bot exam 1

  1. What kind of compound is found in Rosaceaes?
    They contain cyanogenic glycoside
  2. What is found in the seed of Ricinus Camminus?
  3. What is Ricin?
    It is an enzyme that attacks rRNA
  4. What is an example of a seed that has Ricin?
    Castor Bean
  5. Fruit may become edible upon?
  6. Seeds often remain?
    Toxic and of defended
  7. What is needed to remove toxins?
    Breeding or preparation
  8. This has involved reducing toxins in seeds and fruits by selective breeding.
    Agriculture and plant domestication
  9. Science of raising crops and livestock.
  10. What are the two part s to agriculture?
    Cultivation and domestication
  11. Caring for plants
  12. Genetic alteration of plant populations caused by human activity.
  13. What is the most popular hypothesis as to why agriculture started?
    Most beneficial when population out -strips ability of the environment to support it.
  14. What are the levels of agriculture?
    Enrichment, Swidden (slash and burn), and Intensive.
  15. What does agriculture involve?
    Increasing productivity of land and increase the fraction of the plant biomass that is digestable and non-toxic.
  16. Selection of varieties with desired trait
    • Controlled crosses
    • Cross from two inbred lines of the same inbred lines a homozygous.
    • Hybrid seed
  17. What is meant when hybrids do not breed true?
    This means the next generation does not have the same characteristics. Homozygotes can only breed true.
  18. How do you propagate varieties that don’t breed true?
    Cross inbred lines. Colonial propagation: Graftinf, root cutting, budding, seperating naturally clonal species.
  19. This is the grass family.
  20. How are the flowers in the Poaceae family?
  21. An arrangement of flowers sandwiched between palea and lemma (floret)
  22. Describe the Poaceae spikelet.
    Seed encased by palea (top) and lemma( bottom) collectively known as floret aka grain. The larger leaf protecting it is called a glome
  23. What are the all non grain parts of a poaceae?
  24. Poaceae: seed wall and fruit coat fused.
  25. Poaceae: embryo
  26. Poaceae: outer coat of the seed wall. This produced the enzymes to convert starch to sugars to feed embryo starting germinating.
    Aleurone layer
  27. What are some changes that have been made to the Poaceae family?
    Increased grain size and production. As well as prevention of shattering.
  28. What are the crops to Poaceae?
    Barley, wheat, Maize, Rice, Avena (oats), and Millet
  29. This is the oldest domesticated crop from Poaceae. Common 6 rows. Used for beer (malt). Don’t seem to have a toxin that harms us and easy to store and transport.
  30. The species of Poaceae has a had a lot of speciation, allopolyploidy,used for breads and pastries.
  31. Two diploid sets of chromosomes from different species.
  32. Has two diploid sets of chromosomes from the same species.
  33. 3 sets of diploid chromosomes
  34. Poaceae: Sweet corn, popping corn, Indian corn, pod corn, most are from a hybrid seed
  35. Poaceae: has been milled and polished to remove the bran and germ. ( seed fruit and embryo gone) decrease in proteins and vitamins. (ESP thiamine vita B1)
    White Rice
  36. A disease caused by Thiamine deficiency. Maybe caused by a diet on white rice.
  37. Poaceae: Not domesticated. Ones we buy are paddied and not shatter restart.
    Wild rice
  38. Poaceae: Species with many seed on the heads.
  39. Poaceae: Species used for grain, silage, molasses, sugar.
  40. This is the pea and bean family. AKA legumes.
  41. What is the fruit of the fabaceae?
    Legume- splits along the sides w/ row of seeds (green bean)
  42. What are the seed of the fabaceae called?
  43. Describe the pea flower.
    Has 5 petals, bilaterally symmetrical, w/ banner (2 wings and keel of 2 fused petals.)
  44. What are some important facts about the fabaceae species?
    Good course of protein, symbiotic relation ship with bacteria, and can fix nitrogen.
  45. Nitrogen gas cannot be used by plants (N triple bond N). Fixing then turns nitrogen into?
    Nitrates, Ammoniums, and amino-nitrogen. (These can be used by plants)
  46. Fabaceae: results of the symbiosis is?
    Increase in nitrogen in plants. Increases protein richness. Maintains nitrogen fertility of soils in cropping systems through their own decay.
  47. How are we using the fabaceae plants in crops?
    Legumes and planted w/non-legume species. Also, crop rotations. Legume then non.
  48. In the fabaceae can be toxic. What are the toxins.
    Non-protein amino acids, N-storage, and osmotic compounds.
  49. How can non-protein amino acids cause us problems?
    Interfere with uptake and transport of protein AAs. Interfere w/ biosynthesis or primary AA, and can be incorporated in enzymes inactivating them.
  50. This species provides us with our fruit crops.
  51. What are the typical fruits that come from the rosaceaes?
    Apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, almonds, raspberries, and black berries.
  52. These are the fruit type pome
    Apples and pears
  53. These are the fruit type drupe
    Plums, peaches, apricots, almonds
  54. The are the fruit type aggregate fruit.
    Raspberries, black berries
  55. A simple fruit comes from?
    1 ovary of one pistol.
  56. An aggregate fruit comes from?
    Many ovaries in a single flower.
  57. Fruits are classified by?
    # of corrals in pistol and ovary.
  58. What are the fruit types?
    Fleshy and dry
  59. What are the two kinds of dry fruit?
    Indehiscent and dehiscent.
  60. Indehiscent
    Usually has one seed
  61. Dehiscent
    Splits and releases seeds
  62. What are the 2 layers of the fruit wall (pericarp)
    Exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp.
  63. Only in Rosaceae. Hypanthium fused to ovary in mature fruit. Outside accessory tissue. Core ovary.
  64. What are some examples of Dry, indehiscent
    Caryopsis: Poaceae Corn. Achene: Sunflower seeds. Summaras: winged fruits. Nuts
  65. Dehiscent fruits that split. If it splits on one side its____ and splits on top and bottom_____.
    Follicle and legume
  66. Mustards are unique. The part that mustard seeds are stuck to.
  67. This is the night shade family. Have lots of toxins ad alkaloids.
  68. What are some of the plants associates with the Solanaceae?
    Tomatos, Potato’s, peppers tobacco, Jimson weed, and deadly night shade
  69. Describe the flowers for the Solanaceae.
    Fused (can be at the base) petals like a wheel.
  70. What is the general chemical structure of an Alkaloid?
    Ring structure with a Nitrogen group.
  71. How can potatoes create Alkaloids?
    Exposed to light they produce cholophil and the then alkaloids
  72. This is the Mustard Family.
  73. Describe the flower and fruits of the Brassicaceae.
    4 petals and fruit is a silique
  74. This is in the mustards: A bitter, sulfur-contains secondary compound. May deter predators and attract specialized animals.
    Glucosinolates. Has a glucose and sulfur group.
  75. Many crops come from one species. Cabbage, sprouts, Kale, Cauliflower Brocholli, etc.
    Brassica Oleracea
  76. This is the squash family.
  77. Describe the Curcurbitaceaes.
    Peppo (hard accessory tissue) 5 fused petals and interior ovary.
  78. What do plants provide for us?
    Food, Fiber, Fuel, drugs, and others
  79. What are secondary compounds?
    Compounds not needed for building structures, not found in other plants, and only in one kind
  80. What is a node?
    Level where a leaf is attached.
  81. Elongation growth. Results from activity of apicalmeristem. A I’ll art buds are created from leaf premodium.
    Primary growth
  82. These are left over from a budding leaf. They make flowers or branches or may do nothing.
    Axillary bud
  83. Increases girth (width) of stems, roots. Results from activity of cambia.
    Secondary growth
  84. Transports H2O, mineral, and anchors the plant. Some have energy storage.
    Root system.
  85. How is energy stored in plants?
    Starches, sugars, and sometimes oil.
  86. Why is oil used as energy storage?
    It will save on weight.
  87. Starch vs Cellulose
    Starch twists, both can be stored in semi-crystalline forms, and cellulose is in plant walls while starch is in amyloplasts.
  88. Above ground stem horizontal (not storage)
  89. Underground stem
  90. Enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem.
  91. What are the benefits to storage?
    Replacing tissue lost to fire, herbivory, and seasonally. Massive reproduction
  92. What is the enzyme that is located in the papaya and in latex plants?
    Proteolytic enzymes
  93. What are monocots?
    Not woody, scattered vascular bundles, 3 portioned leafs (can be in multiples of 3) parallel leaf veins.
  94. Alliaceae
    Onions and garlic
  95. Alliaceaes have what kind of 2 compound?
    Alliin sulfur containing compounds.
  96. These odd plants have Rhizomes and are havested as stems.
  97. Toro, arrowroot, canna
    Starch stables.
  98. Tell me about palms.
    Fruits are drupes. Dates and coconuts.
  99. These are dry drupes. We eat the endosperm.
  100. History of domestication.
    Artifice selection, plant breeding, and genetic engineering.
Card Set
bot exam 1
Bot exam 1