Psychology, Exam 1

  1. Define Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  2. Define Research Method
    A systematic approach to answering scientific questions
  3. Define Personality Theorists
    One who studies personality traits, motivation, and individual differences
  4. Define Developmental Psychologists
    One who studies the course of human growth and development, from conception to death.
  5. Define Learning Theorists
    One who studies how and why learning occurs in humans and animals.
  6. Define Sensation and Perception Psychologists
    One who investigates how we discern the world through our senses.
  7. Define Comparative Psychologists
    One who studies and compares the behavior of different species, especially animals.
  8. Define Cognitive Psychologists
    Primarily interested in thinking
  9. Define Biopsychologists
    One who is interested in how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system.
  10. Define Gender Psychologists
    The study between differences between females and males.
  11. Define Social Psychologists
    One who explores human social behavior, such as attitudes, persuasion riots, conformity, leadership, racism, and friendship.
  12. Define Evolutionary Psychologists
    One who investigates how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history of humankind
  13. Define Cultural Psychologists
    One who studies the ways in which culture affects human behavior.
  14. Define Forensic Psychologists
    Apply psychological principles to legal issues.
  15. Define Psuedopsychology
    Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior.
  16. Define Astrology
    Astrology holds that the position of the stars and planets at the time of one's birth determine personality traits and affect behavior.
  17. Define Phrenology
    Claims that personality traits are revealed by the shape of the skull.
  18. Define Palmistry
    Is a similar false system that claim that lines on the hand reveal personality traits and predict the future.
  19. Define Graphology
    The study that claims that personality traits are revealed by handwriting.
  20. Define Overt Behaviors
    Directly observable actions and responses
  21. Define Covert Behaviors
    Private, internal activities, such as thinking, dreaming, remembering, and other mental events.
  22. Define Uncritical Acceptance
    The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself.
  23. Define Stimulus
    Any physical energy sensed by an organism.
  24. Define Introspection
    To look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations.
  25. Define Structuralism
    The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements.
  26. Define Functionalism
    The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments.
  27. Define Behaviorism
    The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.
  28. Define Gestalt Psychology
    A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.
  29. Define Unconscious
    Contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person.
  30. Define Psychoanalysis
    A Fuedian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts.
  31. Define Psychodynamic Theory
    Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts,motives, and unconscious forces.
  32. Define Humanism
    An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
  33. Define Determinism
    The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known.
  34. Define Free Will
    The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions.
  35. Define Self-Actualization
    The ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential.
  36. Define Repression
    The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts or impulses are held out of awareness.
  37. Define Self-Image
    Your perception or your own body, personality, and capabilities
  38. Define Self-Evaluation
    Refers to appraising yourself as good or bad
  39. Define Frame of Reference
    A mental perspective used to interpret events
  40. Define Positive Psychology
    The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning.
  41. Define Cultural Relativety
    The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs.
  42. Define Social Norms
    Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.
  43. Define Psychologists
    A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge and theories of psychology.
  44. Define Clinical Psychologists
    A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances.
  45. Define Counseling Psychologist
    A psychologists who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances.
  46. Define Psychiatrist
    A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders.
  47. Define Psychoanalyst
    A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis.
  48. Define Counselor
    A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors.
  49. Define Psychiatric Social Worker
    A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals.
  50. Define Experiment
    A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principle.
  51. Define Independent Variable
    In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
  52. Define Dependent Variable
    In an experiment, the condition (usually behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
  53. Define Extraneous Variable
    Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment.
  54. Define Experimental Group
    In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition.
  55. Define Control Group
    In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable.
  56. Define Random Assignment
    The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.
  57. Define Placebo
    An inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research
  58. Define Placebo Effect
    Changes in behavior due to a participant's expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.
  59. Define Researcher Bias
    Changes in participant's behavior caused by the unintended influence of a researcher's actions.
  60. Define Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    A prediction that prompts people to act in ways to make the prediction come true.
  61. Define Observer Effect
    Changes in an organism's behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed.
  62. Define Observer Bias
    The tendency of ab observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations.
  63. Define Correlation
    The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables.
  64. Define Correlational Study
    A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables.
  65. Define Case Study
    An in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person.
  66. Define Population
    An entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category
  67. Define Survey Method
    The use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions
  68. Define Representative Sample
    A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population.
  69. Define Courtesy Bias
    A tendency to give "polite" or socially desirable answers
  70. Psychoanalytic Approach
    Sigmund Freud
  71. Structuralism
    Wilhelm Wundt
  72. Functionalism
    William James
  73. Gestalt Psychology
    Max Wertheimer
  74. Humanistic Approach
    Abraham Maslow
  75. Behaviorism
    John B. Watson
  76. Introspection
    Wilhelm Wundt
  77. The Unconscious
    Sigmund Freud
  78. Self- Actualization
    Abraham Maslow
  79. Father of Psychology
    Wilhelm Wundt
  80. Margret Washburn
    Wrote the influential textbook in animal behavior titled "The Animal Mind"
  81. Margret Washburn
    The first woman to be awarded a PH.D in psychology.
  82. William James
    Wrote the first psychology textbook titled "Principles of Psychology"
  83. John Watson
    " Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select..."
  84. Inez Beverly
    First African-American female to be awarded her PH.D in psychology.
  85. Essay question part 1: B.F. Skinner
    (1904- 1990) Skinner studied simple behaviors under carefully controlled conditions. The " Skinner Box" has been widely used to study learning in simplified animal experiments. In addition to advancing psychology, Skinner hoped that his radical brand of Behaviorism would improve human life. Skinner was convinced positive reinforcement could encourage desirable behavior.
  86. Essay Question Part 2: Max Wertheimer
    (1880- 1941) Max first proposed the Gestalt viewpoint to help explain perceptual illusions. He later promoted Gestalt psychology as a way to understand not only perception, problem-solving, thinking and social behavior, but also art, logic, philosophy, and politics. Gestalt psychology also inspired a type of psychotherapy.
  87. Essay Question Part 3: Sigmund Freud
    (1885-1939) For more than 50yrs Freud probed the unconscious mind. In doing so, he altered modern views of human nature. His early experimentation with a "talking cure" for hysteria is regarded as the beginning of psychoanalysis. Through psychoanalysis Freud added psychological treatment methods to psychiatry. Freud believed that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined. His legacy is still evident in psychodynamic thories, which continue to emphasize internal motives, conflicts, and unconscious forces.
Card Set
Psychology, Exam 1
Psychology, Exam 1, Mr. Cavander, Vocabulary