what are the three basic themes in biology?
- Information transfer
what are the characteristics of life (6)?
- growth and development
- response to stimuli
- evolution and adaptation of populations
Define emegant properties
Characteristics of an object, process, or behavior that could not be predicted from its component parts; emergentproperties can be identufied at each level as we move up the hierarchy of biological organisms.
Breaking things down to study them, braking things down into smaller and smaller forms to study them.
The two unifying theorys of biology?
- -Cell thoery
- 1)Cell is a fundimental unit of life
- 2)Chemical reactions of an organism that have a cellur basis
- 3)All cells come from previos cells
- 4)Genetic material is in the cells
- 1)Evolution is the process whereby population/species of an organism change over time by way of natural selection.
- 2)States that all life past and present share a commoon ancestary.
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
- 1) Lack a nucleous and other membrane enclosed organells, include bacteria, arechea
- 1)Plants, animals, fungi
Define darwin and natural selection?
- 1)The better adatped organisms are going to out compete the lesser adapted organisms and get more of the natural resoures and reproduce more.
- 2)It shows how organisms are elemenated from nature.
What is the domain of science?
- Hypothessis formulation and testing.
- Tends to be more accurate then induction
- If then kind of format
- Looks at some specific examples and then draws some very broad and genral conclutions.
- Not as good as Deduction
Whats the Scientific Process?
Hypothesis vs. Therory?
- 1) Is the more temperary one, a good hypothesis should be testable.
- 1)Has been developed over time and supports data.
Carl Linnaes and taxonomy, why is it so successful?
- Hierarchal in nature.
- Species names are in bionomials.
- Two part to each name(Genes, apithet)
The three biological domains are?
- Archaea(which are all taxonomy catagories)
Elements and Isotopes?
- 1)A substance that can not be changed to a simpler substance by a normal chemical reaction.
- 2)Atoms are the smallest unit of an element.
- 2)Different forms of a particular elements are Isotopes.
Where are Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons and what are there charges?
- Protons are located in the nucleous and have a positive charge.
- Neutrons are located in the nucleous and have a negitive charge.
- Electrons are whirrling outside the nucleous and have no charge.
What particles defines or desquishes different elements?
What does the atomic mass mean?
Number of protons it has.
What does the Mass Number mean?
Protons and Neutrons it has combined.
Which particle destingquishes different isotopes of all the same element?
Which particle determines the chemical behavior of an atom?
What are the four main elements of life?
Valence, Duet Rule, and Octet Rule?
- Valence is unpaired electrons in the outermost shell.
- Duet Rule is it can only have two electrons.
- Octet Rule is two, three or higher electron shell.
- Duet and Octet are just different electron shells.
What is Avagadro's Number, molarity, and moles?
- Molarity is defining the consitration of a substance in a solution in terms of how many moles you have per liter of water.
- Avagadro's Number is 6.022x10 to the 23rd
What are Covalent Bonds?
What are Ionic Bonds?
It gives up an electron.
What are Hydrogen Bonds?
Weak attractions between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and a electronegitive atom in a different molecule.
What is a Redox Reaction?
- Example:Ionic bonding resulting in sodium chloride.
- Reduction in oxidation.
What is Reduction?
An increase in negitive charge.
Polar Covalent vs. Nonpolar, Which one would you find in water?
- Polar Covalent is the unequeal sharing of electrons.
- Nonpolar Covalent is the equeal sharing of electrons.
- Polar would be found in water.
H-2-o is a polar molecule with the ability to form 4 hydrogen bonds, What are some of the properties due to hydrogen bonding?
- Surface Tension.
- High specfic heat.
- High heat of vaporization.
- Density changes.
What is a Calorie?
The amount of energy requierd to raise 1gr. of water by 1 degree c.
Why is the specific heat of water important?
- One gram of any substance by 1 degree celsius.
- Water changes tempeture slowly.
Why does water expand as it freezes?
Hydrogen bonds become more stable.
At what tempeture is water most dense?
4 degrees celsius.
Acids and Bases [H+]. What these terms mean and how they affect [H+]?
- Acid increases the hydrogen ion consintration.
- Base decreases the hydrogen ion consitration.
Know the concept of pH and how to read the pH scale?
- As you move towards 0 you increasing acidity.
- A pH of 5 has a higher [H+] or is more acidic than pH of 7.
Keeps pH in a narrow range.
Carbon atom is tetravalent, What is tetravalent?
It has formed 4 covalent bonds.
What two elements do all organic compounds have?
Define Isomer and what are the three Isomer categories?
- 1 of 2 or more chemical compounds having the same chemical formula but different structural formulas(same moleculer structure).
What are Function Groups?
- Atoms or a group of atoms that basically replace one or more of these hydrogens.
- Hydrocarbons have no function group.
Which compound is both a anmie and a carboxylic acid?
What is a Macromolecule?
They are large molecules formed by bonding together with covalently smaller molecules.
How are the 4 biological Macromolecule formed?
- They are formed by Condinsation and dehydration.
- Nuclic acids(polynucleotides).
Beable to identify monomeric unit for each polymers?
- Amino acids:Polypetides(proteins).
- Nucleotides:Nucleic acids(Polynucleotides).
Would CnH2nOn aplly to disaccharides and polysaccharides?
No because your losing hydrogens and oxygens.
What are Ribose and Deoxyribose? How are they alike or different?
- Ribose is RNA.
- Deoxyribose is DNA.
- There both pentose sugars.
- There different becuase of the one carbon.
What is the relevance of an amino acid R-group?
It destingquishes one amino acid from another(reconigtion group).
Amino acids are an example of which Isomer catergory?
Enamtiomers-left hand form.
What are the 4 levels of thr protien structure?
- Primary is amino acid sequence as formed by polypetide bonding(the crbon is the end and the nitrogem is the start).
- Secondary is regular intervals og hydrogen bonding
- Tersheary is folds in on its self, becomes its functional form of the polypetide.
- Quarternary is 2 or more polypetides is the quarternary structure.
Beable to give a simple definaition of, starch, glycogen, phospholipids, and steriods.
- Starch is plant storage.
- Glycogen is animal storage.
- Phospholipids are lipids that is in the main component of the plasma membrane.
- Steriods are lipids made up of a ring shaped molecule. Cholestrol and sex hormones are steriods.