1.1 para 1.6
??? When are you 'Overtaking'?
- Old old old
- When approaching another aircraft from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70deg (can't see overtaken aircraft's nav lights).
- ENR 1.1 para 1.6.2
ADF Ref - How do you overtake?
Slow aircraft has right of way. Fast aircraft to pass to the right. Don't dive to overtake. ENR1.1 para 1.6.3
What must you tell Center after a frequency change?
- Tell them last assigned level. If you are not maintaining it anymore tell them what you are climbing or descending to.
- ENR 1.1 para 126.96.36.199
Can you modify a approach minima with a shaded backgroud?
- Yes - if you have accurate QNH you can reduce a shaded minima by 100ft.
- ENR 1.5 para 5.3.2
What is 'Low Flying'? When can you do it?
IAW CAR 157
What is a standard SID climb gradient? Why is it this number?
- Standard SID is 3.3%. This is normal 2.5% obstacle gradient + 0.8% additional clearance because 2.5% equates to zero ft at the end of the runway bitumen.
- ENR 1.5 para 8.1.4
Do you add buffers to weather changes on a TAF and TTF?
- Yes - add a 30min buffer to weather changes on a TAF to make the WX change more restrictive. 30min buffer not req on a TTF.
- ENR 1.1 para 188.8.131.52 & 184.108.40.206
What is the minimum forecast you need? How long does it need to be valid?
- Without IAP minimum is a GAF valid for flight duration.
- With IAP you need an aerodrome (TAF/TTF) forecast as well - valid for 30min before and 60min after ETA.
- ENR 1.10 para 1.2.1 and 1.2.5
Can you depart without a forecast?
- You can if the weather will allow safe return within 60mins. You must obtain a forecast within 30mins after departure to continue.
- ENR 1.10 para 1.2.2
When can you use a TTF as your only forecast?
- If the flight will be completed within the validity of the destination TTF you can just use this forecast.
- GEN 3.5 para 3.6.3
- ENR 1.1 para 220.127.116.11
What is the alternate minima if the destination doesn't have an approach?
- Cld >sct below final rte LSALT +500ft and 8km vis.
- ENR 1.1 para 18.104.22.168
What should you note about the spot-heights on IAL charts?
- Spot-heights must be treated with caution. They do not indicate the highest terrain or all obstacles in the circling area. You should study a topo map.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.7.5
How long before a flight should you re-check the weather?
- You should re-check the weather no earlier than 60 mins before departure. However you can depart and get weather within 30 min of departure time.
- ENR 1.10 para 1.2.8 and 1.2.2
What are the mandatory read-backs?
- ATC route clearances
- En route holding instruction
- Route and holding pt instructions in taxi clearance
- Hold short /enter/ line up/ wait/ takeoff from/ cross/ taxi/ backtrack on any rwy or HLS
- Approach clearance
- Assigned rwy/HLS
- Altimeter settings /nab aid freq settings
- SSR code
- Level/ dirn of turn/ hdg/ speed
- GEN 3.4 para 4.4.1
How do distance-to-run markers work on a runway?
- Old old old
- Single digit indicates thousands of feet to run till end of runway.
- AD1.1 para 4.12.1.e
If told to 'Maintain RWY Heading' should you compensate for wind?
- No - pilots assigned a HDG must not compensate for wind.
- ENR 1.1 para 22.214.171.124 note
If heading instructions are given on departure what must you read-back?
- You must read-back HDG and direction of turn also. In a RADAR SID if the assigned HDG is close to RWY heading they will not tell you direction of turn.
- ENR 1.1 para 126.96.36.199
What are the emergency transponder codes?
- MAYDAY - 7700
- COMMS - 7600
- HIJACK - 7500
- ENR 1.6 para 6.4
When can u commence an IFR visual approach by Day?
- You must be within 30NM
- ENR 1.5 para 1.15
Can you ever circle in a No-Circling area?
- You can when DAY VMC.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.7.2
When circling you must maintain Visual-Contact. What does that mean?
- You can see 'RWY Threshold OR approach lights OR other markings identifiable with the runway.
- ENR 1.5 para 1.7.6 c
Your route clearance has a small part OCTA. Do you need clearance to re-enter CTA?
- A clearance only clears the flight on the assigned route to the point that it leaves CTA. You must get another clearance if you intend to re-enter CTA.
- If you remain in CTA then clearance is to first landing point.
- ENR 1.1 para 2.2.5
How do you do 'VFR climb and descent' when IFR?
- You must request it. VMC + See and Avoid + No Wake Turb seperation + Visual Obs clearance. Tracking. Nav and Reporting as per IFR.
- ENR 1.1 para 2.8.2
IFR and operating 'VFR On-Top' of cloud will you get traffic separation service?What levels?
- No - You will get traffic information only. Operate at VFR levels.
- ENR 1.1 para 2.9.1
How accurate must a position estimate be when IFR?
- Must be within 2 mins or advise ATC.
- ENR 1.1 para 10.7.1
How low can you go over cities/towns and people?
- NB 1000ft city, 500ft everywhere else
- BUT doesn't apply for police ops
- CAR 157 Low Flying
- NB 1000ft within 300m radius of helicopter per
- CAR 157 Low Flying
- NB 700ft with nightsun/trakka for police ops per
- WAPOL CASA Instrument
What should you be careful of using T-VASIS at night?
- At night the visible splay is increased from 7.5deg to 30deg either side. This is so you can see it on base. CAUTION - obstacle clearance is not gauranteed till aligned with RWY.
- AD1.1 para 5.18.2 Note 1
What side are the red lights on when ON-SLOPE on a PAPI?
- On slope is 3deg on PAPI. Red lights will always be closest to the RWY when on slope.
- AD1.1 para 5.18.3
Are IFR tracks on charts Great Cirles or Rhumblines?
- IFR chart tracks are Great Circles. This means on long routes the mag track will change as you go along. A Rhumbline has the same magnetic track the whole way.
- GEN 3.2 para 2.3.1
What is the difference between a METAR and a SPECI?
- METAR is a routine observation (hourly or half-hourly).
- SPECI is a special observation where WX is below criteria or has had a significant change.
- GEN 3.5 para 12.1.1
When MUST you make your departure report to center at a CTAF?
- When established on the departure track and clear of CCT traffic. If done before established you must advise that you are manoeuvring for track.
- ENR 1.1 para 10.6.2
When ATC direct a 'Standard' climb or descent what does that mean?
- Not less than 500ft/min & last 1000ft shall be at 500ft/min.
- ENR 1.7 para 4.1.9
When can a pilot be an 'approved met observer'?
- Aircraft captain when observing vis for take-off or landing.
- GEN 3.5 para 4.5.2
What are the dry and saturated lapse rates? Why are they different?
Dry 3deg/1000ft. Saturated 1.5deg/1000ft. In the saturated case when water condenses latent heat is released. This warms the air and reduces the cooling rate.
What is the difference between a SIGMET and an AIRMET?
- SIGMET is weather which may affect aircraft safety.
- AIRMET is issued when specified weather has not been included on the GAF.
- GEN 3.5 para 5.1.1 and 5.3.1
When will a forecast be deemed PROV?
- When the forecast is issued by a MET office outside its area of authority.
- ENR 1.10 para 1.2.3
What area does a TAF actually cover?
- Valid for 5NM from the ARP.
- GEN 3.5 para 3.4.1
What are the Privileges of instrument rating?
- The holder of an instrument rating is authorised to pilot an aircraft:
- (a) under the IFR; or
- (b) at night under the VFR.
- And per 61.880
- CASR 61.855
What is the turb penetration speed?
Aircraft specific but usually between Vy and Vne IMC
### B412 ### What icing conditions can you fly into in Bell 412?
When will icing occur?
OAT < +5deg and visible moisture
What time do new charts and approach plates become current?
- 1600Z on the day before the amendment (0200K on the day of the amendment).
- GEN 3.1 para 4.3
To use 'Special Alternate Minima' what do you need?
- You need dual VOR/ILS/GS recievers. Also need duplicated MB or MB+DME. Also ATC and MET forecasting online. Assumed 2x ADFs if req'd for plate. GPS with TSO 146a can be 1 of the ADF/VOR receivers req'd in the 2.
- Special minima indicated by two asterix (**)
- ENR 1.5 para 6.2.1
What effect does having bleed air on do for ENG power?
Increase Eng temp and therefore decrease power available
After departing an aerodrome how long can you stay on that QNH?
- A local aerodrome QNH is valid if within 100NM of aircraft. Otherwise set area QNH.
- ENR 1.7 para 2.1.2
What is a cloud ceiling?
- The AGL height of the cloud base when it covers more than 4 OCTA. So when its >SCT cloud.
- GEN 2.2 para 1 - Definitions
What are the general limitations on exercise of privileges of instrument rating?
- Only fly IAP if the aircraft is equipped.
- Can operate single Pilot IFR only if passed IR test or IPC in a single-pilot aircraft.
- Can conduct circ app under IFR only if: passed IR flight test or IPC within 12 months that inc a circ app; or train/check system that inc circ app.
- Only fly IAP if completed training and competent IAW CASA or examiner.
- CASR 61.860
- Single pilot requirements
- Have conducted a flight or sim flight within 6mths
- Flight minimum 1 hr with 1x IAP
What are the Recent Experience Requirements of instrument ratings regarding hours/approaches?
- A) Completed OPC covering IFR ops within the last 3 months
- B) Participating in a training and checking system OR
- To fly IFR, conducted 3 IAP within 90 days.
- To fly IFR in a particular category, cond 1 IAP within 90 days in same category.
- 1 x IAP 2D within 90 days.
- 1 x IAP 3D within 90 days.
- 1 x azimuth IAP (NDB, DGA) within 90 days.
- 1 x CDI operation (VOR, RNAV, ILS, LLZ, DGA) within 90 days.
- CASR 61.870
When can someone be authorised to pilot an aircraft under IFR single-pilot?
- Only if the holder has conducted a flight or sim flight under IFR as single-pilot operation within the previous 6 months
- The flight or sim flight must be at least 1 hr and inc at least 1 x IAP
- CASR 61.875
### Babcock ### What GENERAL Equipment is req'd for flight under IFR?
- Aeroplane operating RPT, CHTR or AWK as an air ambo can only operate IFR if it has:
- (a) the roll and pitch axis;
- (b) an automatic heading capability;
- (c) an altitude hold capability.
- An aeroplane without an autopilot may op IFR if:
- (a) equipped with dual controls; and
- (b) carries a second pilot who is auth under Part 61 to conduct the flight.
- If the autopilot fitted for CHTR or AWK ops as an air ambulance loses a capability referred to in paragraph above, the aeroplane may, if the pilot is satisfied that it is safe to do so, be operated single pilot IFR 3 days from when the auto pilot broke
- Aircraft Equipment CAO 20.18 Paragraph 4
Flight time limitations and FDP?
- WAPOL FMS
- Flight time limitations
- 8 hrs single pilot AFCS on
- 6 hrs sickle pilot AFCS off
- 5 hrs NVIS
- 4 hrs NVIS emergency training
- Training with degraded systems to be completed within first 7 hrs of duty
- FDP limitations
- Start at
- 0500 - 0659: 11 hrs
- 0700 - 1159: 12 hrs
- 1200 - 1459: 11 hrs
- 1500 - 0459: 10 hrs
- Under our FRMS we are exempt from CAO limits.
- Only limits we have are a 14 hr duty day.
What are the IFR Fixed and Variable Reserve fuel requirements?
- WAPOL Ops Manual
- Fixed: 30 min at cruise = 160kgs
- Var: 10% of flight fuel. That doesn't include taxi/start/stop
- Fixed: 20 min
- Var: nil
- CAAP 234-1(2.1) 8 Nov 18
- Fixed: 30 min
- Var: N/A
- Fixed: 20 min
- Var: N/A
What speed and fuel flow is holding conducted at for weather and fixed reserve?
- Weather: 5000ft AMSL at Vy
- Fixed: 1500ft AGL at Vy
How much fuel allowed for an approach and missed approach?
- AS365 = 80kgs
- BK = 60kgs
- Ops Man Vol 2 para 2.1.1
### B412 ### At what fuel quantity do you switch the FUEL INTCON to OPEN?
600 lbs remaining
### B412 ### When does the LOW FUEL caution light illuminate?
- 50 lbs in either side OR
- 380 lbs total
Do we add PEC in the Dauphin / B412?
- Yes. Nothing in flight manual saying it's been taken into account
- AIP 1.5 para 1.19.3
What's the average fuel burn calculations?
- 320kgs /hr (@ MCP ISA + 20°)
- 5.2kgs /min
- 750lbs /hr
- 100 /8 min
- 12.5 /min
- = 7 lbs / nm (@ 120kts + 10% reserves)
What is PC1 vs PC2?
- PC1 means if a helo has an engine failure it is able to either continue flight or abort within rejected takeoff distance.
- PC2 means if a helo has an engine failure its not guaranteed that it can fly away or land safely if fail occurs just before landing or during take off. A forced landing may be required.
- GEN 2.2 p22
What ROC is required for Aerial and Private IFR flights?
The CASA Multi Engine Helicopter Operational Performance Standards document states for all non passenger charter, aerial and private ops, a multi engine helicopter may be operated WITHOUT OEI accountability. Therefore no ROC is necessary when planning IFR.
- Multi- Engine Helicopter Operational Performance Standard
- Saved on my WAPOL profile