Non-Systems_Research_ALL

  1. Sensitivity
    Define
    High sensitivity means what?
    Good for ruling in or out disease?
    Mnemonic
    • Pt tests (+) for a condition they have
    • High = A lot of true (+) bc it's so sensitive / Few false (-)
    • Good for ruling OUT who has disease
    • SnNout - Test w/high Sensitivity, (- N) result rules OUT diagnosis
  2. Specificity
    Define
    High Specificity means what?
    Good for ruling in or out disease?
    Mnemonic
    • Pt tests (-) for a condition they DO NOT have
    • High = pts don’t have disease - Many true (-)/ few false (+)
    • Good for ruling IN who has disease
    • SpPin = Test w/high Specificity, (+P) result rules IN diagnosis
  3. What is included in written informed consent? - 4
    • Info about general nature of what is to take place
    • Any risks to individual & what will be done to minimize the risk
    • Possible benefits
    • Ethical disclosure
  4. Independent variable - 2
    • Variable being manipulated (changed or controlled) to test effects on dependent variable
    • Treatment/intervention administered to subjects
  5. Dependent variable - define; ex
    • Change, outcome or difference in behavior resulting from IND variable
    • Variable being tested/measured to determine outcome
    • Ex: ROM
  6. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) - define; used when
    • Statistical test
    • Multiple variables - Differences bet 3 or MORE groups
  7. Chi square test - define; used when? (2)
    • Statistical test
    • Used - Genetics + Population
  8. T-test - define; used when? w/what variables?
    • Statistical test
    • Difference between TWO groups
    • Only used if there is 1 dependent & 1 independent variable
    • 2 different groups are matched & tested OR 1 group is tested twice
  9. Interrater vs intrarater reliability
    • Interrater = 2 or more different testers
    • Intrarater = Same tester
  10. Bell curve - %s fall above/below 1, 2 3 standard deviations
    • +1 or -1 SD = 68%
    • +2 or -2 SD = 95%
    • +3 or -3 SD = 99%
  11. Null hypothesis - define; rejected; not rejected
    • Predicts a finding of no significant difference between groups or treatment studies
    • Rejected - Significant difference was observed - P value Not rejected - No significant difference = P value > level of significance
  12. Alternative hypothesis - define; when is it accepted?
    • Predicts significant difference between groups or treatment studies
    • Accepted when null hypothesis is rejected
  13. Statistical significance - define; P values & what they mean
    • Hypothesis is statistically significant = test results in p-value less than significance level
    • P-value = Probability whether or not results of experiment happened by chance
    • P = 0.05 = results occur by chance 5% of time & occur from tx 95% of time
    • P = 0.01 = Higher statistical significance bc only 1% probability results occurred by chance
  14. Descriptive research - Define; purpose; ex (5)
    • Describe, record, analyze characteristics of what's being studied
    • It desn't answer questions about how/when/why characteristics occurred
    • Purpose - Classify & understand clinical phenomenon
    • Ex - Developmental, normative, qualitative + case report & case series
  15. Experimental research - Define; purpose; ex (2)
    • Comparing 2 or more conditions
    • Treatment is intentionally introduced & result or outcome is observed
    • Purpose - cause & effect bet dependent & independent variables
    • Ex - RCT; single-subject designs
  16. Exploratory research - Define; purpose; ex (4)
    • Examines research question & its relationship to other factors
    • It does not intend to offer conclusive solutions to existing problems
    • Helps in determining research design, sampling methodology & data collection method
    • Ex - cohort; case control; historical research; methodological studies
  17. Scales of measurement - Nominal - another name; define; ex
    • Classification scale (category)
    • Each object/person can be assigned to ONLY 1 category - MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE
    • Ex - blood type; breath sound; type of arthritis; male vs female
  18. Scales of measurement - Ordinal - another name; define; ex
    • Ranking scale
    • Degree to which difference bet scores is not quantifiable
    • Ex - MMT; levels of assistance; pain; jt laxity grades
  19. Scales of measurement - Interval - another name; define; ex
    • Measurement scale
    • Based on predetermined = intervals w/NO true 0
    • Ex - Temp C vs F (body, skin, whirlpool); development tests; functional status tests; standard deviation
  20. Scales of measurement - Ratio - another name; define; ex
    • Measurement scale - highest, most precise level of measurement
    • Based on = intervals w/true 0
    • Ex - ROM (deg); distance walked (m); nn conduction velocity (m/sec); time to complete activity (s)
  21. Validity refers to what?
    How well a test measures what it is purported to measure
  22. Reliability - define
    Degree to which an assessment tool produces stable & consistent results
  23. Internal validity - define
    Degree to which observed differences on dependent variable are direct result of manipulation of independent variable & NOT result of extraneous factors

    Basically how well an experiment is done, especially whether it avoids confounding (more than one possible independent variable [cause] acting at same time)
  24. Internal validity - threats to it (7)
    • History - Events that occur besides tx (events in environment)
    • Maturation - Physical/psychological changes in participants
    • Attrition - Participants lost from study
    • Instrumentation - Learning gain from pre to posttest 
    • Testing - experience w/pretest - become test wise
    • Regression toward mean 
    • Selection bias

    Confounding - less chance for confounding in a study--> higher its internal validity
  25. External validity - define; threats to it (3)
    • Generalizability of study to a particular population
    • Threats - Interaction of treatment w/subject / Place (setting) / Time
  26. Hawthorne effect - define; When is it present?
    • Untreated subject experiences change simply from participating in study
    • Present when pts are being observed
  27. Type I error - define; leads to what finding
    • Null hypothesis REJECTED when it is true
    • Thinks presence difference/relationship when there is none
    • False (+) finding (Test indicates pt has disease but in reality pt doesn’t)
  28. Type 2 error - define; leads to what finding
    • Null hypothesis NOT REJECTED when it's false - alternate hypothesis is true
    • Thinks no difference/relationship when there is
    • False (-) finding (Test indicates pt doesn't have disease but in reality they do)
  29. Power - 3 primary factors + 1 secondary factor
    • Primary - sample size; effect size; significance level (p value)
    • Secondary - statistics
  30. Effect size (ES) - define; INC ES means what?
    • Measure of strength of a phenomenon
    • Measuring magnitude of effect - quantifying DIFFERENCE bet 2 treatments

    INC ES = Larger value always indicates a stronger effect = statistically significant
  31. Repeated measures design - does what
    controls for differences between subjects
  32. Reliability coefficient - good; moderate; poor
    • Good = Above 0.75
    • Moderate = 0.50-0.75
    • Poor = below 0.50
  33. Incidence vs prevalence
    • Incidence - # of new cases 
    • Prevalence - # of existing cases (new & pre-exisitng)
  34. Levels of evidence - Systematic reviews - define; best for what
    • Comprehensive review of medical literature (Ex: Cochane)
    • BEST source of information upon which to make clinical decisions about therapy for an individual patient
  35. Levels of evidence - Meta analysis - define
    Combined results of several RCTs
  36. Levels of evidence - Randomized control trials
    STRONGEST & most effective
  37. Levels of evidence - Cohort studies - define; effectiveness
    • Pts followed over time
    • LEAST EFFECTIVE
  38. Levels of evidence - Case studies - define; effectiveness
    LEAST EFFECTIVE
  39. Levels of evidence (Sackett) - from best to worst - 5 + 1
    • Systematic reviews + Meta analysis
    • I - Multicenter RCTs
    • II - Single-center RCTs
    • III - Cohort studies
    • IV - Case control studies
    • V - Case reports
    • Image Upload 1
  40. PICO - define
    • Used to ask a focused clinical question
    • P = pt or problem
    • I = intervention
    • C = comparison
    • O = outcome
  41. Construct Validity - define
    • Degree to which test measures what it claims to measure
    • "Non-observable behaviors or ideas"
    • "Does the measure behave like theory says a measure of that construct should behave?"
  42. Content Validity - define
    • Degree to which an instrument measures an intended content area
    • Determined by expert judges
  43. Criterion Validity - define
    Extent to which a measure is related to outcome
  44. RESEARCH - Correlation - .89; .68 - define
    • .89 - high correlation
    • .68 - moderate correlation
  45. When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ________ validity
    a.external
    b.internal
    c.construct
    Internal
  46. The extent to which we can generalize the results of a study to other participants is called:
    a.sampling validity
    b.internal validity
    c.external validity
    d.construct validity
    External validity
  47. The validity of a measure refers to the
    a.particular type of construct specification
    b.consistency of measurement
    c.comprehensiveness w/which it measures construct
    d.accuracy w/which it measures construct
    Accuracy w/which it measures construct
  48. If a measure is consistent over multiple occasions, it has:
    a.internal validity
    b.construct validity
    c.test-retest reliability
    d.inter-rater reliability
    Test-retest reliability
  49. Measurement reliability refers to the:
    a.comprehensiveness of scores
    b.consistency of scores
    c.dependency of scores
    d.accuracy of scores
    Consistency of scores
  50. Bell Curve - % between standard deviations:
    1 standard deviation = what %
    2 standard deviations = what %
    3 standard deviations = what %
    • 1 standard deviation = 34.1% + 34.1% = 68.2%
    • 2 standard deviations = 2 x (34.1% + 13.6%) = 95.4%
    • 3 standard deviations = 2 x (34.1% + 13.6% + 2.14%) = 99.7%
    • Image Upload 2 Image Upload 3
  51. Bell curve & Osteoporosis 
    Normal
    Osteopenia
    Osteoporosis
    • Normal = bone density within 1 SD (+1 or -1)
    • Osteopenia = bone density bet 1 & 2.5 SD (-1 to -2.5)
    • Osteoporosis = bone density is 2.5 SD (-2.5 or lower)
  52. What is ICC?
    High ICC # means what?
    • Intraclass correlation coefficient is a reliability coefficient based on ANOVA - from 0-1
    • High ICC = very reliable
Author
Tanuisha
ID
350476
Card Set
Non-Systems_Research_ALL
Description
Non-Systems_Research_ALL
Updated