Trace elements

  1. what are the nonessential toxic trace elements (5)
    • aluminum
    • arsenic
    • cadmium
    • lead
    • mercury
  2. what are the non essential trace elements? (7)
    • zinc
    • selenium
    • molybdenum
    • manganese
    • iron
    • copper
    • chromium
  3. what are the effects of aluminum toxicity
    • encephalopathy (stuttering, gait, disturbance)
    • bone disease
    • myopathy
    • increased risk of infection
  4. how do you excrete aluminum
    95% excreted in urine
  5. sources of arsenic
    • wood preservative
    • pesticides
    • poison gases
    • semiconductor processing
  6. how do you be exposed to arsenic
    • ingested in seafood
    • water
    • drink
  7. what is the difference between inorganic and organic forms of arsenic
    • organic arsenic: non toxic, clears rapidly
    • inorganic arsenic: toxic, clears slowly, lethal
  8. what are the sources of cadmium
    • pigment
    • batteries
    • metal plating
    • burning of fossil fuels
  9. how can you be exposed to cadmium
    inhaled in tobacco smoke, ingested in food
  10. toxicity of cadmium
    • renal dysfunction, nasal and lung damage, respiratory distress
    • abdominal pain and nausea if ingested in great amounts
  11. chromium source
    • stainless steel welding
    • chrome plating
    • leather tanning
  12. what is the function of chromium
    maintain metabolism of glucose fat, cholesterol
  13. how is chromium absorbed
    helps maintain metabolism of glucose, fat, cholesterol
  14. which is easier to be absorbed and which is more toxic forms of chromium
    • Cr6: hexavalent, better to the absorbed, more toxic
    • Cr3: trivalent, essential
  15. what happens if you have a deficiency of chromium
    • glucose intolerance
    • glycosuria
    • hypercholesterolemia
    • decreased longevity
    • decreased sperm count
    • impaired fertility
  16. toxicity of chromium
    • dermatitis
    • skin ulcers
    • eczema
    • airway obstruction/irritation
    • lung cancer
  17. how is chromium absorbed
    bound to transferrin, transported by albumin
  18. deficiency in chromum
    • glucose intolerance
    • glycosuria
    • hypercholeserolemia
    • decreased longevity
    • decreased sperm counts
    • impaired fertility
  19. toxicity in chromium
    • skin problems: dermatitis, skin ulcers,eczema
    • airway irritation: obstruction, lung cancer
  20. copper function in body
    critical for reduction of iron in heme synthesis
  21. how to be exposed to carbon
    ingested in food
  22. how to be absorbed in carbon
    • 50-80% dietary intake
    • excreted by feces, urine, sweat
  23. deficiency in copper
    • neutropenia
    • osteoporosis
    • decreased pigmentation of skin
  24. difference between menkes disease and wilsons disease of copper
    • menkes: genetic copper deficiency caused by copper transport disease
    • Wilson's: copper accumulation disease. neurological disorders, liver disfunction kayser Fleischer rings (around the eye)
  25. Lead is found in
    • storage batteries
    • ammunition
    • solder
    • foils
  26. Lead exposure
    • respiratory
    • gastrointestinal
  27. lead absorption
    • 30-40% inhaled
    • variable in GI
    • excretion: 76% in urine, 16% in feces
    • 99% of lead is taken up by RBCs where it interferes with heme synthesis
  28. toxicity of lead
    • children: IQ declines, cognitive and behavioral problems
    • adults: peripheral neuropathies, chronic renal insufficiency
  29. mercury absorption and exposure
    • exposure: inhalation, ingestion (fish)
    • absorption: 80% inhalation
  30. toxicity of mercury
    • inhaled vaper: nervous, digestive, and immune system
    • inorganic salts: skin, eyes, GI tract and kidneys
  31. manganese function
    enzyme activator, component of metalloenzymes
  32. deficiency of manganese
    • blood clotting defects
    • hypocholesterolemia
    • stunted growth in children
  33. toxicity of manganese
    • nausea
    • disorientation
    • compulsive laughing or crying
  34. molybdenum function and rarity
    • rare
    • component of at least 3 enzymes
  35. absorption of molybdenum
    25-80% dietary intake
  36. deficienc and toxicity of molybdenum
    • deficiency: death before age 1, inherited disorder, decreased brain weight
    • toxicity: rare, linked to elevated uric acid in blood and increased gout
  37. selenium function
    cellular antioxidant defense system against free radicals, involved in metabolism of thyroid hormones
  38. absorption and exposure of selenium
    • exposure: food, water
    • absorption: dietary intake, excreted in urine, feces, sweat
  39. deficiency and toxicity of selenium
    • deficiency: cardiomyopathy, muscle weakness, osteoarthritis
    • toxicity: rare; only from 1 form of selenium not present in food
  40. zinc function
    influences less than 300 enzymes and synthesis, participates in glycolysis and cholesterol metabolism
  41. absorption, transport and excretion of zinc
    • absorption: small intestine
    • transported: distributed between RBCs
    • excreted:feces
  42. deficiency and toxicity of zinc
    • deficiency: growth retardation, slow skeletal maturation, testicular atrophy, reduced taste perception
    • toxicity: GI tract symptoms, decreased heme synthesis
Author
tanyalequang
ID
350366
Card Set
Trace elements
Description
trace elements
Updated