What are your privileges WRT to a FIR rating?
- CASR 61.1165
- Conduct training for:
- 1 licences
- 2 multi crew co-operation
- 3 differences training for type variants
- 4 training to meet competency standards in regulation 61.385
- 5 ratings on licences
- 6 conduct flight reviews ratings on pilot licences
- 7 endorsements on licences
- 8 grant endorsements to holders of licences
- 9 approve a person to pilot an aircraft, including for a solo flight
- 10 conduct dual flight checks for a student pilot
- 11 to approve a person to pilot an aircraft for the purpose of receiving flight training
- 12 to approve a person to transmit on a radio frequency
- to assess the standard of knowledge of an applicant for a pilot licence, or a rating and KDR’s
What are your limitations on exercising of privileges of FIR?
- CASR 61.1170
- 1 only if the holder has completed the aeronautical experience and passed the flight test
- 2 as above for a flight simulator training device
- 3 the instructor is engaged by a Part 141 or 142 operator that is authorised to conduct flight training for the licence, rating or endorsement
- 4 valid medical certificate
What are your limitations on the exercise of privileges of FIR - endorsements?
- CASR 61.1175
- 1 only if the instructor also holds the type rating training endorsement for the aircraft type
- 2 differences training only if the instructor also holds the type rating training endorsement for the aircraft type
- 3 training IAW reg 61.385 for a kind of aircraft only if the instructor also holds a training endorsement
- 4 only if the instructor also holds a training endorsement required to provide flight training for the endorsement
- 4a can grant a rec pilot licence only if has grade 1 or 2 training endorsement
- 5 can approve solo flight only if the instructor also holds, first a first solo - grade 1 or 2 training endorsement or in any other case a grade 1,2,3 training endorsement
- 6 can conduct a flight review only if the instructor also holds a grade 1 or 2 training endorsement or the training endorsement required to conduct flight training for the rating
- 7 can make an assessment of KDR for an applicant for a FCL or rating only if holds a grade 2 training endorsement
Summary of privileges and limitations of the rating and each endorsement assessed?
- Instructor = Flight review / Endorsement
- Examiner = Proficiency check / Rating
What are the proficiency requirements?
- CASR 61.1180
- 1 the holder of a FIR can exercise the privileges of the rating only if the holder has a valid Instructor Proficiency Check
- 2 Initial rating - 12 month
- 3 Training endorsement - 24 month
- 4 Instructor proficiency check - 24 month
- Can be within 3 months before the expiry without changing the expiration date. (not valid if the check is a fail).
Who can conduct a flight review?
- An instructor who holds a Grade 1 or 2 training endorsement or a training endorsement for the relevant rating.
- An instructor proficiency check also ticks a flight review for the aircraft type it was conducted in.
Does a flight instructor proficiency check meet the requirement for an aircraft rating fight review?
Yes, the flight instructor rating proficiency check meets the requirements for an aircraft rating fight review for the class or type of aircraft in which the proficiency check was undertaken.
What are the Standardisation and proficiency obligations of Parts 141 and 142?
- Part 141: Reg 141.185 - 195
- Part 142: Reg 142.315 - 330
- Part 141 and 142 operators have obligations to conduct standardisation and proficiency checks of their instructors Part 141/142 has an Exposition (like an ops manual)
- Valid for 12 mths and must be completed by the Head of Operations (HOO) or approved by HOO.
How do you prepare a student?
- Tell them what, how, why?
- Ensure that the student is mentally, emotionally and physically ready to learn
- Use arousal material to make the subject interesting and giving the information relevance is important
- Confirmation of background knowledge of information and consolidation is required before new information
- Make sure they are aware of what is expected of them and why they need to know it
Principles of instruction?
- READINESS: Ensure students are mentally, physically and emotionally ready to learn.
- INTENSITY: Use dramatic, realistic or unexpected things, as they are best remembered.
- PRIMACY: Present new knowledge or skills correctly the first time. (Teach it right the first time.)
- EXERCISE: Ensure students are engaged in meaningful activity.
- EFFECT: Ensure students gain a feeling of satisfaction from having taken part in a lesson.
- RECENCY: Summarise and practise the important points at the end of each lesson, as the last things learned and practised will be remembered the longest.
- RELATIONSHIP: Present lessons in the logical sequence of known to unknown, simple to complex, easy to difficult.
Discuss oral questioning?
- Promotes mental activity
- Arouses and maintains student interest
- Telling is NOT teaching
- Helps guide thought
- Evaluate learning
- QUALITIES OF GOOD QUESTIONS
- Easily understood
- Use common words
- Should be about the major teaching points of the lesson
- Pose – Ask the question
- Pause – Wait for them to think about it
- Pounce – Ask a student for the answer
- Listen to the answer and confirm or correct the answer
- Discourage group answers, don’t repeat the answer, give credit for correct answer, encourage questions to be asked.
Describe the Teaching sequence?
- Easy to hard
- Known to unknown
- Block approach
- PRE-BRIEF the sequence (explanation)
- What you’re doing, and why
- State pertinent things to “note” and “feel”
- Note – an airspeed, an attitude, when something happens, what happens to RRPM etc
- Feel – rates and amounts. Control movement amounts and when etc.
- DEMO the sequence
- Use keywords and descriptors “attitude-raise” “collective lower” etc
- Confirm the correct things were noted or felt. Do this with confirmation of learning questions and get them to compare it to a known. “Collective amount felt just like when I take off” etc
- DIRECT the student through the sequence
- Use keywords only now
- Don’t let the student “get ahead of the sequence and keywords”
- MONITOR the student
- Ideally the sequence should be able to be flown safely without interjection, with only minor debrief points or points of correction
What are some obstacles to student learning?
- FACE -
- External factors
- Resistance or pushback
- Scared of flying
Describe Practical Training of Units and Elements in Part 61 MOS Schedule 2?
- Unit description
- Elements and performance criteria
- Range of variables
- Underpinning knowledge of following....
Name the Part 61 MOS Schedules schedules?
- Schedule 1 - Directory of units of competency and units of knowledge
- Schedule 2 - Competency standards
- Schedule 3 - Aeronautical knowledge standards
- Schedule 4 - Aeronautical examinations
- Schedule 5 - Flight test standards
- Schedule 6 - Proficiency check standards
- Schedule 7 - Flight review standards
- Schedule 8 - Tolerances
- Schedule 9 - CPL(H) training for paragraph 61.615 (1B) (b) (non-integrated training courses)
Where will you find the standards for a professional helicopter pilot?
Part 61 MOS Schedule 8 Table 4 - Tolerances Professional Level
Describe Assessment technique and standard?
- Formative assessments - during training sorties with Feedback loop
- Summative assessments - Flight tests so no feedback
Technique of resolving common student errors?
- NB/ Take over when debriefing the student
- Recognise - Identify the mistake
- Cause - why is it happening
- Consequence - If you don't fix it what can happen
- Correction - Usually scan or technique
- Reduce through routines, checks (SOP’s), Practice, Time (military there is a cut off, civil not defined)
Determining student’s ability to conduct a solo flight
- All necessary exams completed
- Medical held and current. (Part 61.114, Part 61.115)
- Student licence issued
- Met and ATC suitable
- Helicopter is fully serviceable with sufficient fuel etc.
- The instructor is qualified to send the student first solo.
- Advise control tower where applicable.
- Brief student for first solo - This should be a short briefing, given in the cockpit immediately prior to the solo, explaining to the student that weight and C of G will be different, detailing the duration of the solo practice and where the flight is to terminate.
Managing a student’s first solo flight
- SENDING SOLO - preflight brief with the limitations (can and can’t dos)
- Final check flight - A safe standard has been reached in Air Exercises 1 - 15 and
- A safe and acceptable standard has been reached in circuits.
What is Supervision in instructor terms?
- 1. Fixing errors early
- 2. Explain, demonstrate, practice
- 3. Demo, direct, monitor
T.E.M regarding instructing?
- 1. Identify risk.
- 2. Assess.
- 3. Analyse.
- 4. Control decision
- 5. Implement
- 6. Supervise
Regarding Environment conditions when instructing?
- External: Weather, sun glare, wind, turbulence
- Internal: Heat, cold, dehydration
How long do you have to enter the result of a fight test?
14 days to enter into system
Who do you have to notify for a flight test?
The student, company and CASA
How do you arouse interest and make the student ready to learn?
- State WHAT is required and HOW you intend to achieve
- Tell PURPOSE of the lesson and stress the BENEFIT
- Specify WHERE the lesson fits and relate the lessons to past experiences
- Corelate learnt behaviour to taught sequences
- Set expectations
- Conduct a review and if necessary briefly re-teach the major points
- Plan for reviews of lesson material
- The greatest rate of forgetting occurs during the first 24 to 48 hours after the material has been learned
How do you de-brief a students performance?
- Shit sandwich
- Something good - bad - good
What are the main areas of a students learning?
Ways people learn?
- Problem solving
The 3 theories of learning?
- Lesson Plan
- Prepare teaching area
- Check teaching area and items suitable before lesson
- Prepare students for learning
- Start presentation at students level
- Proceed at the students rate of learning
- Identify and emphasise major points
- Give clear explanations and demos
- Use visual aids effectively
- Vary your voice during the lesson
- Obtain student feedback during the lesson
- Provide for maximum student activity
When should you give ground school lessons?
No greater than 24 hrs prior to flying the sequence
Describe NTS 1 and 2?
- MOS Schedule 2 p93
- NTS 1 – Manage Safe Flight
- NTS 1.1 – Maintain effective lookout
- NTS 1.2 – Maintain situational awareness
- NTS 1.3 – Assess situations and make decisions
- NTS 1.4 – Set priorities and manage tasks
- NTS 1.5 – Maintain effective communications and interpersonal relationships
- NTS 2 – Threat and error management
- NTS 2.1 – Recognise and manage threats
- NTS 2.2 – Recognise and manage errors
- NTS 2.3 – Recognise and manage undesired aircraft state.