opp exam 1

  1. self assembly
    A phenomenon in which components join together to form larger, stable structures.

    Develops through an incredibly complex series of interactions

    Made up of components or subsystems that have their own behavioral properties

    • Once assembled, they have new properties that could not have been predicted based
    • upon the characteristics of their individual parts.
  2. recurring patterns of assembly

    Triangulated Forms



  3. tensegrity
    • Refers to a system that stabilizes itself mechanically because of the opposing forces
    • of tension and compression and they way they are balanced and distributed
    • within the structure.
  4. discontinuous compressible elements
    Compression bearing rigid struts

    Stretch or tense the Tension Bearing Elements
  5. continuous tension bearing elements
    Continuous with the Compressible Elements

    Adds tension and compression to the Discontinuous Compressible Elements
  6. prestress
    **adds tension to structure; structure wont change without prestress

    • Concept whereby a structure is placed in a balance between tension and compression
    • before an external force is involved.

    Interaction between the tension bearing and compression bearing elements.

    Rigid struts stretch or oppose the tension bearing elements.

    Tension bearing elements add compressive force to the rigid struts.
  7. critical features of tensegrity model
    Tension is continuously transmitted across all members of the structure.

    • As such, change in one component (compressive or tensile) changes tension in all
    • structures regardless of their location in the structure.

    • Due to this interaction, the tensegrity structure repositions itself or changes
    • conformation to best withstand stress and offer the maximal amount of strength
    • for a given amount of building material.
  8. macroscoppic tensegrity
    Bones = (discontinuous compressible elements)

    Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and fascia = (tension bearing elements)
  9. microscopic human tensegrity
    Proteins stabilize through tensegrity via hydrogen bonds and structural conformations

    • Receptors activate in a similar manner when they come in contact with drugs, hormones,
    • neurotransmitters, etc.
  10. cell pucker and contraction
    • We now know that integrins or adhesion receptors bind the cells to the substrate and due to the concept of
    • tensegrity, cause the changes seen in the substrate.
  11. tension in cytoskeleton
    • Cytoskeleton is a network of contractile microfilaments which creates a tensegrity network
    • within the cell.

    • This network holds and suspends the contents of the cell (organelles, nucleus, cell
    • membrane, etc.) and pulls towards the cell’s nucleus (Tension Bearing
    • Elements).
  12. opposition of cellular forces
    Internal Compression Bearing Elements:


    Large bundles of cross-linked microfilaments

    External opposition is created by the extracellular matrix.
  13. tensegrity across cell surfaces
    Andrew Matus created cells that produced fluorescent microtubules.

    Has observed these tubules buckling under cellular compression.

    • Suggests that the structure of the cell’s cytoskeleton can be changed by altering the
    • balance of physical forces transmitted across the cell surface.
  14. importance of cellular tensegrity
    • Important because many of the enzymes and other substances that control protein
    • synthesis, energy conversion, and cellular growth are physically immobilized on
    • the cytoskeleton.

    • Changes in cytoskeletal geometry and mechanics could affect biochemical reactions, alter the genes that
    • are activated and thus the proteins that are made.
  15. cellular shape and function
    Flattened cells became more likely to undergo mitosis

    Rounded cells underwent apoptosis

    Somewhere in between resulted in differentiation and neither divided nor died.

    Capillary cells formed hollow capillary tubes

    Hepatic cells secreted proteins
  16. discontinuous compressible elements in the human body
    Flattened cells became more likely to undergo mitosis

    ÒRounded cells underwent apoptosis

    Somewhere in between resulted in differentiation and neither divided nor died.

    Capillary cells formed hollow capillary tubes

    Hepatic cells secreted proteins
  17. discontinuous compressible elements in the human body
    bones, cell membranes, organelles
  18. continuous tension bearing elements in the human body
    muscle, ligaments, fascia, cytoskeleton, DNA?
  19. IMFR and inflammation
    • In vitro Repetitive Motion Strain (RMS) model has a different effect on
    • fibroblasts than IMFR.

    • RMS appears to reduce fibroblast proliferation and creates a delayed inflammatory
    • response.

    IMFR does not cause a reduction in fibroblast proliferation and:

    Reverses inflammatory effects on repetitively strained cells

    Causes fibroblast proliferation

    • Causes expression/secretion of proinflammatory
    • and anti-inflammatory interleukins
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opp exam 1