1. What is Psychology
    The SCIENTIFIC study of behaviors and mental processes
  2. What is Nature vs Nurture
    The reason you are who you are. was it because of genetics (nature) or your upbringing (nurture)
  3. Person vs Situation
    • what is motivating you?
    • Person- Coming within you
    • Situation- because you have to
  4. Stability vs Change
  5. Diversity vs Universality
  6. Mind/ Body
    can stress make you sick?
  7. Psychoanalysis
    your unconscious mind motivates behavior
  8. Humanistic Psychology
    choice of free will
  9. behavioral psychology
    observable behavior
  10. cognitive psychology
    how you think and understand the world.
  11. Information Processing Theory
    how does infor go in, stay and exit from your mind
  12. Evolutionary Psychology
    looks @ the roots of your behavior
  13. positive psychology
    positive emotions, positive characteristics. what makes ppl happy?
  14. eclectic/multiple view
    There is no such thing as the best perspective. no such thing as best therapist
  15. science vs pseudoscience
    pseudoschoence is FAKE science
  16. Hypothesis
    explanation for scientific problem
  17. confirmation bias
    finding what you want to find. ignoring what doesnt agree
  18. Forer effect
    accepting vauge or general statements as being personal and accurate
  19. Descriptive Research
    • snapshot of what is.
    • does not prove nor predict
  20. correlational research
    • is x related to y? doesnt prove anything
    • (i.e. is your self-esteem related to your seat in class?)
  21. correlational coefficient
    ranging from -1 to 1
  22. illusory correlation
    Finding connections where there are none
  23. Experimenta research
    • the ONLY type of research where you can prove something
    • carefuly controlled
    • independant and dependant variables
  24. independant variable
    • the one you manupulate in your study
  25. dependant variable
    • the one your studying to see if it changed
    • event studied and expected to change if I.V. is altered
    • manipulate one to see if the other changes
  26. experimental group
    the ones receiving the treatment (I.V.)
  27. control group
    • the comparison group
    • everything shold be the same except the I.V.
  28. Random Assignment
    • eliminates variables
    • it is random to see if result is due to chance or experimental treatment
  29. representative sample
    selection of an unbiased or random group of individual observations
  30. cohort effect
    your generational groups
  31. interviewer effect
    • how does the person asking the question affect your answer
    • (looks)
  32. hawthorn effect
    how you change when you are being observed
  33. halo effect
    • give the answer you think ppl want to hear.
    • socially acceptable answer
  34. sampling bias
    • what is wrong w/ sample of ppl you are using?
    • more of one type of group
    • not diverse
  35. communal reinforcement
    something is repeated enough that you think its true
  36. testimonials
    • personal account
    • (think about info-mercials... those are testimonials)
  37. placebo effect
    the power of your mind to make you think something has changed when it really hasnt
  38. random chance
    the illusion of control
  39. double blind study
    • experiment where neither the subject or experimenter knows the treatment
    • eliminates confirmation bias
  40. sensation
    sensory info (raw data)
  41. perception
    the process of creating meaningful patters from raw sensory info
  42. Rods
    • highly sensitive
    • responsible for night vision
  43. cones
    • mostly responsible for colors
    • thought to work in pairs blk/wht, yell/blu, red/grn
  44. optic nerve
    transmits information from the retina to the brain
  45. retina
    inner linning of eye that fills in what the blind spot cannot see
  46. waking consciousness
    what we are aware of when we are awake and alert
  47. subliminal messages
    the idea is that we can process some infrom from stimuli too weak to consciously recognize
  48. absolute threshold
    minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus
  49. consciousness
    • daydreams
    • sleeping
    • dreaming
  50. stages of sleep- Stage 1
    • pulse slows, muscles relax, eyes move from side-to-side
    • easily awakened
  51. stages of sleep- Stage 2
    continue to go into a deeper level of sleep
  52. stages of sleep- Stage 3
    short transition when delta waves appear
  53. stages of sleep- Stage 4
    • Deepest level of sleep. tough to wake up from stage 4
    • Helps with learning and memory
    • heart rate, body temp, blood flow to brain is reduced
  54. REM
    • very active sleep
    • breathing, blood flow, to genitals increase
    • muscle tone decreases
    • most vivid dreaming takes place
  55. manifest content
  56. latent content
  57. dreams as unconscious wishes
    • dreamas a wish fulfilment
    • sexual urges
  58. dreams as info processing
    dreams are a way of scanning old files w/ new info to see what should be kept
  59. dreams and waking life
    what you dream about is generally similar to what you were thinking about when your awake
  60. dreams and neural activity
    • limbic system is very active
    • auditory and visual systems also active
    • areas of the frontal lobe relatively larger
  61. sleep apnea
    breathing is interrupted (stop breathing)
  62. narcolepsy
    • sleep attacks. just falls aleep at a moments notice
    • begins in late adolecense/elderly
  63. night terros
    • wake up screaming and are difficult to comfort
    • rememeber very little of dream
  64. sleep walking + talking
    occurs during stage 4
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