The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Define Research Method
A systematic approach to answering scientific questions
Define Personality Theorists
One who studies personality traits, motivation, and individual differences
Define Developmental Psychologists
One who studies the course of human growth and development, from conception to death.
Define Learning Theorists
One who studies how and why learning occurs in humans and animals.
Define Sensation and Perception Psychologists
One who investigates how we discern the world through our senses.
Define Comparative Psychologists
One who studies and compares the behavior of different species, especially animals.
Define Cognitive Psychologists
Primarily interested in thinking
One who is interested in how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system.
Define Gender Psychologists
The study between differences between females and males.
Define Social Psychologists
One who explores human social behavior, such as attitudes, persuasion riots, conformity, leadership, racism, and friendship.
Define Evolutionary Psychologists
One who investigates how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history of humankind
Define Cultural Psychologists
One who studies the ways in which culture affects human behavior.
Define Forensic Psychologists
Apply psychological principles to legal issues.
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior.
Astrology holds that the position of the stars and planets at the time of one's birth determine personality traits and affect behavior.
Claims that personality traits are revealed by the shape of the skull.
Is a similar false system that claim that lines on the hand reveal personality traits and predict the future.
The study that claims that personality traits are revealed by handwriting.
Define Overt Behaviors
Directly observable actions and responses
Define Covert Behaviors
Private, internal activities, such as thinking, dreaming, remembering, and other mental events.
Define Uncritical Acceptance
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself.
Any physical energy sensed by an organism.
To look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations.
The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements.
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments.
The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.
Define Gestalt Psychology
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.
Contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person.
A Fuedian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts.
Define Psychodynamic Theory
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts,motives, and unconscious forces.
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known.
Define Free Will
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions.
The ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential.
The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts or impulses are held out of awareness.
Your perception or your own body, personality, and capabilities
Refers to appraising yourself as good or bad
Define Frame of Reference
A mental perspective used to interpret events
Define Positive Psychology
The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning.
Define Cultural Relativety
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs.
Define Social Norms
Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.
A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge and theories of psychology.
Define Clinical Psychologists
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances.
Define Counseling Psychologist
A psychologists who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances.
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders.
A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis.
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors.
Define Psychiatric Social Worker
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals.
A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principle.
Define Independent Variable
In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
Define Dependent Variable
In an experiment, the condition (usually behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
Define Extraneous Variable
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment.
Define Experimental Group
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition.
Define Control Group
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable.
Define Random Assignment
The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.
An inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research
Define Placebo Effect
Changes in behavior due to a participant's expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.
Define Researcher Bias
Changes in participant's behavior caused by the unintended influence of a researcher's actions.
Define Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A prediction that prompts people to act in ways to make the prediction come true.
Define Observer Effect
Changes in an organism's behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed.
Define Observer Bias
The tendency of ab observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations.
The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables.
Define Correlational Study
A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables.
Define Case Study
An in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person.
An entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category
Define Survey Method
The use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions
Define Representative Sample
A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population.
Define Courtesy Bias
A tendency to give "polite" or socially desirable answers
John B. Watson
Father of Psychology
Wrote the influential textbook in animal behavior titled "The Animal Mind"
The first woman to be awarded a PH.D in psychology.
Wrote the first psychology textbook titled "Principles of Psychology"
" Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select..."
First African-American female to be awarded her PH.D in psychology.
Essay question part 1: B.F. Skinner
(1904- 1990) Skinner studied simple behaviors under carefully controlled conditions. The " Skinner Box" has been widely used to study learning in simplified animal experiments. In addition to advancing psychology, Skinner hoped that his radical brand of Behaviorism would improve human life. Skinner was convinced positive reinforcement could encourage desirable behavior.
Essay Question Part 2: Max Wertheimer
(1880- 1941) Max first proposed the Gestalt viewpoint to help explain perceptual illusions. He later promoted Gestalt psychology as a way to understand not only perception, problem-solving, thinking and social behavior, but also art, logic, philosophy, and politics. Gestalt psychology also inspired a type of psychotherapy.
Essay Question Part 3: Sigmund Freud
(1885-1939) For more than 50yrs Freud probed the unconscious mind. In doing so, he altered modern views of human nature. His early experimentation with a "talking cure" for hysteria is regarded as the beginning of psychoanalysis. Through psychoanalysis Freud added psychological treatment methods to psychiatry. Freud believed that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined. His legacy is still evident in psychodynamic thories, which continue to emphasize internal motives, conflicts, and unconscious forces.