ENTM 506

  1. Taxonomy?
    Collecting, comparing, discovering, naming, and describing species.
  2. Step 1 to taxonomy
    arranging species into hierachical systems by determining relationships through comparing and cladistics.
  3. Step 2 in taxonomy
    • hypothesizing historical biogeography and ecological evolution from cladistics-based patterns.
    • ex: where did something come from, and where did it go
  4. Step 3 in taxonomy
    Preparing keys, manuals, and atlases for species and higher groupings.
  5. Taxonomic know how?
    • identification services
    • environmental inventories at different levels
    • managing and curating collections and museums
    • establishing distribution patterns of species
    • determining rarity and endangerment of species
    • teaching
  6. What is a taxon?
    grouping of related organisms recognized at some hierarchical level.
  7. Category or rank?
    simply a particular level of hierarchy.
  8. Superfamily ending
    • -oidea
    • ex: ephemera...ephemeroidea
  9. family ending
    • -idae
    • ex: ephemeridae
  10. subfamily ending
    • -inae
    • ex: ephemerinae
  11. tribe ending
    • -ini (fairly common)
    • ex: ephemerina
  12. subtribe ending
    -ina (convention, not rule...very rarely used)
  13. Cladistics
    Determining common ancestry
  14. Step 1 using cladistics
    • establish characters (like genotype and phenotype).
    • this will establish what is to be the natural grouping.
  15. Step 2 using cladistics
    • Describe the variablility found among the characters
    • also called character states
    • ex: present or not present, just one or two
  16. Step 3 using cladistics
    • determine which of the character states is most likely the ancesteral state vs. the derived state.
    • this is known as character polarity
  17. derived
    • unique characters
    • found among some portion of the study units in the study group
  18. Step 4 using cladistics
    code the characters and states and establish their distribution among already existing groups.
  19. step 5 using cladistics
    group any synapomorphies (common derived character states) together
  20. Step 6 using cladistics
    construct a family tree (cladogram) that illustrates the branching relationships
  21. Phylogenetic Classification
    • based on cladistic derived data
    • made up of only holophyletic groupings
  22. Holophyletic group
    Contains ALL progeny from an immediate common ancestor
  23. Paraphyletic
    • contains SOME, but NOT all progeny of an immediate common ancestor
    • not allowed in pylogenetic classification
  24. Polyphyletic
    • Contains progeny of different immediate anscestors
    • Not allowed in phylogenetic classification.
Card Set
ENTM 506