What is the primary purpose of infection control?
to prevent the transmission of infectios diseases
How might infectious diseases be transmitted in the denta office?
- from pt to dental professional
- from dental professional to pt
- from one pt to another
microorganism capable of causing disease
name 7 pathogens that are present in oral respiratory secretions that the dental personnel or pt might be exposed to
- cold and flu viruses and bacteria
- cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- hepatitus B virus (HBV)
- hepatitus C virus (HCV)
- herpes simplex virus (HSV1, HSV2)
- mycobacterium tuberculosis
in the dental environment name 3 routes of disease transmission
- direct contact with pathogens in saliva, blood, respiratory secretions, or lesions
- indirect contact with contaminated objects or instruments
- direct contact with airborne contaminants present in spatter or aerosols of oral and respiratory fluids
for an infection to occur, one of what 3 conditions must be present?
- suseptible host
- pathogen with sufficient infectivity and numbers to cause infection
- a portal of entry through which the pathogen may enter the host
what type of protective clothing is worn for infection control practice?
- lab coat
- -change daily or more frequently if soiled
- -should be removed before leaving office, and laundered
what type of gloves should be worn for proper infection control practice? and why?
- latex or vinyl gloves
- to prevent skin contact with blood, saliva, or mucous membrane
what is the protocal for use of gloves?
- new gloves for each pt
- hands washed in between each pt
- worn when touching contaminated items or surfaces
When should you wear masks and protective eye wear?
in the presence of spatter and aerosolized sprays of blood and saliva
when should we wash our hands?
- before and after treating each pt
- after touching any contaminated surface or objects
what type of procedure requires an antimicrobial hand scrub?
what are critical instruments used for? what is an example?
- used to penetrate soft tissue or bone
- bone chisel
- surgical burs
what are semicritical instruments? give examples.
- contact but do not penetrate soft tissue or bone
- x-ray film holding devices
- amalgam condensors
what are noncritical instruments? give examples.
- do not come in contact with mucous membrane
- position indicating device
- exposure button
- x-ray control panel
- lead apron
how should you clean critical instruments?
sterilize in autoclave
how should you clean semicritical instruments?
how should you clean non-critical instruments?
must be disinfected
how should you clean dental units and surfaces?
- clean surfaces first with disposable towels and cleaning agent
- surfaces then must be disinfected
define high-level disinfectant
EPA-registered labeled to disinfect heat sensitive semicritical instruments
define intermediate level disinfectant.
EPA registered labeled as hospital disinfectants and turerculodidals (phenolics, iodophors, and chlorine-containing compounds)
define low-level disinfectants
EPA-registered labeled only as hospital disinfectants and recommended for general housekeeping purposes such as cleaning floors or walls
no exceptions, and no 'extra' precautions should be used on any pt
how should you prepare the treatment area before x-ray exposure?
- make sure the;
- x-ray machine, dental chair, work area, and lead apron are clean and ready to go
what supplies and equipment should be ready prior to x-ray exposure?
- holding devices
- cotton rolls
- paper towels
- container (plastic cup)
how should you prepare the pt. prior to x-ray exposure?
- adjust chair and headrest so that the maxillary arch is parallel to the floor and the midline is perpendicular to the floor
- place lead apron
- remove objects such as glasses, prostheses, or big earings
how should the dental personnel prepare themselves prior to x-ray exposure?
- open bag with film holding device
- place mask
- wash hands
- place gloves
- prepare film holding device
what do you do with, and where do you place the film after exposure?
dry it and place it in the cup
what do you do before you remove your gloves after x-ray exposure?
- dispose of all contaminated items
- place film holders in area designated for contaminated instruments
what do you do after you remove your gloves after x-ray exposure?
- wash hands
- remove lead apron
how do you transport the film from the operatory to the dark room?
in a plastic cup without gloves
what are some supplies you will need in the dark room?
- paper towels
describe film handling without barriers
- place towel on work surface with cup next to it
- glove and turn out lights
- take film out one at a time and open each package allowing film to drop on paper towel (don't touch with gloved hand)
- remove gloves and wash hands
- process films
- mount and label
- disinfect dark room
describe the daylight loader procedure for developing radiographs
- place film in cup and gloves in container
- close daylight loader and push hands through openings
- put on gloves
- unwrap films and drop them into feed slot area
- dispose of packet in other cup
- after all films have been opened remove gloves and place in cup
- feed unwrapped films into processor
- discard all wrappings, cups, and gloves from container
- labe and mount