Formative Evaluation is conducted while services are still underway.
A cognitive framework conceptualized by Aaron Beck that can increase the symptoms of depression. He also stated that depress was due to feelings of inadequacy, defeat and hopelessness. Beck key figure in the history of cognitive approach to development and behavior
Aid provided in specific services rather then cash. Example: Medicaid, food stamps, and housing
Highest Ethically dilemma
When two are more core values are in conflict
Type of clinical assessment
Robert’s Seven Stage Crisis Intervention Mode
- 1) Plan and conduct a thorough biopsychosocial and lethality/Imminent danger assessment
- 2) Make a psychological contact and rapidly establish the collaborative relationship
- 3) Identify the major problems including crisis precipitates
- 4) And courage and the expiration of feelings and emotions
- 5) Generate and explore alternatives and new coping strategies
- 6) Restore a functioning through implementation of action plan
- 7) Plan follow-up and booster sessions
Transference is a psychology term used to describe a phenomenon in which an individual redirects emotions and feelings, often unconsciously, from one person to another. This process may occur in therapy, when a person receiving treatment applies feelings toward—or expectations of—another person onto the therapist and then begins to interact with the therapist as if the therapist were the other individual. Often, the patterns seen in transference will be representative of a relationship from childhood.
Types of Transference
- Paternal transference, when an individual looks at another person as a father or an idealized father figure. The person may be viewed as powerful, wise, and authoritative, and an individual may expect protection and sound advice from this person.
- Maternal transference occurs when an individual treats another person as a mother or idealized mother figure. This person is often viewed as loving and influential, and nurture and comfort is often expected from them.
- Sibling transference can occur when parental relationships are lacking or when they break down. Unlike parental transference, this type of transference is generally not represented by leader/follower behavior, but by peer or team-based interactions.
- Non-familial transference can be seen when individuals treat others according to an idealized version of what they are expected to be rather than who they actually are. Stereotypes can form in this manner. For example, priests may be expected to be holy in everything they do, while policemen may be expected to uphold the law at all times, and doctors may be expected to cure any ailment.
- Sexualized transference, sometimes categorized as either erotic or eroticized transference, may occur when a person in therapy develops a sexual attraction to their therapist.
Characterized by a person belonging to a dysfunctional, one-sided relationship where one person relies on the other for meeting nearly all of their emotional and self-esteem needs. It also describes a relationship that enables another person to maintain their irresponsible, addictive, or underachieving behavior.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
is an action-oriented approach to psychotherapy that stems from traditional behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Clients learn to stop avoiding, denying, and struggling with their inner emotions and, instead, accept that these deeper feelings are appropriate responses to certain situations that should not prevent them from moving forward in their lives. With this understanding, clients begin to accept their issues and hardships and commit to making necessary changes in their behavior, regardless of what is going on in their lives, and how they feel about it.
Outcome evaluations assess the effectiveness of a program in producing change.
- Did the program succeed in helping people to stop smoking?
- Was the program more successful with certain groups of people than with others?
- What aspects of the program did participants find gave the greatest benefit?
Process evaluations help stakeholders see how a program outcome or impact was achieved.
- What were specific interventions put into place by the program to fight the problem being tackled? Did the interventions work or not — and how and why?
- What were the kinds of problems encountered in delivering the program — were there enough resources from the beginning to do it well?
- Was it well managed? Were staff trained or educated to the right level of the program design?
- Is there skill at facilitating the program processes from beginning to end?
- Was there adequate support to the program?
Why Process Evaluation is Important
Information from process evaluations is useful for understanding how program impact and outcome were achieved and for program replication. Looking at outcomes without analyzing how they were achieved fails to account for the human capital (over-worked staff) involved in getting to good outcomes and the true costs of the program.