ibclc exam.xlsx

  1. % of breastmilk that is carbohydrates
    Approximately 7%
  2. % of breastmilk that is fat
    Approximately 4%
  3. % of breastmilk that is protein
    Approximately .8 - 1 %
  4. % of calories in breastmilk from carbohydrates
    Approximately 40%
  5. % of calories in breastmilk from fat
    Approximately 50%
  6. % of calories in breastmilk from protein
    Approximately 10%
  7. Acinus
    Any of the small sacs or alveoli that terminate the ducts and are lined with secretory cells.
  8. Acrocyanosis
    Bluish discoloration of the hands and feet in the newborn; peripheral cyanosis. Should not persist beyond 24 hours after birth.
  9. Active immunity
    Immunity conferred by the production of antibodies by one's own immune system.
  10. Active transport
    Passage of drug into breastmilk assisted by components in breastmilk.
  11. Acyclovir/Zovirax
    Antiviral used to treat herpes infections, L2.
  12. Aerobic bacteria
    Bacteria requiring air for metabolic processes. The breast is colonized with this type of bacteria.
  13. AGA
    Appropriate for Gestational Age. Having a birth weight between the 10th and 90th percentile on intrauterine growth charts.
  14. Alcohol and breastfeeding
    Alcohol can decrease milk supply. Breastfeeding must be interrupted for 1 hour per drink, or until mother is sober.
  15. Aldomet/Methyldopa
    Antihypertensive, L2. Frequently used to treat hypertension during pregnancy. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
  16. Allergen
    A substance that causes an allergic response, such as foods, drugs, inhalants. Cow's milk is common source for infants.
  17. Αlphalactalbumin
    A major protein found in human milk whey. Assists in processing lactose.
  18. Alveolar ridge
    The ridges on the upper and lower jaw where infant's teeth will grow.
  19. Alveolus, alveoli
    Secrete and store milk for let down. Surrounded by myoepithelial cells, contractile cells and connective tissue.
  20. Amenorrhea
    A natural phase of infertility that takes place when a mother is exclusively breastfeeding. Menstruation has not returned.
  21. Amoxicillin
    Antibiotic, L1. Observe for change in intestinal flora, compatible.
  22. Ampicillin
    Antibiotic, L1. Observe for change in intestinal flora, compatible.
  23. Anaphylaxis
    Hypersensitivity (as to foreign proteins or drugs) resulting from sensitization following prior contact with the causative agent.
  24. Anchor scar
    Surgical technique for breast reduction, slang.
  25. Ankyglossia
    A tongue tie. Characterized by a thick, short, or tight frenulum under the tongue. Can cause breastfeeding issues, such as a painful latch or inefficient milk transfer.
  26. Anterior pituitary
    This gland releases prolactin into the blood effecting milk production and ejection. It is susceptible to stress.
  27. Anthrax
    Infectious disease caused by a spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus anthrax), characterized by external ulcerating nodules or by lesions in the lungs.
  28. Antibody
    Immunoglobulin formed in response to an antigen, including bacteria and viruses. Antibodies attack those bacteria or viruses helping the body resist infection.
  29. Antigen
    Substance that stimulates antibody production. May be dust, food, or bacteria.
  30. Apgar score
    Index to evaluate the condition of a newborn infant based on a rating of 0, 1, or 2 for color, heart rate, reflex response, muscle tone, and respiration with 10 being a perfect score.
  31. Apocrine gland
    Sweat glands located on the areola that secrete a scent.
  32. Apoptosis
    Programmed normal cell death.
  33. Applied research
    Research that focuses on solving or finding an answer to a clinical or practical problem.
  34. Areola
    The darker pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple. Contains sebaceous glands (Montgomery Glands)
  35. Aspirin
    Salicylate analgesic, L3. Use associated with Reye's Syndrome in infants.
  36. Atopic dermititis
    Inherited allergic tendency to skin rashes or inflammation. Exclusively breastfed infants are less likely to develop as cow's milk protein is a common allergen.
  37. Autocrine control
    The point in lactation when milk supply is controlled by milk removal. Local control in the breast.
  38. Autonomy
    The capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
  39. Average
    The middle value of a data set. Add all the numbers and divided by the amount of numbers in the set.
  40. Axilla
    Underarm. Breast tissue (the axillary tail) can sometimes extend into axilla.
  41. B Cell
    Lymphocyte produced in bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissue; found in breastmilk. Attacks antigens.
  42. β lactaglobin
    Major protein in bovine milk.
  43. Back to sleep
    A campaign that significantly reduced SIDS. Babies are less prone to SIDS when sleeping on their back.
  44. Bactericidal
    Destroys bacteria.
  45. Bacteriostatic
    Prevents the growth of bacteria.
  46. Bactrim/Septra
    Sulfonamide antibiotic, L3. The mixture of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
    Bronchus/gut/mammary-associated immunocompetent lymphoid tissue. Intermammary pathway. IgA antibodies are transferred through breastmilk to the infant.
  48. Basic research
    Research that generates knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
  49. Bed-sharing
    Sharing adult bed with baby. Questioned safety in reduction of SIDS. Safe bed sharing has been shown to extend the duration of breastfeeding.
  50. Bellagio Consensus Conference
    Meeting to develop protocol for the Lactational Amenorrhea Method of birth control. 1988.
  51. Beneficence
    The duty to do good.
  52. BFHI Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative
    Initiative by UNICEF and WHO (1991) to support breastfeeding in hospitals and maternity centers. "The 10 Steps".
  53. Bioavailable
    The amount of a nutrient that is actually absorbed by the body. Nutrients found in breastmilk are easily absorbed by the infant's body.
  54. Bisphenol A
    (BPA) organic compound found in plastics. Linked to disease in infants. Now banned.
  55. Bivariate
    Statistics derived from the analysis of the relationship between two variables.
  56. Blessed thistle
    An herbal galactagogue. L3.
  57. Bolus
    A quantity of medication given by IV, or a quantity of fluid (milk) given orally.
  58. Bradycardia
    Relatively slow heart rate. Opposite of tachycardia.
  59. Breastfeeding dyad
    A breastfeeding mother and baby.
  60. Buccal pads
    Fat pads on the masseter muscles in an infant's cheeks giving them a plump cheeked appearance. Provide stability for the tongue during suckling.
  61. Calories in breastmilk
    Mature milk has approximately 20 cal/oz.
  62. Candidiasis
    Fungal infection caused by Candida albicans; also called "thrush."
  63. Caput succedaneum
    Diffuse swelling or collection of serum under the scalp of the newborn from birth trauma. Differentiated from cephalhematoma by unrestriction by the sutures of the skull.
  64. Casein
    The main protein in breastmilk. Creates the curd when digested in the infant stomach.
  65. Central pedicle technique
    Breast reduction surgical technique. Intended to keep ducts intact.
  66. Cephalexin/Keflex
    Antibiotic, L1. Observe for change in intestinal flora; compatible.
  67. Cephalhematoma
    Collection of blood beneath the periosteum due to birth trauma; contrasted with caput succedaneum, where the effusion overlies the periosteum and consists of serum.
  68. Chamomile
    A herb, L3. Used for anti-inflammatory, calminative, antispasmodic, milk sedative, and antiseptic properties. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
  69. Chicken pox
    A virus infection, mothers can continue to breastfeed. Antibodies from her breastmilk provides immunity for the baby.
  70. Chi-square
    Statistical procedure that uses nominal level data and determines significant differences between observed frequencies in relation to data and expected frequencies.
  71. Choanal atresia
    A rare congenital anomaly, blocked posterior nostrils on one or both sides. Feedings by mouth are either difficult or impossible. Surgery opens the airways.
  72. Chylothorax
    Congenital anomaly, obstruction of the lymphatic system. Chyle (lymphatic fluid) collects in the chest cavity and is drained via chest tubes. Managed by diet and medication. Fat free breastmilk has been used successfully.
  73. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
    Antibiotic, L3. Recently approved by AAP.
  74. Claritin/Loratadine
    Long-acting antihistamine, L1. Observe for sedation, dry mouth, and tachycardia.
  75. CMV Cytomegalovirus
    Type of herpes virus found in human milk, genital tract, urine, and pharynx. Transmitted by close contact. Avoid pumping or breastfeeding in premature infants if mom has acute infection.
  76. Colic
    Syndrome in early infancy characterized by episodic loud crying, apparent abdominal pain (legs drawn up and rigid abdomen) and irritability.
  77. Colostrum
    First milk created during late pregnancy and early postpartum period. Has higher concentrations of immunoglobins, fat soluble vitamins and some minerals.
  78. Comfrey
    An herbal poultice, L5. Is not considered safe due to alkaloids found in breastmilk after use.
  79. Conceptual framework
    Structure of interrelated concepts that may be generated inductively by qualitative research to provide a base for quantitative study.
  80. Congenital infection
    Infection existing at birth that was acquired via placenta. Includes HIV and TORCH organisms.
  81. Conjunctivitis
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid. Sometimes treated with fresh breastmilk.
  82. Construct
    Higher order theoretical or empirical idea or phenomenon that has abstract meaning and requires multiple concepts to represent it more concretely.
  83. Contraception
    Preventing conception. Hormonal pill, barrier methods, intrauterine device. Breastfeeding can provide contraceptive protection.
  84. Cooper’s ligaments
    Also know as the "suspensory ligaments." Attaches the skin of the breast to the chest wall.
  85. Cord blood
    Blood remaining in the umbilical cord after birth. May be saved for later stem cell transplantation.
  86. Correlation coefficient
    Statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables. The range in value is +1.00 to -1.00; 0.0 indicates no relationship, +1.00 is a perfect positive relationship, and -1.00 is a perfect inverse relationship.
  87. Creamotcrit
    The amount of cream in a milk sample. The amount of cream (fat) varies from mother to mother, feeding to feeding, and throughout the course of lactation.
  88. Cross-nursing
    Informal, short term wet nursing. Typically seen in the context of child care.
  89. Cultural competency
    Ability to understand, communicate, and interact effectively with people from different cultures. Four components: Awareness of one's own cultural worldview; attitude towards cultural differences; knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews; cross-cultural skills.
  90. Cultural relativism
    Acknowledging the variation in beliefs and actions given to the behaviors of different cultures.
  91. Culture
    The values, beliefs, norms, and practices shared by a group of people that guide the thoughts and behaviors of that group.
  92. Cyanotic/Cyanosis
    Bluish coloring due to low oxygen levels.
  93. Cytoprotective
    Protection from inflammation and death for cells.
  94. De-
    Latin word meaning "of" or "from."
  95. Deductive reasoning
    Process of reasoning from a general premise to the concrete and specific.
  96. Deontology
    Approach to ethics that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to rules. Described as duty or obligation, because rules 'binds you to your duty'.
  97. Dependent variable
    Variable the investigator measures in response to the independent or treatment variable; the outcome variable that is affected by the independent variable.
  98. DHA & ARA
    Docosahexanoic acid and Arachidonic acid. Essential fatty acids known for improving visual acuity and cognitive ability.
  99. Diffusion
    Process by which the molecules of one substance (e.g., a drug) are spread uniformly throughout blood or plasma.
  100. Dioxin
    Chemical contaminant in the environment. As dioxin levels increase, the EPA has still determined it safe for mothers to breastfeed in the United States.
  101. Disaccharide
    Complex sugar consisting of two monosaccharides. Forms the principle sugar in breastmilk, known as lactose.
  102. Distal
    Remote from the point of attachment or origin. Opposite of proximal.
  103. Dong quai
    Herb contraindicated in lactation. Used to quell uterine cramps.
  104. Donor milk
    Human milk voluntarily given to a milk bank. Donor is screened, milk is pasteurized.
  105. Dopamine
    A prolactin inhibiting factor. Decrease releases prolactin and milk production begins.
  106. Down Syndrome
    Duplication of the 21st chromosome. Characterized by epicanthal folds, a flat nasal bridge, broad hands and short fingers, a single crease in the upper palm (simian crease), a flattened forehead, small mouth, large tongue (macroglossia), and hypotonia. Some have congenital heart disease.
  107. DRGs
    Diagnostic Related Groups, used by insurance companies for reimbursement.
  108. Drip milk
    Milk that leaks from the opposite breast during a feeding. This milk is low in fat.
  109. Ductules
    The small ducts in the mammary gland that transfer the milk from the alveoli to the lactiferous ducts.
  110. Echinacea
    Herbal immunostimulant, L3. Known for stimulating immune system and wound healing. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
  111. Eczema
    A skin inflammation or rash.
  112. Eminences of the pars villosa
    "Tiny swellings on the inner surfaces of the infant's lips that help the infant to retain a grasp on the breast during suckling."
  113. EMM/EBM
    Expressed Mother's Milk/Expressed Breastmilk.
  114. Endocrine control
    The point in lactation when milk supply is hormone driven. Milk will come in whether or not a mother is breastfeeding.
  115. Enteromammary system
    Antigens enter maternal gut, pass to the lymph system where IgA specific antibodies are produced, then enter breastmilk.
  116. Enveloped virus
    Virus that cannot infect other cells without a coat (envelope). If the envelope is destroyed (e.g., by heat or soap and water) it is unable to produce infection. Ex. Cytomegalovirus and the human immunodeficiency virus.
  117. Epidemiology
    Study of the frequency and distribution of disease and the factors causing that frequency and distribution.
  118. Epidural
    Analgesia for childbirth. Anesthesia is placed in the epidural space just outside of the dura mater.
  119. Epiglottis
    Cartilaginous structure of the larynx, just below the soft palate. When the infant swallows it closes the larynx maintaining passage of milk to the esophagus.
  120. Estrogen
    This hormone dramatically drops after birth allowing milk production to begin.
  121. Ethical altruism
    Ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self interest.
  122. Ethical egoism
    Ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.
  123. Ethnocentrism
    Assessing other cultures based on how one's own culture defines appropriate behavior.
  124. Ethnography
    A research method that attempts to understand the beliefs, practices, and behaviors of the culture of study from the perspective of those living within the culture.
  125. Exclusive Breastfeeding
    Feeding with only breastmilk, no supplements of water, glucose water, artificial breastmilk, or foods.
  126. Exercise and breastfeeding
    Moderate exercies is fine. Exercise to exhaustion can increase lactic acid levels in milk and baby may refuse to breastfeed.
  127. Exocytosis
    A cell releases secretory vesicles as in production of protein and lactose in the alveoli.
  128. Exogenous
    Derived from outside the body - such as iron supplements.
  129. Expected daily weight gain in the first 3 months
    15-30 grams or 1/2 to 1 ounce a day.
  130. Expected daily weight gain in the second 6 months.
    1 pound per month.
  131. Extension
    Unbending movement around a joint in a limb that increases the angle between the bones. Opposite of Flexion.
  132. External validity
    Extent to which study findings can be generalized to samples and settings different from those studied.
  133. Extraneous variable
    Variables that can affect the relationship of the independent and dependent variables (i.e., interfere with the effect of treatment.
  134. Fat soluble vitamins
    Vitamins including A, D, E, K. These vitamins are not affected by recent maternal diet, as they can be stored in the body.
  135. Fentanyl/Sublimaze
    Opiate analgesic, L2. A narcotic analgesic used during labor and delivery. Controversy about effect on breastfeeding.
  136. Fenugreek
    Most commonly used herb to stimulate milk production.
  137. Fibroadenoma
    Glandular structure (such as breast) with a large amount of fibrous tissue (benign tissue).
  138. Finger feeding
    An alternative feeding method that involves a feeding tube running along side the finger during a feed. It is believed to help coordinate suck, swallow, and breath and allows baby to pace themselves.
  139. Flange
    Hard plastic shields used to collect milk while pumping. Sometimes a soft plastic or silicone. The nipple opening is often available in a variety of diameter sizes to accommodate differing nipple sizes.
  140. Flash heating
    Quick, high temperature pasteurization.
  141. Flat nipple
    A nipple that does not protrude out or retract in (it is neither everted or inverted). It may or may not have slight movement inward or outward when stimulated or compressed.
  142. Flexion
    Bending movement around a joint in a limb that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint. Opposite of extension.
  143. Flow rate
    Refers to the milk flow during milk ejection. Can also refer to the flow of a bottle nipple. When the milk flow is high the baby sucks slower and when the milk flow is low the baby sucks faster.
  144. Fluconazole/Diflucan
    Antibiotic, L2. Safe; no untoward effects have been reported.
  145. Fluoxetine/Prozac
    Psychotropic drug, L2 in older infants and L3 in neonates.
  146. Foods containing B6
    Meat, fish, poultry, beans, and many fruits and vegetables, such as bananas and spinach.
  147. Foods containing calcium
    Milk, milk products, broccoli, kale, and most grains.
  148. Foods containing folic acid
    Leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, dried beans and peas.
  149. Foods containing iron
    Meat, fish, poultry, lentils, and beans.
  150. Foods containing Vit B12
    Animal products, such as fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products. For vegitarians, fortified cereals or nutritional yeast.
  151. Foods containing Vit C
    Citrus fruits, peppers, broccoli, and strawberries.
  152. Foods containing Vit E
    Nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, and green leafy vegetables.
  153. Foremilk
    The milk at the beginning of a breastfeeding. This milk has low fat content.
  154. Fortification of breastmilk
    The process of adding extra nutrients to breastmilk for premature infants. These nutrients can be derived from human milk or cow's milk base.
  155. Fourth intercostal nerve
    Essential for inervation of the nipple. Enters the areola at 5 o'clock position on the left breast and the 7 o'clock position on the right breast.
  156. Frenotomy
    Release of tongue tie by clipping the lingual frenulum. Often preformed without anesthesia with few complications.
  157. Frenulectomy/frenuloplasty
    Surgical procedure to release a tongue tie. Used for more extensive tongue tie.
  158. Frenulum
    Membrane on the underside of the tongue that anchors it to the floor of the mouth. If short or tight it may restrict tongue extension and cause breastfeeding problems.
  159. Gag reflex
    Reflex that protects the airway by causing a contraction in the back of the throat.
  160. Galactocele
    A milk filled lacteal cyst. Most frequent lump found in a lactating breast.
  161. Galactagogue
    A food, herb or drug that is thought to increase milk supply in lactating women.
  162. Galactopoiesis
    Mainting lactation once lactogenesis has been established.
  163. Galactorrhea
    Secretion of breastmilk in non-lactation women. Common among women who have previously been pregnant or breastfed.
  164. Galactose
    A monosaccharide derived from lactose. Helps with central nervous system development.
  165. Galactosemia
    Disorder of the metabolism of galactose, a milk sugar. Baby must be on galactose-free formula.
  166. Gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the stomach and intestines resulting from bacterial or viral invasion.
  167. Gastroschisis
    Congenital malformation characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through a fusion defect.
  168. Gentian violet
    Purple dye with antifungal properties used to treat candida.
  169. Gestational age
    Infant's age since conception, usually specified in weeks and partial weeks. Counted from the first day of the last normal menstrual period.
  170. Gigantomastia
    Massive enlargement of breasts during pregnancy can result in tissue necrosis, ulceration, and infection.
  171. Goat’s Rue
    An herbal galactagogue. Chemically similar to metformin.
  172. Golgi apparatus
    Cytoplasmic organelle that is active in production and transport of breastmilk proteins—called also Golgi complex.
  173. Group B Strep
    Common streptococcus bacteria in lower intestines. Harmless in adults, serious infection in neonates.
  174. H1N1
    Commonly called the Swine Flu. Mother baby separation needed during communicable stage. May feed pumped breastmilk.
  175. Half-life
    Length of time for half of a drug dosage to be eliminated. Five half-lives from time of original dosage usually clears the drug.
  176. Hand expression
    The manual removal of milk. Mothers push hands back towards chest wall and then roll fingers towards the nipple.
  177. Harlequin sign
    Harmless color change in a newborn in which the dependent side of the body is a deep color while the other side is pale.
  178. HBIG
    Hepatitis B specific immunoglobulin. Infants who are born to mothers with hepatitis B should receive this immunization at birth.
  179. HBV
    Hepatitis B Virus.
  180. HELLP syndrome
    H (intravascular hemolysis), EL (elevated liver enzymes; LP (low platelets). Develops as a result of preeclampsia in about 0.1% of women.
  181. Hematemesis
    Vomiting of blood. The bleeding may be from the infant's upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract or a crack in the mother'snipple.
  182. Hepatitis A
    Acute viral infection of the liver usually transmitted through food and water-borne routes. The newborn can be infected by vertical transmission from the mother. Baby and mother should be given gamma globulin. Breastfeeding can proceed as normal.
  183. Hepatitis B
    Acute viral infection of the liver. It is safe for baby to breastfeed from infected mother, if baby receives a hepatitis vaccine with 12 hours after birth.
  184. Hepatitis C
    Chronic viral infection of the liver. Breastfeeding is allowed if mother's titers are not high.
  185. Hepatitis D
    Viral infection of the liver, usually a co-infection with Hepatitis B. Once immunization has begun breastfeeding can begin.
  186. Hepatitis E
    Viral infeciton of the liver that is self-limited and is not chronic. It is typically association with water contamination. Breastfeeding is considered safe.
  187. Hepatitis G
    Viral infection of the liver is associated with blood transfusions and has not been proven to transmit through breastmilk.
  188. Heroin
    Narcotic analgesic, L5. Not recommended for breastfeeding. Infant should be observed for sedation, tremors, vomiting, restlessness, and poor feeding.
  189. HSV Herpes Simplex Virus
    Sexually transmitted disease. Type 1 is infection of the mouth. Type 2 occurs in genitalia. However, lesions can occur on any place of the body including the breasts. Infants should not come in contact with active lesions. Good hand washing should be encouraged.
  190. High Temperature Short Time Pasteurization
    Method of pasteurization of breastmilk to preserve nutrients.
  191. Hindmilk
    The milk at the end of a breastfeeding. This milk has a higher fat content.
  192. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV/AIDS
    Sexually transmitted disease . Antiretroviral drugs are helpful in prevention of it's spread to infant during pregnancy. In the U.S. it is recommended that women do not breastfeed. In developing countries exclusive breastfeeding is recommended.
  193. Holder pasteurization
    A pasteurization process in which the milk is heated to 62.5o Celsius for 30 minutes, and then rapidly cooled in ice water.
  194. Horizontal axis
    The "X" axis in a graph
  195. Horizontal transmission
    Transmission of pathogens through direct contact.
  196. Hospital grade breast pump
    Bilateral electric breast pump. Used in hospitals, available for rent in community. Achieves more effective suction levels and frequency.
  197. HTLV 1
    Human Lymphotropic Virus. Causes T-cell leukemia and lymphoma. Breastfeeding is not recommended.
  198. Human Growth Hormone
    Found in human milk, it provides growth promoting and protective effects on cells.
  199. Human milk bank
    Organization that collects, screens, processes and distributes donor milk. The milk is dispensed on prescription for infants and adults in need.
  200. Human milk fortifiers
    Nutrients derived from human milk or cow's milk and added to human milk to enhance the growth of very low birth weight infants.
  201. Hyper-
    Meaning "excessive."
  202. Hyperadenia
    Mammary tissue without a nipple present (sometimes seen in axilla).
  203. Hyperalimentation
    Intravenous feeding of an infant, commonly a very premature infant, with a solution of amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins.
  204. Hyperbilirubinemia
    A condition characterized by elevated levels of bilirubin and decreased elimination of bilirubin.
  205. Hyperprolactinemia
    Higher-than-normal prolactin levels, which may result in spontaneous breastmilk production and amenorrhea. Causes include pituitary tumors and some pharmaceuticals.
  206. Hyperthelia
    Having supernumerary nipples (extra nipples).
  207. Hypo-
    Meaning "deficient."
  208. Hypoglycemia
    Low blood glucose levels. Breastfed infants tend to have lower glucose levels than formula fed infants.
  209. Hypothalamus
    Links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Secrets the prolactin-inhibiting factor (dopamine).
  210. Hypoxia
    Low blood oxygen causing tachycardia, hypertension, peripheral, vasoconstriction, dizziness, and mental confusion.
  211. IDM
    Infant of Diabetic Mother
  212. Ig E mediated allergy
    Allergic reaction to food causing immediate, systemic reaction; can sometimes be severe.
  213. Ig G
    Immunoglobulins that cause phagocytic (engulf and absorb) destruction of microorganisms, bind to and activate complement, and are the only immunoglobulins to cross over the placenta from mother to fetus.
  214. Ig G mediated allergy
    Allergic reaction to food causing delayed, diffuse symptoms.
  215. Immunoglobulin
    Proteins produced by plasma cells to respond to a immunogen. The 5 different types include: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgD.
  216. Incidence
    How much a particular behavior is practiced at a given time.
  217. Incubation period
    Period between exposure to infectious pathogens and the first signs of illness.
  218. Independent variable
    Experimental (treatment) variable that is manipulated by the investigator to influence the dependent (outcome) variable.
  219. Inducted lactation
    The process of stimulating milk production in a woman who has not been pregnant for the current child.
  220. Inductive reasoning
    Process of reasoning from specific observations or abstractions to a general premise.
  221. Inferior pedicle technique
    Breast reduction surgical technique.
  222. Informed consent
    A patient has been given full information and offered appropriate options.
  223. Inframammary incision
    Technique used in breast augmentation where the incision is made in the fold under the breast and the implant is placed under the breast tissue.
  224. Insulin/humulin
    Hormone that regulates carbohydrate and fats. L1, no concerns reported breastmilk. Insulin is too large a molecule to be secreted into breastmilk.
  225. Internal validity
    Extent to which manipulation of the independent variable makes a significant difference on the dependent variable, or the extent to which the independent variable, rather than extraneous variables, has caused the change in the dependent variables.
  226. Intracellular
    Occurring within cells. For example, viruses live within cells as part of their reproductive period.
  227. Intrauterine
    Within the uterus; in utero.
  228. Intrauterine growth rate
    Normal rate of weight gain of a fetus. It is considered by many to be the ideal growth rate for premature infants.
  229. Inverted nipple
    Nipple below the skin live. Umbilicated nipple can be pulled out or everted, while an invaginated nipple cannot be everted. Occurs in 3 percent of women.
  230. Involution
    When breasts return to a non-lactating state.
  231. Isoniazid
    Antituberculosis agent, L3. No concerns reported via milk but infant should be monitored for toxicity.
  232. IUD Intrauterine device
    A birth control device inserted into the uterus. Nonhormonal types have been shown to have no effect on lactation.
  233. IUGR
    Intrauterine Growth Restriction. An infant with slower than expected intrauterine growth.
  234. Jaundice
    The yellow discoloration of skin, caused by high bilirubin levels. Physiologic jaundice usually resolves within the first weeks of life. Breastmilk jaundice is prolonged physiologic jaundice.
  235. Kernicterus
    Bilirubin encephalopathy, a form of brain damage resulting from unconjugated bilirubin entering the brain. Characterized by lethargy, poor feeding, vomiting, irregular respiration, perhaps death.
  236. Key milestones 1 month
    Watches faces intently, follows objects, reacts to noise.
  237. Key milestones 2 months
    Smiles at sound of voices. Lifts head and chest while on stomach.
  238. Key milestones 3 months
    Raises head and chest while on stomach, holds head up for periods of time, grasps objects, smiles at people, makes vowel noises.
  239. Key milestones 4 months
    Babbles, laughs, imitates sounds. Rolls over, sits with support, holds rattle.
  240. Key milestones 5 months
    Holds head steady, reaches for objects and gets them, places objects in mouth.
  241. Key milestones 6 months
    Rolls over, moves objects from hand to hand, pulls self up to sit, makes double syllable sounds like "dada".
  242. Key milestones 9 months
    Responds to name, finds partially hidden objects, sits without support, crawls, picks up objects with pincer grasp.
  243. Key milestones 12 months
    Walks with or without support, beginning to say words, imitates people.
  244. Key milestones 18 months
    Walks independently, drinks from a cup, says at least 15 words.
  245. L 1
    Drugs that have been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers with no observed adverse effects in infants. Controlled studies have not shown any risk or harm to infant or the drug is not orally bioavailable in the infant. These drugs are considered "safest" to use when breastfeeding.
  246. L 2
    Drugs that have not been widely studied in breastfeeding women, but have not been shown to have an adverse effect on the infant or the risk of adverse effect is unlikely. These drugs are considered "safe" for breastfeeding moms to use.
  247. L 3
    Drugs that have no controlled studies on breastfeeding women or the adverse effect shown by controlled studies is only minimal. These drugs should only be given if the benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant. These drugs are considered "moderately safe" for breastfeeding moms to use.
  248. L 4
    Drugs with positive evidence of risk to breastfeed infant or to breastmilk production. However, the benefits for the breastfeeding mother may justify the risk to the infant. These types of drugs are considered "possibly hazardous" for breastfeeding women to use.
  249. L 5
    These drugs are considered "contraindicated" for breastfeeding mothers to use. Studies or human experience have shown that there is a significant risk to infant. The risk of using these drugs in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs the benefit of breastfeeding.
  250. Lactase
    Enzyme needed by the infant to breakdown lactose in breastmilk to simple sugars.
  251. Lactiferous ducts
    The 15-24 milk ducts that collect milk from ducteles and carry it to the nipple. If the alveoli are the "grapes" these structures would be the "stems".
  252. Lactobacillus bifidus
    Main bacteria in the intestine of a breastfed infant. Called the bifidus factor, promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria.
  253. Lactocyte
    An epithelial cell that lines the alveoli. Secretory cell.
  254. Lactoengineering
    The process of adding nutrients to human milk that are derived from human milk.
  255. Lactoferrin
    An iron binding protein that prevents gastrointestinal diseases. Found in both human and bovine milk.
  256. Lactogenesis
    The onset of milk production.
  257. Lactogenesis I
    Beginning milk production; mid-pregnancy to day 2 postpartum.
  258. Lactogenesis II
    Rapid increase in volume increases due to rapid drop in progesterone. Milk production switches from endocrine to autocrine control. Day 3 and 8 postpartum.
  259. Lactogenesis III
    Maintenance stage of milk production. Controlled by the autocrine system (supply and demand).
  260. Lactose
    A disaccharide that is the primary carbohydrate found in human milk.
  261. Lactose deficiency/intolerance
    Inability of the intestines to digest lactose; the principal carbohydrate in human milk.
  262. Laryngomalacia
    Unusual flaccidity of laryngeal structures, a benign congenital condition that accounts for 70 percent of persistent stridor in infants.
  263. Larynx
    Upper end of the trachea (windpipe) through which the voice is produced. In the infant, the larynx lies close to the base of the tongue; during swallowing, it rises and is closed off by the epiglottis.
  264. Late preterm infant (weeks of gestation)
    An infant born between 34 0/7 and 37 6/7 weeks gestation.
  265. Lateral and medial pterygoid
    The muscle that controls certain movements of the jaw (medial) and acts as an antagonist of other facial muscles (lateral). It works in conjunction with the masseter and temporalis muscles.
  266. Lauric and capric acid
    A crystalline fatty acid found in fats and oils, also called dodecanoic acid. Active against viruses, bacteria and protozoa.
  267. Left brained thinking
    The side of the brain characterized by vision and hearing, art, pleasure, feeling, subjectivity.
  268. Leptin
    A hormone found in breastmilk that regulates appetite, metabolism, and food intake. Not present in formula.
  269. Lesion
    Area of injured or diseased skin.
  270. Let-down reflex Milk Ejection Reflex
    Oxytocin causes the myoepithelial cells surrounding the alveoli to contract and remove milk from the breast. Stimulated by the suckling infant and causes the suckling pattern to change from non-nutritive sucking to nutritive sucking as the milk flow increases.
  271. Leukocytes
    Living cells found in breastmilk that fight infection. Includes macrophages and lymphocytes.
  272. LGA
    Large for Gestational Age. Having a birth weight greater than the 90th percentile on intrauterine growth charts. There is a concern for hypoglycemia.
  273. Liability
    Professional responsibility for an occurrence or omission. Being the cause.
  274. Ligand
    Small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule (e.g., the binding of an antigen to an antibody, or of a hormone to a receptor).
  275. Likert scale
    Scale that primarily measures attitudes by asking respondents their degree of agreement or disagreement to a number of statements.
  276. Lipase
    Enzyme that digests the fat in breastmilk.
  277. Lobe
    Clusters of several alveoli with their ducts. Each breast contains 15-20 of these structures. Included in each one is 10-100 alveoli.
  278. Lobule
    A structure composed of branching ductules that end in alveolar clusters.
  279. Low birth weight infant
    A birth weight of less than 2500 grams.
  280. Low-dose birth control pills
    A type of hormonal birth control that includes both estrogen and progestin in lower doses. May reduce milk supply but less likley than estrogen based pills.
  281. Lymphocyte
    A developed leukocyte that is bactericidal.
  282. Lyophilization
    A process preformed to obtain human milk nutrients used to fortify human milk. The milk is rapidly frozen and dried in a high vacuum.
  283. Lysozyme
    Found in the whey component of breastmilk, this enzyme creates a bactericidal and anti-inflammatory response.
  284. Macrophage
    Type of white blood cells, dominant type of phagocytes. They engulf and absorb pathogens, and also produce lactoferrin and lysozyme.
  285. Macrophage
    Type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. Destroys bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells; in addition to stimulating cells in the immune system.
  286. Malpractice
    Professional negligence by act or omission. Deviation from accepted standards of practice that causes injury or death to the patient, with most cases involving medical error.
  287. Mammary bud
    A cluster of embryonic epithelial cells that mark the beginning of milk ducts. Forms approximately 49 days after conception.
  288. Mammogenesis
    The development of mammary glands and related breast structures.
  289. Mandible
    The lower jaw, which causes the compressions during breastfeeding helping to milk the breast.
  290. Manual breast pump
    Hand operated pump, generally used for short term or occasional pumping.
  291. Marshmallow root
    An herbal galactagogue. Safety rating A.
  292. Matrescence
    Becoming a mother.
  293. Mature milk
    The breastmilk after colostrum and transitional milk, typically beginning 2 weeks postpartum.
  294. Median
    Middle number in a series of numbers; the number on either side of which exist an equal amount of numbers.
  295. Metformin/Glucophage
    Oral hypoglycemic agent for diabetes, L1. Can also be used to treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. No side effects reported.
  296. Metronidazole/Flagyl
    Antibiotic, L2. Milk levels moderately high, but significantly less than pediatric therapeutic dose (15 mg/kg/d).
  297. Micrognathia
    Underdevelopment of the jaw, especially the mandible.
  298. Mastitis Milk fever
    Breast infection usually caused by S aureus. Localized breast tenderness and flu-like symptoms, hot, reddened spot on the breast. Stress, cracked nipples, plugged ducts, large milk supply, and engorgement/milk statis are risk factors. Treated with dicloxacillin, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid, cephalexin, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin or nafcillin.
  299. Milk stasis
    Breastmilk retention causing uncomfortable breast fullness. Results in slower milk production.
  300. Milk-plasma ratio
    Quantity of a drug in human milk in relation to maternal plasma. If the M/P ratio > 1.00, the drug is found in greater quantities in milk than in plasma. M/P ratio < 1.00, the drug is found in lesser quantities in milk than plasma.
  301. Mitosis
    Cell division in which each daughter cell contains the same DNA as the parent cell.
  302. Mode
    The value that occurs most frequently in a data set. For example, if the data set is 1, 3, 3, 3, 5, 7, 8, 8, the mode is 3.
  303. Molecular weight
    The chemical size of a molecule of a drug. The smaller the molecular weight of the medication (9300 Daltons or lower) the greater the diffusion across cell membranes.
  304. Mongolian spots
    A bluish-black pigmented area on the newborn's buttocks or back. Seen in newborns with dark skin and typically fade over time. Can easily be confused for bruising.
  305. Morbidity
    Number of ill persons or instances of disease in a specific population.
  306. Mortality
    Number of deaths in a specific population.
  307. Mucous membranes
    Membranes that line body passages or cavities that communicate directly or indirectly with the exterior (such as respiratory tract).
  308. Multiparous
    Having carried two or more pregnancies to viability.
  309. Myelination
    Protective fatty sheath around nerve fibers. Long-chain polyunsaturated fats that are important to myelination are abundant in human milk.
  310. Myoepithelial cells
    Contractile cells that surround the milk secreting alveoli creating the milk letdown.
  311. Necrotizing enterocolitis
    Inflammation of the intestinal tract that may cause tissue to die. Premature infants not receiving human milk are at markedly greater risk for this serious complication.
  312. Neonatal period
    Birth through the first 26 days of life.
  313. Newborn normal heart rate (birth to one year)
    100 - 160 beats per minute
  314. Newborn normal respiratory rate (birth to one year)
    30-60 breaths per minute.
  315. NGO
    Nongovernmental organization. Organizations that operate independently of any government.
  316. Nicotine
    Chemical in cigarette smoke, L2.
  317. NICU
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  318. Noncasein protein
    A protein found in the whey component of milk. Includes alphalactalbumin, serum albumin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, and lysozyme.
  319. Nonmaleficence
    The duty to do no harm.
  320. Non-nutritive sucking
    Sucking not on the breast, such as a pacifier, or sucking at the breast with brief sucks and long rest periods with minimal milk flow.
  321. Nonparametric statistics
    Statistical procedures used when required assumptions for using parametric procedures are not met, especially assumptions regarding a normal probability distribution.
  322. Nonprotein nitrogen
    Approximately 1/4 of nitrogen found in breastmilk. Contains essential amino acids for infant.
  323. Nosocomial
    Infections resulting from hospital treatment. Can be prevented by hand washing, hand sanitizer gels, disposable gloves, and disinfection of baby equipment.
  324. Nucleotides
    A compound that has a nitrogen base. Essential for energy metabolism, enzyme reactions, gastrointestinal tract development, and immune function.
  325. Nutritive sucking
    Rhythmic sucking at the breast with milk flow.
  326. Obesity affect on breastfeeding
    Maternal obesity is linked to hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and a greater risk of birth interventions. Delays lactogenesis, lower milk supply and earlier weaning.
  327. Oligosaccharide
    A carbohydrate consisting of monosaccharides found in breastmilk. Antibacterial properties. Promotes the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus.
  328. Operational definition
    Explicit description of a concept or variable of interest in measurable terms.
  329. Orbicularis oris
    Muscle made up of several layers of fibers passing in different directions that encircles the mouth and controls most movements of the lips (as compressing, closing, or pursing movements).
  330. Osteoporosis
    A condition of bone loss. Breastfeeding for 6 months or longer is the best protection against bone loss. Although calcium is lost during breastfeeding, more calcium is deposited after weaning.
  331. Oxytocin
    Hormone responsible for the milk-ejection-reflex. Causes contraction of uterus after delivery and creates a sense of calmness and relaxation.
  332. Paced bottle feeding
    Style of bottle feeding that helps avoid overly fast flow, especially in less mature infants. This technique includes: positioning infant upright in the caregiver's arms, positioning bottle horizontally with just enough angel to keep milk in the tip of the nipple, and pacing the feeding to approximately the same time as a breastfeeding would take.
  333. Paget’s disease
    Type of breast cancer, 1-3% of all breast cancers. Occurs unilateral with demarcated, red, scaly plaque on the nipple and/or areola. Blood tinged discharge, pain, crusting, itching, burning, skin thickening, redness, ulceration, or nipple retraction.
  334. Palate, hard
    The hard portion of the roof of the mouth. During breastfeeding the infant compresses the breast tissue against this area with his tongue.
  335. Palate, soft
    The soft portion of the roof of the mouth, located between the hard palate and the throat. This area rises when the infant swallows to close the nasal passages.
  336. Pancreas
    A large gland that secretes digestive enzymes which pass through the intestine and break-down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It also secretes insulin.
  337. Parametric statistics
    Statistical procedures used when a sample is randomly selected, represents a normal distribution of the target population, and is considered sufficiently large in size, and interval level data are collected.
  338. Parenchyma
    Essential and distinctive tissue of an organ as distinguished from its supportive framework.
  339. Parenteral
    Introduction of fluids, nutrients, or drugs into the body by an avenue other than the digestive tract (intravenous, intramuscular).
  340. Passive immunity
    Immunity passed to infant by antibodies manufactured passed to the infant transplacentally or in breastmilk. Passive immunity is temporary.
  341. Passive transport
    Passage of drug into breastmilk by diffusion, molecular weight and relative amount of drug circulating in maternal serum.
  342. Pasteurization
    Heating milk to destroy pathogens.
  343. Pathogen
    Substance or organism capable of producing illness.
  344. PDA
    Patent ductus arteriosis. Abnormal blood flow between the aorta and pulmonary artery.
  345. Pepcid/Famotidine
    Reduces gastric acid secretion, L1. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
  346. Periareolar incision
    A technique used in breast augmentation where the incision is made around the areola. It is associated with loss of nipple sensation.
  347. Peristalsis
    Involuntary, rhythmic, wavelike action. To strip milk from the breast, and infant's tongue uses a peristaltic motion that begins at the tip of the tongue and progresses toward the back of the mouth.
  348. Personal use breast pump
    Bilateral electric breast pump. Used primarily by working mothers. Achieves good suction and frequency.
  349. Pharynx
    Muscular tube at the rear of the mouth, through which air travels to the larynx and food from the mouth travels to the esophagus.
  350. Phasic bite
    A reflex that is characterized by a rhythmic opening and closing of the jaw when the gums are stimulated. Appears around 28 weeks gestation.
  351. Philtrum
    The region between the nose and lips. The midline area should be grooved and defined. In fetal alcohol syndrome the area is flat.
  352. Phototherapy
    A treatment for jaundice involving blue spectrum light. The light is absorbed by bilirubin and changes the structure, allowing it to be excreted from the body more easily.
  353. Physiologic engorgement vs. Pathologic engorgement
    Physiologic engorgement is normal increase in milk production of lactogenesis II. Pathologic engorgement is excessive fullness due to restrictive feeding practices or ineffective milk removal.
  354. Pierre Robin Syndrome
    Syndrome of oral facial abnormalities, micrognathia (a small jaw) and glossoptosis (tongue often blocks airway). Cleft palates are common. Difficulty maintaining the airway frequently causes feeding problems.
  355. PIH Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
    Preeclampsia or toxemia. Characterized by increased blood pressure during pregnancy, after 20 weeks gestation. Treatment often includes preterm delivery. Can progress to HELLP syndrome.
  356. Pinch test
    Compressing the areola to see wither the nipple protrudes or retracts.
  357. pKa
    Ph of a drug when equally ionic and nonionic. Drugs with pKa higher than 7.2 may be sequestered in breastmilk.
  358. PKU
    Inherited disorder where phenylalanine metabolism is impaired. Abnormal metabolites accumulate in blood and tissue, including the brain causing damage. Partial breastfeeding and special low PKU formula may be used.
  359. Placenta
    Intrauterine organ that transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. After the delivery the drop in estrogen and progesterone levels allows milk secretion to begin.
  360. Polycystic ovarian (ovary) syndrome
    A endocrine-metabolic disorder where multiple cysts interfere with ovarian function. Common symptoms are unusual breast development, amenorrhea, male pattern hair growth, obesity. Can effect milk supply.
  361. Polymastia
    Having more than 2 breasts. Additional breasts occur along the milk line and typically have little glandular tissue.
  362. Population
    Total set of individuals that meet the study criteria from which the sample is drawn and about whom findings can be generalized.
  363. Port wine stain
    Nevus flammeus. Reddish or flat pink lesion that does not blanch with pressure, caused by dilated capillaries below the epidermal skin. This lesion usually remains constant in size and does not fade with time.
  364. Post-
    After, later than.
  365. Posterior pituitary
    This gland releases oxytocin into the blood effecting milk ejection. It is susceptible to stress.
  366. Power
    Probability that a statistical test will reject a null hypothesis when it should be rejected, or, in other words, detect a significant difference that does exist.
  367. PPD Postpartum Depression
    3 types of disorders: Postpartum blues is a temporary depression lasting a few days. Postpartum depression is a mild to moderate depression lasting at least 2 weeks. Postpartum psychosis is the most severe form, beginning at 2-4 weeks postpartum. Mothers may have insomnia, irrational ideas, feelings of failure, depression, hallucinations, and self-accusatory thoughts.
  368. Pre-
    Prior to, before, earlier than.
  369. Prednisone
    Steroid, L2. No concerns reported via breastmilk. Safe for short term use.
  370. Preeclampsia
    Characterized by increased blood pressure during pregnancy, after 20 weeks gestation. Treatment often includes preterm delivery.
  371. Premature infant
    Born at less 37 weeks gestation.
  372. Preterm infant (weeks of gestation)
    Under 37 weeks gestation.
  373. Primary infection
    First incidence of the illness after exposure to a pathogen.
  374. Primiparous
    First pregnancy. Having carried one pregnancy to viability.
  375. Pro-
    Latin word meaning "for."
  376. Progesterone
    A hormone high during pregnancy delaying lactogenesis II. Dramatically decreases after birth.
  377. Progestin only birth control pills
    Hormonal birth control that does not contain estrogen. Called the "mini-pill." Not likley to decrease milk production.
  378. Prolactin
    Hormone essential for initiating and maintaining milk production.
  379. Prolactin inhibiting factor
    Stimulates dopamine releases and thus inhibits prolactin. Nipple stimulation and milk removal suppresses PIF and dopamine, causing prolactin levels to rise and the breast to produce milk. From they hypothalamus.
  380. Prolactin receptor sites
    Binding sites on the walls of the lactocytes that receive prolactin. Frequent breastfeeding early in lactation creates more receptor sites resulting in increased milk production.
  381. Prone
    Lying facing down.
  382. Protein binding
    Percentage of a drug bound to maternal plasma. High PB means less in breastmilk.
  383. Proximal
    Closer to the point of attachment. Opposite of distal.
  384. Pseudoephedrine/Sudafed
    Decongestant, L3. Usually compatible with breastfeeding, but can effect maternal milk supply.
  385. Raynaud’s phenomena
    Temporary vascular condition; intense pain and pallor of the skin (usually of the fingers or toes, but in breastfeeding woman the nipples), cause by vasospasm. Can include white, red and blue phases.
  386. Reliability
    Degree to which collected data are accurate, consistent, precise, and stable over time.
  387. Reverse pressure softening
    Technique to allow feeding on an engorged breast: apply steady pressure with fingers around the areola, pressing back towards chest wall. Moves edema towards lymphatic drainage system, triggers milk ejection reflex by stimulating nerves near the areola.
  388. Rickets
    Abnormal calcification of the bones and changes in growth plates that lead to soft or weak bones due to lack of Vitamin D. AAP advises that full-term breastfed infants receive vitamin D supplement beginning at 2 months of age."
  389. Right brained thinking
    The side of the brain characterized by logic, order, analysis, sequential.
  390. Rooting reflex
    Infant turns his head towards touch and opens mouth. Appears at 28 weeks gestation and disappears around 4 months.
  391. Rotavirus
    Viral illness causing severe diarrhea.
  392. RSV
    Respiratory syncytial virus. Viral respiratory illness; can be severe in infants.
  393. Rugae
    The ridges behind the gum line on the hard palate. This structure helps the infant to maintain grasp of the breast during suckling.
  394. Sample
    Subset of the population selected for study.
  395. Sampling
    Procedure of selecting the sample from the population of interest.
  396. Secretory IgA
    Immunoglobulin that forms antibodies in body and is critical in mucosal immunity. The most common immunoglobulin in breastmilk.
  397. Separation Anxiety
    Three stages: Protest stage a child attempts to recover the mother/caregiver by crying, kicking, screaming for a few hours to days. Despair stage a child grievs or mourns as they accept their new environment. May show regressive behavior, such as sucking the thumb. Denial or detachment a child begins to interact and approach others.
  398. Sepsis
    Presence of bacteria in fluid or tissue.
  399. Seroconvert
    Serum shows the presence of a factor that previously was absent. Ex., when cytomegalovirus antibodies become present in blood due to CMV disease the person is said to have seroconverted.
  400. Seropositive/Seronegative
    Serum that demonstrates (positive) or does not demonstrate (negative) the presence of a factor.
  401. Serum
    Clear fluid portion of blood that remains after coagulation.
  402. Serum albumin
    Protein in serum (blood).
  403. SGA Small for Gestational Age
    Having a birth weight that is below the 10th percentile on intrauterine growth charts. There is a concern for malnutrition and hypoglycemia.
  404. Shatavari
    A herbal galactagogue. Safety rating B.
  405. SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    Diagnosis when all other possible causes of death were ruled out. Major risk factors are maternal smoking, prone position, and formula feeding.
  406. Smooth muscle
    Involuntary muscle fiber that responds to hormones. Ex., muscle around alvoli contracts in response to oxytocin.
  407. Spontaneous lactation
    Unusual milk production in a non-breastfeeding woman. Also known as galactorrhea.
  408. Spoon feeding
    Alternative feeding method. Feed infant via small spoon.
  409. SSRIs Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
    Class of antidepressants (as fluoxetine or sertraline) that inhibit the inactivation of serotonin by blocking its reuptake by nerve cell endings.
  410. St John’s Wort
    Antidepressant, L2. No concerns reported via breastmilk, probably safe for breastfeeding.
  411. Stem cells
    Stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized cells types. Have been found in breastmilk.
  412. Stroma
    The supporting tissues of an organ, ie, the breast.
  413. STS
    Skin to skin or Kangaroo Care.
  414. Suck, suckle
    The action of baby milking the breast. Related more to tongue movement than suction.
  415. Supine
    Lying on one's back.
  416. Supplementing at breast
    System for supplementing the baby while feeding at the breast. Reservoir holding milk with a tube attached that is secured to the breast.
  417. Switch nursing
    Baby is switched back and forth between the two breasts during a feeding to help stimulate multiple letdowns and increase milk intake.
  418. Symbiosis
    Intimate association of two different kinds of organisms. An example is the breastfeeding dyad.
  419. T cells
    Any of several kinds of thymic lymphoid cells or lymphocytes that help to regulate cellular immune response.
  420. Tachycardia
    Relatively rapid heart rate whether physiological (as after exercise) or pathological. Opposite of bradycardia.
  421. Tachypnea
    Abnormally rapid rate of breathing.
  422. Tanner stages
    Five stages of sexual development in adolescence evaluating pubic hair, genitals and breast development
  423. Target population
    Population that is of interest to the investigator and about which generalizations of study results are intended.
  424. TB Tuberculosis
    Contagious bacterial infection usually involves lungs. Mothers may breastfeed after treatment is begun.
  425. TE Fistula Tracheoesophageal fistula
    A fistula (passage way) between the trachea and esophagus. Oral feedings are withheld until the fistula is surgically repaired due to the risk of aspiration.
  426. Teleology
    The belief that all events are directed toward some ultimate purpose.
  427. Ten Steps
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative uses the Ten Steps as outlined by UNICEF/WHO.
  428. Thyroid stimulating hormone
    Promotes mammary growth and lactation through a permissive rather than a regulatory role.
  429. TORCH diseases
    Acronym for organisms that can damage the fetus: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex.
  430. Torticollis
    Condition of the neck in which the cervical muscles are contracted, producing twisting of the neck and an unnatural position of the head.
  431. Tracheomalacia
    Malformation of the trachea cartilage causing collapse and wheezing sound during respiration.
  432. Transcutaneous bilimeter
    Device that estimates bilirubin concentrations in the blood by measuring the intensity of yellowish skin coloration.
  433. Transitional milk
    Breastmilk produced between colostrum and mature milk, during the first 4-10 days postpartum.
  434. Transplacental
    Transferred from mother to fetus through the placenta.
  435. Trigeminal nerve
    Cranial nerve V.
  436. Type I Diabetes
    High blood sugar levels due to lack of insulin prodution in he pancreas. An insulin dependent disease. Can delay lactogenesis II.
  437. Type II Diabetes
    High blood sugar levels due to lack of insulin prodution in the pancreas. A noninsulin dependent disease known as adult onset diabetes.
  438. UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
    Branch of the United Nations that advocates for children's rights. Developed the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in conjunction with the WHO.
  439. Univariate
    Statistics derived from the analysis of a single variable (e.g., frequencies).
  440. Universal precautions
    Guidelines for infection control, based on the assumption that every person receiving health care carries an infection that can be transmitted by blood, body fluids, or genital secretions.
  441. Utilitarianism
    The idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its usefulness in maximizing utility and minimizing negative utility.
  442. Validity
    Degree to which collected data are true and represent reality; the extent to which a measuring instrument reflects what it is intended to measure.
  443. Variable
    Attributes, properties, and/or characteristics of persons, events, or objects that are examined in a study.
  444. Vasospasm
    The nipple blanches sometimes turning blue or red temporarily due to vasoconstriction. Also occurs in other extremities, such as fingers and toes.
  445. Velum
    The soft palate.
  446. Vertical axis
    The "Y" axis in a graph
  447. Vertical transmission
    Transmission of infection from mother to child transplacentally or through breastmilk.
  448. Very low birth weight infant
    A birth weight of less than 1500 grams.
  449. Virtue ethics
    Approach to ethics that emphasizes the character of the moral agent, rather than rules or consequences, as the key element of ethical thinking.
  450. Vitamin D
    A fat soluble vitamin that prevent rickets. Produced in the skin from exposure to sunlight. Found in fatty fish, eggs and meat.
  451. Vitamin K
    Fat soluble vitamin necessary for blood clotting. Insufficient amounts of this vitamin can cause hemorrhagic disease. Injections of this vitamin are routinely given postpartum to infants.
  452. WABA World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action
    Formed in 1991, this global organization's goal is to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.
  453. Water soluble vitamin
    Dissolve in water and not stored in the body. Vitamin C, nicotinic acid, B12, riboflavin, and B6. B12 can be deficient in women who eat a vegan diet.
  454. Weaning milk
    Breastmilk during the end of lactation (whether intentional or unintentional). This milk is higher in sodium and immunoglobins.
  455. West Nile Virus
    Viral disease spread by mosquitos. Breastfeeding is permitted.
  456. Wet nurses
    A woman who breastfeeds a infant that is not her own.
  457. Whey
    The liquid portion of milk that is left after curds separate. Primarily consists of proteins alphalactalbumin and lactoferrin.
  458. Whey:Casein ratio
    Ratio changes throughout lactation. Early milk the ratio is 90:10, mature milk is 60:40, weaning milk is 50:50. The ratio in formula is 20:80.
  459. WHO Code International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk substitutes
    The code protects and promotes breastfeeding by ensuring the proper use of breastmilk substitutes. The code applies to the marketing of formula, milk products, beverages, complimentary foods used for the replacement of breastmilk. The code covers the marketing of feeding bottles and nipples (teats).
  460. Witch’s milk
    Colostrum, formed under the influence of maternal hormones, which may be temporarily present in newborn's breasts.
  461. Zoloft/Sertraline
    Antidepressant, L2. A serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a short half-life. No concerns reported via breastmilk, probably safe for breastfeeding.
Card Set
ibclc exam.xlsx
ibclc exam